ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0601.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: COVID-19; pneumonia; ribavirin aerosol; treatment; outcome; viral load; whole genome sequencing
Online: 10 July 2023 (10:16:20 CEST)
The emergence of new SARSCoV-2 variants can affect vaccine efficacy, laboratory diagnosis and therapies already available, triggering interest in the search for antiviral agents for SARSCoV-2 infections. Ribavirin (RBV) is a broad-spectrum antiviral with demonstrated in vitro activity against multiple viruses, including SARSCoV-2. Methods. This retrospective study evaluated the dynamic and viral clearance of SARSCoV-2 in hospitalized adult participants (PTs) with COVID-19 pneumonia who received RBV aerosol within a compassionate use study. Was also assessed the impact of RBV on the clinical outcome and the mutational profile of SARSCoV-2. Results. The median RNA values measured in nine PTs included in the study de-creased from baseline to discharge (at BL, threshold cycle (Ct)=22.4, IQR 19.84-5.07; at discharge, Ct=27.92, IQR 26.43-36.11). Seven/9 PTs experienced a clinical improvement, while two PTs deceased during hos-pitalization. In PTs with a favorable outcome the virus clearance rate at discharge was 28.6%. The cumulative clearance rate was 71.4% within day 14th from discharge. A mutational pattern after RBV was detected in 3/5 PTs in whom was available whole genome sequencing. Conclusions. RBV may limit SARSCOV-2 replication resulting in a favorable clinical outcome. Ribavirin may also contribute to the mutational spectrum of SARSCoV-2.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0144.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: phylodynamic analyses; SARS-CoV2 circulation in Italy; molecular tracing; Whole Genome Sequencing
Online: 8 July 2020 (11:00:19 CEST)
The aim of this study is the characterization and genomic tracing by phylogenetic analyses of 59 new SARS-CoV-2 Italian isolates obtained from patients attending clinical centres in North and Central Italy until the end of April 2020. All but one of the newly characterized genomes belonged to the lineage B.1, the most frequently identified in European countries, including Italy. Only a single sequence was found to belong to lineage B. A mean of 6 nucleotide substitutions per viral genome was observed, without significant differences between synonymous and non-synonymous mutations, indicating genetic drift as a major source for virus evolution. tMRCA estimation confirmed the probable origin of the epidemic between the end of January and the beginning of February with a rapid increase in the number of infections between the end of February and mid-March. Since early February, an effective reproduction number (Re) greater than 1 was estimated, which then increased reaching the peak of 2.3 in early March, confirming the circulation of the virus before the first COVID-19 cases were documented. Continuous use of state-of-the-art methods for molecular surveillance is warranted to trace virus circulation and evolution and inform effective prevention and containment of future SARS-CoV-2 outbreaks.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0526.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: SARS-CoV-2 virus; complete genome sequencing; COVID-19 RT-PCR testing; Spike protein; vi-ral variants
Online: 21 May 2021 (15:12:17 CEST)
A growing number of emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants is being identified worldwide, potentially impacting the effectiveness of current vaccines. We report the data obtained in several Italian regions involved in the SARS-CoV-2 variant monitoring from the beginning of the epidemic and spanning the period from October 2020 to March 2021.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0241.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: variants circulation; SARS-CoV-2; Italy; epidemiology
Online: 16 September 2022 (08:07:10 CEST)
SARS-CoV-2 is constantly evolving leading to new variants. We analysed data from 4,400 SARS-CoV-2-positive samples in order to continue variant surveillance in Italy to evaluate their epidemiological and relative impact on public health in the period April-December 2021. The main circulating strain (76.2%) was Delta followed by Alpha (13.3%), Omicron (5.3%) and Gamma variants (2.9%). B.1.1 lineages, Eta, Beta, Iota, Mu and Kappa variants represented around 1% of cases. Overall, 48.2% of subjects were not vaccinated with a lower median age compared to vaccinated subjects (47 vs. 61 years). An increasing number of infections in vaccinated subjects was observed overtime, with the highest proportion in November (85.2%). Variants correlated with clinical status; the largest proportion of symptomatic patients (59.6%) was observed among Delta variant, while subjects harboring Gamma variant showed the highest proportion of asymptomatics (21.6%), albeit also of deaths (5.4%). The Omicron variant was only found in vac-cinated subjects, of which 47% were hospitalized. Diffusivity and pathogenicity associated with the different SARS-CoV-2 variants are likely to have relevant public health implications, both at national and international level. Our study pro-vides data on the rapid changes in the epidemiological landscape of SARS-CoV-2 variants in Italy.