ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0370.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Metallurgy Keywords: functionally graded alloy; directed energy deposition; solidification cracking susceptibility; ICME; CALPHAD; high entropy.
Online: 25 January 2022 (08:52:17 CET)
Solidification cracking is a major obstacle when joining dissimilar alloys using additive manufacturing. In this work, location-specific solidification cracking susceptibility has been investigated using an integrated computational materials engineering (ICME) approach for a graded alloy formed by mixing P91 steel and Inconel 740H superalloy. An alloy derived from a mixture of 26 wt.% P91 steel and 74 wt.% Inconel 740H, with high configurational and total entropy, was fabricated using wire-arc additive manufacturing. Microstructure characterization revealed intergranular solidification cracks, which increased in length along with the build height. With inputs from experiments, such as secondary dendrite arm spacing, the DICTRA (diffusion-controlled transformations) module within the Thermo-Calc software was used to model location-specific solidification cracking susceptibility. The top region, with the highest cooling rate, has the highest solidification cracking susceptibility and is in good agreement with the experimentally observed crack length. From Scheil simulations, it was deduced that pronounced segregation of Nb and Cu within the cracks increased the solidification range by suppressing the solidus temperature. The overall solidification cracking susceptibility and freezing range was highest for the 26 wt.% P91 alloy amongst the mixed compositions between P91 steel and 740H superalloy, proving that solidification characteristics play a major role in alloy design for additive manufacturing.