ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0078.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: Ethanol; corn; dry-grind process; bolt-on process; corn fiber; soaking in aqueous ammonia pretreatment; cellulase; cellulosic ethanol.
Online: 5 September 2018 (01:40:11 CEST)
Corn fiber is a co-product of commercial ethanol dry-grind plants, which is processed into distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) and used as animal feed, yet it holds high potential to be used as feedstock for additional ethanol production. Due to the tight structural make-up of corn fiber, a pretreatment step is necessary to make the cellulose and hemicellulose polymers in the solid fibrous matrix more accessible to the hydrolytic enzymes. A pretreatment process was developed in which whole corn kernels were soaked in aqueous solutions of 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10.0 wt% ammonia at 105oC for 24 h. The pretreated corn then was subjected to a conventional mashing procedure and subsequently ethanol fermentation using a commercial strain of natural Saccharomyces cerevisiae with addition of a commercial cellulase. Pretreatment of the corn with 7.5 wt% ammonia solution plus cellulase addition gave highest ethanol production, which improved the yield in fermentation using 25 wt% solid from 334 g ethanol/kg corn obtained in the control (no pretreatment and no cellulase addition) to 379 g ethanol/kg corn (a 14% increase). The process developed can potentially be implemented in existing dry-grind ethanol facilities as a “bolt-on” process for additional ethanol production from corn fiber, and this additional ethanol can then qualify as “cellulosic ethanol” by the EPA’s Renewable Fuels Standard and thereby receive RINS (Renewable Identification Numbers).
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0297.v1
Subject: Keywords: fuel ethanol; renewable energy; biobased feedstocks; lignocellulosic biomass; fermentation process; processing options; commercialization; production status; climate change; environmental security
Online: 17 November 2021 (10:21:59 CET)
Ethanol produced from various biobased sources (bioethanol) has been gaining high attention lately due to its potential to cut down net emissions of carbon dioxide while reducing burgeoning world dependence on fossil fuels. Global ethanol production has increased more than six-fold from 18 billion liters at the turn of the century to 110 billion liters in 2019 (1,2). Sugar cane and corn have been used as the major feedstocks for ethanol production. Lignocellulosic biomass has recently been considered as another potential feedstock. This paper reviews recent developments and current status of commercial production of ethanol across the world. The review includes the ethanol production processes used for each type of feedstock, both currently practiced at commercial scale and newly developed technologies, and production trends in various regions and countries in the world.