REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0446.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: ischemic stroke; safety; cerebrolysin; neurorehabilitation
Online: 15 November 2021 (10:46:02 CET)
We performed a systematic search and meta-analysis of available literature to determine the safety profile of Cerebrolysin in acute ischemic stroke, filling existing safety information gaps and inconsistent results. We searched EMBASE, PubMed and Cochrane Databases of Systematic Reviews and Clinical Trials up to the end of February 2021. Data collection and analysis was conducted using methods described in the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. All safety outcomes were analyzed based on risk ratios (RR) and their 95% confidence intervals. The meta-analysis pooled 2202 patients from twelve randomized clinical trials, registering non-statistically significant (p>0.05) differences between Cerebrolysin and placebo throughout main and subgroup analyses. The lowest rate of Serious Adverse Events (SAE), as compared to placebo, was observed for the highest dose of Cerebrolysin (50 mL), highlighting a moderate reduction (RR = 0.6). We observed a tendency of superiority of Cerebrolysin regarding SAE in high dose treatment courses for moderate-severe ischemic stroke, suggesting some effect of the agent against adverse events. This comprehensive safety meta-analysis confirms the safety profile for patients treated with Cerebrolysin after acute ischemic stroke, as compared to placebo.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0447.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: EEG; stroke; traumatic brain injury; neurorehabilitation; brain-machine interface
Online: 24 November 2022 (02:08:43 CET)
Background: There is an increasing interest in the role of EEG in neurorehabilitation. We primarily aimed to identify the knowledge base through highly influential studies. Our secondary aims were to imprint the relevant thematic hotspots, research trends, and social networks within the scientific community. Methods: We performed an electronic search in Scopus looking for studies reporting on rehabilitation in patients with neurological disabilities. The most influential papers outlined the knowledge base, while a word co-occurrence analysis imprinted the research hotspots. Likewise, co-citation analyses highlighted collaboration networks between Universities, authors, and countries. The results were presented in summary tables, burst detection plots, and geospatial maps. Finally, a content review based on the top-20 most cited articles completed our study. Results: Our current bibliometric study was based on 874 records from 420 sources. There was a vivid research interest in EEG use for neurorehabilitation, with an annual growth rate as high as 14.3%. The most influential paper was the study titled "Brain-computer interfaces, a review" by Nicolas-Alfonso LF and Gomez-Gill J, with 997 citations, followed by "Brain-computer interfaces in neurological rehabilitation" by Daly J. and Wolpaw JR (708 citations). The USA, Italy, and Germany were among the most productive countries. The research hotspots shifted with time from the use of “functional magnetic imaging” to EEG-based “brain-machine interface”, “motor imagery”, and “deep learning”. Conclusions: EEG constitutes the most significant input in brain-computer interfaces (BCI) and can be successfully used in the neurorehabilitation of patients with stroke, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and traumatic brain and spinal injury. EEG-based BCI facilitates training, communication, and control of wheelchair and exoskeletons. However, research is limited to specific scientific groups from developed countries. Evidence is expected to change with the broader availability of BCI and improvement in EEG filtering algorithms.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints201708.0106.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Aicardi-Goutiéres syndrome; interferon 1; melatonin; growth hormone; neurorehabilitation
Online: 31 August 2017 (12:30:11 CEST)
1) Background: The Aicardi-Goutières syndrome (AGS) is a rare congenital disease which courses with severe psychomotor delay in neurodevelopment. We studied a 3-years and 4-months old child with very important growth and weight affectation, microcephaly and loss of his developmental skills from 16-months of age, in which previous metabolic and genetic studies discarded any abnormality. Therefore diagnosis was cerebral palsy of unknown etiology. He presented spastic paraparesia, poor fine motricity, cognitive impairment and absence of oral communication. One year after discharge, a de novo mutation was detected in a single nucleotide in the gene IFIH1: c.2317G>C, being then diagnosed of AGS. 2) Methods: Blood analysis showed very low IGF-1 and slightly elevated liver transaminases. Treatment consisted in GH (0.04 mg/kg/day), melatonin (20 mg/day, and after 3-months 50 mg/day), and daily intense neurorehabilitation (5 days/week). Tests for evaluating childhood developmental milestones (GMFM-88, BDIST and the WeeFim test) were carried out every 3-months. 3) Results: The equivalent age at admission (10-months) increased to 24-months at discharge. There were clear improvements in spasticity, fine motor function, swallowing, cognition and autonomy as well as in communication, growth and weight. 4) Conclusion: Most likely melatonin blocked or decreased the interferon signature, allowing GH and neurorehabiltation to act on neurodevelopment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1214.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy And Rehabilitation Keywords: multiple sclerosis; therapeutic climbing; motivation; training conditions; neurorehabilitation; qualitative research
Online: 20 November 2023 (05:01:25 CET)
Background: Therapeutic climbing (TC) has emerged as a prospective rehabilitation approach for individuals with Multiple Sclerosis (MS). Existing literature primarily focuses on the physical and psychological benefits of TC across diverse populations but is limited concerning its application and efficacy for patients with MS. Objectives: This study aimed to delineate the experiences, effects, and perceptions of both individuals with MS and therapists regarding TC, highlighting the potential benefits and challenges of this therapeutic approach. Methods: Using a qualitative design, structured interviews were conducted with patients living with MS (N=5) and therapists (N=7) involved in TC sessions at a rehabilitation facility. The interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and subjected to thematic qualitative text analysis. Results: Our analysis resulted in the identification of five main categories: (1) motivational factors, (2) training conditions, (3) training content, (4) observed effects, and (5) safety protocols. Findings primarily centred around the motivational aspects of TC. Participants consistently reported experiencing feelings of accomplishment, success, enjoyment, and increased self-confidence. Furthermore, TC was often perceived as a comprehensive intervention, addressing endurance, strength, flexibility, neuromotor functions, cognition, and mental health while having a low-risk profile. However, due to the demanding nature of TC, careful fatigue management is crucial. This entails personalized intensity adjustments during sessions and coordinating TC with other physically demanding therapies when implementing TC within a rehabilitation environment. Conclusions: TC shows promise within MS rehabilitation and can be considered safe under certain framework conditions. This research sheds light on its potential benefits, facilitators and barriers and provides insights for practical integration into rehabilitation programmes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1899.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: motor recovery; neurorehabilitation; proprioceptive impairment; position sense; thumb localizing test
Online: 30 October 2023 (10:32:01 CET)
Proprioceptive deficits accompanied with motor paresis after stroke, namely sensory ataxic motor paresis has a poorer prognosis of recovery than pure motor deficit. We aimed to investigate the effects of repetitive peripheral magnetic stimulation (rPMS) on sensory ataxic upper extremity (UE) paresis at acute stroke. Eighteen stroke participants with sensory ataxic UE paresis were randomized. rPMS group received five sessions of intervention per week, where 20 minutes of rPMS prior to 20 minutes of physical therapy (PT) every other day, alternating with 40 minutes of PT. The control group received five sessions of 40 minutes of PT/week. Outcome measures were Wolf motor function test (WMFT), UE motor section of Fugl-Meyer Motor Assessment Scale (FMA-UE), and Thumb localizing test (TLT). All assessments were compared before and after intervention. rPMS group received mean 6.5 sessions and the control group received 12.8 sessions, showing significantly imbalanced intervention due to different timing of hospital discharge. The imbalance was corrected by calculating gains of motor scores divided by sessions as Progress Rate (PR). Corrected gains (PR) of rPMS group was more significantly enhanced in WMFT and FMA-UE than control groups. rPMS group tended to improve TLT more than control one. rPMS might improve sensory ataxic UE paresis after stroke and proprioceptive deficit.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1301.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Physiotherapy; neurorehabilitation; gait; transcranial electrical stimulation; stroke; non-invasive stimulation techniques
Online: 19 October 2023 (20:18:19 CEST)
Introduction: The transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a promising technique for brain modulation after cerebrovascular accident (CVA). This treatment modality has been previously studied in the recovery of patients. The aim of this review is to analyze the evidence in the ap-plication of tDCS in the recovery of gait disturbance in stroke patients. Methods: This review was conducted according to the recommendations of the PRISMA statement. Three different elec-tronic databases were searched for relevant results: PubMed, Scopus, and Cochrane. We included reviews and meta-analyses that only considered randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that inves-tigated the effects of transcranial direct electrical stimulation, in combination or not with other physiotherapy treatment, on gait recovery. Results: Thirteen studies with a total of 195 RCTs were included. Data on population, outcome measures, protocols and outcomes were extracted. The Amstar-2 scale and the GRADE system of certainty of evidence were used. Only one study re-ceived high certainty of evidence, 5 received low certainty of evidence and 7 received critically low certainty of evidence. Conclusions: Although the tDCS produces positive changes in gait recovery in spatio-temporal parameters, mobility, endurance, strength and motor function, there is insuf-ficient evidence to recommend this treatment.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0051.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: peripheral and meningeal lymphatics 1; blood-brain barrier 2; neurorehabilitation 3.
Online: 2 November 2018 (10:53:09 CET)
The peripheral lymphatic system plays a crucial role in the recovery mechanisms after many pathological changes, such as infection, trauma, vascular, or metabolic diseases. The lymphatic clearance of different tissues from waste products, viruses, bacteria and toxic proteins significantly contributes to the correspondent recovery processes. However, understanding of the meningeal lymphatics functions is a challenging problem. The exploration of mechanisms of lymphatic communication with brain fluids as well as the role of the lymphatic system in the brain drainage, clearance and recovery are still in its infancy. Here we review novel concepts on the anatomy and physiology of the lymphatics in the brain, which warrant a substantial revision of our knowledge about the role of lymphatics in the rehabilitation of the brain functions after neural pathologies. We discuss a new vision on how to recruit the meningeal lymphatics by the opening of blood-brain barrier as a trigger mechanism of activation of the meningeal lymphatic drainage. This leads to innovative strategies in neurorehabilitation therapy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.2117.v1
Subject: Engineering, Bioengineering Keywords: stroke; neurorehabilitation; arm rehabilitation robot; transparency; adaptive weight support; end-effector robot
Online: 1 August 2023 (03:29:32 CEST)
Traditional end-effector robots for arm rehabilitation are usually attached at the hand, primarily focusing on coordinated multi-joint training. Therapy at an individual joint level of the arm for severely impaired stroke survivors is not always possible with existing end-effector robots. The Arm Rehabilitation Robot (AREBO)—an end-effector robot—was designed to provide both single and multi-joint assisted training while retaining the advantages of traditional end-effector robots, such as ease of use and cost-effectiveness (compared to exoskeletons). This work presents the design, optimization, and characterization of AREBO for training single-joint movements of the arm. The AREBO has three actuated and three unactuated degrees of freedom, allowing it to apply forces in any arbitrary direction at its endpoint and self-align to arbitrary orientations within its workspace. The AREBO’s link lengths were optimized to maximize its workspace and manipulability. The AREBO provides single-joint training in both unassisted and adaptive weight support modes using a human arm model to estimate the human arm's kinematics and dynamics without using additional sensors. The characterization of the robot’s controller and the algorithm for estimating the human arm parameters were performed using a two degrees of freedom mechatronic model of the human shoulder joint. The results demonstrate that: (a) the movements of the human arm can be estimated using a model of the human arm and robot’s kinematics, (b) the AREBO has similar transparency to that of existing arm therapy robots in the literature, and (c) the adaptive weight support mode control can adapt to different levels of impairment in the arm. This work demonstrates how an appropriately designed end-effector robot can be used for single-joint training, which can be easily extended to multi-joint training. Future work will focus on the evaluation of the system on patients with any neurological condition requiring arm training.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0543.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Brain-Computer Interfaces; Electroencephalogram; Motor-Imagery; Machine Learning; Deep Learning; Classification; Neurorehabilitation
Online: 29 November 2022 (08:44:36 CET)
Motor imagery(MI)-based Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCI) have shown increased potential for the rehabilitation of stroke patients; nonetheless, their implementation in clinical practice has been restricted due to their low accuracy performance. To date, although a lot of research has been made in benchmarking and highlighting the most valuable classification algorithms in BCI configurations, most of them are using offline data and not from real BCI performance during the closed-loop (or online) sessions. Since rehabilitation training relies on the availability of an accurate feedback system, we surveyed articles of current and past EEG-based BCI frameworks who report the online classification of the movement of two upper limbs in both healthy volunteers and stroke patients. We found that the recently developed Deep Learning methods do not outperform the traditional machine learning algorithms. In addition, patients and healthy subjects exhibit similar classification accuracy in current BCI configurations. Lastly, in terms of neurofeedback modality, Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES) yielded the best performance compared to non-FES systems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0422.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Other Keywords: Parkinson’s Disease; Neurorehabilitation; exergames; Azure Kinect; UPDRS; Movement Analysis; body tracking; telemedicine
Online: 27 September 2022 (10:27:37 CEST)
Motor impairments are among the most relevant, evident, and disabling symptoms of Parkinson’s disease that adversely affect quality of life, resulting in limited autonomy, independence, and safety. Recent studies have demonstrated the benefits of physiotherapy and rehabilitation programs specifically targeted to the needs of Parkinsonian patients in supporting drug treatments and improving motor control and coordination. However, due to the expected increase of patients in the coming years, traditional rehabilitation pathways in healthcare facilities could become unsustainable. Consequently, new strategies are needed, in which technologies play a key role in enabling more frequent, comprehensive, and out-of-hospital follow-up. The paper proposes a vision-based solution using the new Azure Kinect DK sensor to implement an integrated approach for remote assessment, monitoring, and rehabilitation of Parkinsonian patients, exploiting non-invasive 3D tracking of body movements to objectively and automatically characterize both standard evaluative motor tasks and virtual exergames. Preliminary results show the system’s ability to quantify specific features of motor performance, easily monitor changes and disease progression over time, and the possibility of using exergames to support motor condition assessment and training. The main innovation relies precisely on the integration of evaluative and rehabilitative aspects, which could be used as a closed loop to design new protocols for remote management of patients tailored to their actual conditions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0082.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Brain injury, coma, consciousness, cognitive motor dissociation, disorders of consciousness, ethics, neurorehabilitation, traumatic brain injury
Online: 6 December 2018 (10:05:52 CET)
Background: The vegetative state (VS)/unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (UWS) denotes brain-injured, awake patients who are seemingly without awareness. Still, up to 15% of these patients show signs of covert consciousness when examined by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) or EEG, which is known as cognitive motor dissociation (CMD). Most experts prefer the term unresponsive wakefulness syndrome to avoid the negative connotations associated with vegetative state and to highlight the possibility for CMD. However, the perception of VS/UWS by the public has never been studied systematically. Methods: Using an online crowdsourcing platform, we recruited 1297 participants from 32 countries. We investigated if vegetative state and unresponsive wakefulness syndrome might have a different influence on attitudes towards VS/UWS and CMD. Results: Participants randomized to be inquired about the vegetative state believed that CMD was less common (mean estimated frequency in unresponsive patients 38.07% ± SD 25.15) than participants randomized to unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (42.29% ± SD 26.63; p=0.016). Attitudes towards treatment withdrawal were similar. Most participants preferred unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (60.05%), although a sizeable minority favored vegetative state (24.21%; difference 35.84%, 95% CI 29.36 to 41.87; p<0.0001). Searches on PubMed and Google Trends revealed that unresponsive wakefulness syndrome is increasingly used by academics but not lay people.Discussion: Simply replacing vegetative state with unresponsive wakefulness syndrome may not be fully appropriate given that 1 of 4 prefer the first term. We suggest that physicians take advantage of the controversy around the terminology to explain relatives the concept of CMD and its ethical implications.