ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0357.v1
Online: 19 August 2022 (05:44:02 CEST)
Due to the prospective local and international markets, the neon tetra fish breeding industry has its own allure for fish lovers and as a side business. The goal of the study was to analyze the opportunities and difficulties associated with neon tetra fish farming in order to build a "Blue Economy" policy. The Depok City Food Security and Fisheries Service (DKP3) program was implemented with the help of key informants who were chosen based on the following criteria: 1) DKP3 Officials, such as the Board of Trustees of the Fish Farming Group (POKDAKAN), 2) Researchers from the BRBIH (Ornamental Fish Farming Research Center), 3) Practitioners/Extension Workers, and 4) POKDAKAN.The study's conclusions state that the relevant Dinas must support local policies based on natural identification that are strengthened at the national level, that routine human resource training needs to be improved, that technology needs to be taken into account in collaboration with the private sector, and that post-harvest and market access are essential for industry. The SWOT analysis's findings, which are in quadrant 1, show that the firm is in a position for rather aggressive expansion.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0339.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: ALS; forest ecology; forest structure; NEON; macrosystems biology; TLS
Online: 23 March 2020 (06:42:29 CET)
Structural diversity is a key feature of forest ecosystems that influences ecosystem functions from local to macroscales. The ability to measure structural diversity in forests with varying ecological composition and management history can improve the understanding of linkages between forest structure and ecosystem functioning. Terrestrial LiDAR has often been used to provide a detailed characterization of structural diversity at local scales, but it is largely unknown whether these same structural features are detectable using aerial LiDAR data that are available across larger spatial scales. We used univariate and multivariate analyses to quantify cross-compatibility of structural diversity metrics from terrestrial versus aerial LiDAR in seven National Ecological Observatory Network sites across the eastern USA. We found strong univariate agreement between terrestrial and aerial LiDAR metrics of canopy height, openness, internal heterogeneity, and leaf area, but found marginal agreement between metrics that describe heterogeneity of the outer most layer of the canopy. Terrestrial and aerial LiDAR both demonstrated the ability to distinguish forest sites from structural diversity metrics in multivariate space, but terrestrial LiDAR was able to resolve finer-scale detail within sites. Our findings indicate that aerial LiDAR can be of use in quantifying broad-scale variation in structural diversity across macroscales.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0390.v1
Subject: Biology, Ecology Keywords: Aerial laser scanning; Canopy structural complexity; Forest structure; National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON); Pulse density
Online: 23 December 2021 (11:59:27 CET)
Recent expansion in data sharing has created unprecedented opportunities to explore structure-function linkages in ecosystems across spatial and temporal scales. However, characteristics of the same data product, such as resolution, can change over time or spatial locations, as protocols are adapted to new technology or conditions, which may impact the data’s potential utility and accuracy for addressing end user scientific questions. The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) provides data products for users from 81 sites and over a planned 30-year time frame, including discrete return Light Detection and Range (LiDAR) from an airborne observatory platform. LiDAR is a well-established and increasingly available remote sensing technology for measuring three-dimensional (3D) characteristics of ecosystem and landscape structure, including forest structural diversity. The LiDAR product that NEON provides can vary in point density from 2 – 25+ points/m2 depending on instrument and acquisition date. We used NEON LiDAR from five forested sites to (1) identify the minimum point density at which structural diversity metrics can be robustly estimated across forested sites from different ecoclimatic zones in the USA and (2) to test the effects of variable point density on the estimation of a suite of structural diversity metrics and multivariate structural complexity types within and across forested sites. Twelve out of sixteen structural diversity metrics were sensitive to LiDAR point density in at least one of the five NEON forested sites. The minimum point density to reliably estimate the metrics ranged from 2.0 to 7.5 pt/m2, but our results indicate that point densities above 7-8 pt/m2 should provide robust measurements of structural diversity in forests for temporal or spatial comparisons. The delineation of multivariate structural complexity types from a suite of 16 structural diversity metrics was robust within sites and across forest types for a LiDAR point density of 4 pt/m2 and above. This study shows that different metrics of structural diversity can vary in their sensitivity to the resolution of LiDAR data and users of these open-source data products should consider the point density of their data and use caution in metric selection when making spatial or temporal comparisons from these datasets.