ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0055.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Native American students; Retention, Enrollment, Graduation
Online: 3 October 2018 (14:35:04 CEST)
Native Americans are the single most underrepresented racial group in American higher education today; those enrolled in college are also disproportionately first-generation students. In order to help universities attract and retain Native American students, this study utilizes the four R’s of indigenous research to document the motivations of first-generation Native American students to attend and remain at a mid-sized public university in the northwest. Student participants report that social and cultural support were key factors in their decisions to attend and remain at their institution. Implications of these findings are discussed, and recommendations are made to higher education institutions seeking to attract and retain Native American students.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1632.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Archaeology Keywords: Bioarchaeology; Skeletal collections; Human Remains; Native American
Online: 25 July 2023 (03:11:20 CEST)
In the 21st century, museums have come to realize that the human skeletons they display might have problematic origins. The older anthropological skeletal collections typically originate from anatomical dissection of the executed and the very poor, or from scavenged graves of indigenous people. Such collections are currently being re-evaluated in many countries, and reburying or repatriating museum skeletons have become viable options. A particularly difficult question is what to do with human remains of unknown origins. Here, we present and discuss one such case, where a human skeleton of unclear origin in the 1930’s was brought to a local museum in Bollnäs, Sweden, under likely unethical circumstances. Most of the bones have now been lost, except for the skull, the sacrum and one lumbar vertebra, which in 2007 were transferred to the Museum of Ethnography in Stockholm. The skull was there put on display as the “Bollnäs skull”, and was presented to the public to illustrate the dilemmas involved in handling human remains in the post-colonial era. The original gift letter from 1934 stated that the skeleton came from San Nicolas Island outside the California coast, but this letter contained numerous instances of incorrect information and was therefore deemed not trustworthy. However, our critical examination of the skull and its background information indicates that San Nicolas Island is a plausible origin, and we suggest that a bioarchaeological comparison should be made between the skull and living descendants of the San Nicolas Island population, and/or with archaeological human skeletons excavated from the island.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0463.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Ethnic And Cultural Studies Keywords: Artemia franciscana; non-native population; mtDNA-COI; genetic variation; biodiversity; UAE
Online: 31 March 2020 (22:38:16 CEST)
Artemia franciscana, native to America, has recently colonized non-indigenous populations in Eurasia, Mediterranean regions and Australia. In present we sought to evaluate the potential effects of colonization of A. franciscana on genetic differentiation in the new environments in UAE. We used the COI marker to determine population genetic structure and identify the origins of exotic populations in UAE. Our findings have confirmed the colonization of both localities by A. franciscana. Genetic variation of invasive A. franciscana were exclusively lower than native population in Great Salt Lake and San Francisco Bay. Results have showed the studied population could not possibly have colonized directly from natural American localities, perhaps resulting from secondary introduction events from other non-indigenous populations. Genetic analysis have yielded different demographic patterns for invasive studied populations. Al Wathba Wetland Reserve (AWWR) population have represented demographic expansion. In contrast, Godolphin Lakes (GL) population was at demographic equilibrium. Neutrality tests have documented the excess of both recent and historical mutations in the COI gene pool of invasive AWWR Artemia throughout establishment in the new environment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0489.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: Keywords: Sustainable Heritage Tourism; Native American Heritage Places; United States National Parks; Arches National Park; Canyonlands National Park; Hovenweep National Park
Online: 23 October 2020 (11:08:48 CEST)
Abstract: Sustainable use of Native American heritage places is viewed in this analysis as serving to preserve their traditional purposes and sustain the cultural landscapes that give them heritage meaning. The research is about the potential impacts of heritage tourism to selected Native American places at Arches National Park, Canyonlands National Park, and Hovenweep National Monument. The impacts of tourists to a heritage place must be understood as having both potential effects on the place itself and on an integrated cultural landscape. Impacts to one place potentially change other places- functions in a Native American landscape and the integrity of the landscape itself. The analysis is based on 696 interviews with representatives from nine tribes and pueblos, who in addition to defining the cultural meaning of places, officially made 349 heritage management recommendations. The U.S. National Park Service interprets Natives American resources and then brings millions of tourists to these through museums, brochures, outdoor displays, and ranger-guided tours. Native American ethnographic study participants argued that tourist education and regulation can increase the sustainability of Native American places in a park and can help protect related places beyond the park.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1252.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: Native collagen; Osteoarthritis; Food Supplement
Online: 16 June 2023 (14:04:29 CEST)
Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common cause of pain and disability in adults. Dietary supplements such as undenatured type II collagen (UC-II) have shown to have some benefits in OA treatment. This study aimed to assess changes in pain levels among knee OA patients treated with UC-II for 6 months. Patients with knee OA of any grade were given a daily 40 mg dose of UC-II (CondroArtil®) as a dietary supplement for 6 months. Pain levels were measured using the visual analog scale (VAS) before starting UC-II 6 months thereafter. A total of 100 patients (62/38: male/female) with a mean age of 46.3 ± 13.8 years participated in the study. Most patients (60%) had mild to moderate OA (grade I or II). The UC-II supplementation was shown to significantly reduce pain levels (p<0.001) with a negative correlation between pain reduction and age (p=0.006) and BMI (p=0.049). The OA severity also affected pain reduction (p=0.011), with grade II OA experiencing higher pain levels. Previous physical therapy and food supplements had a significant impact on pain reduction (p=0.017 and p=0.012, respectively). The study suggests that UC-II is an effective treatment for reducing pain in patients with knee OA.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0130.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Insect Science Keywords: pesticides; native bee; persistency; biomonitoring
Online: 16 March 2018 (06:56:09 CET)
In this paper we show the results of investigating the presence of organochlorine pesticides in honey and pollen samples from managed colonies of the honey bee, Apis mellifera L. and of the stingless bee Scaptotrigona Mexicana Guérin. We found that 88.44% and 93.33% of honey samples, and 22.22% and 100% of pollen samples of S. mexicana and A. mellifera, respectively, resulted positive to at least one organochlorine. The most abundant pesticides were DDE, DDT, Endrin and heptaclor. Despite the low foraging range of S. mexicana the number of pesticides detected in the honey samples was similar to that of A. mellifera. Paradoxically we a found a small number of organochlorines in pollen samples of S. mexicana, perhaps indicating a rapid turnover of this material as compared to A. mellifera.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1800.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Fruit; forest; ecosystem; wood; native; Ecuador
Online: 26 July 2023 (12:22:04 CEST)
This study investigated the presence and characteristics of Juglans neotropica in three ecosystems in Southern Ecuador: Montane Evergreen Forest, Evergreen Seasonal Lower Montane Forest, and Semideciduous Foot Montane Forest. The main focus was on the species' multipurpose nature as both a fruit and timber source. Six study sites, totaling at least 0.5 hectares each, were established, with four in Loja province and two in Zamora Chinchipe province.The results showed significant differences in dendrometric variables across the sites, with the most favorable growth recorded in The Tundo, where trees exhibited an average diameter at breast height (DBH) of 45.16 cm, basal area (G) of 1.41 m2, total height (TH) of 19.22 m, canopy height (CH) of 13 m, cubic volume (CV) of 3.55 m3, and total volume (TV) of 5.22 m3. The species displayed a clumped distribution pattern, as indicated by a Morisita index greater than 1. Regarding abundance, the highest density of 297 trees per hectare was found in Argelia, while Victoria had the lowest density of 46 trees per hectare. This research highlights the importance of Juglans neotropica as a multipurpose species, providing both valuable fruits and wood resources in the studied ecosystems of Southern Ecuador.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0599.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Genetics; forest; ecosystem; wood; native; extinction
Online: 8 June 2023 (07:13:55 CEST)
The study was carried out in zone 7 of Ecuador, in ecosystems of the Southern Montane Evergreen Forest of the Eastern Cordillera of the Andes that goes from 2200 to 3000 masl. In the Evergreen Seasonal Lower Montane Forest of Catamayo-Alamor, which ranges from 1600-2000 meters above sea level and finally in the Semideciduous Foot Montane Forest of Catamayo-Alamor, which ranges from 400-1600 meters above sea level. The objective was to know the occurrence, structure and abundance of J. neotropica. The investigation consisted of collecting secondary information on the occurrence of the species, to later verify it in situ. Six sites with areas ≥ 0.5 hectares were identified, four in the province of Loja and two in the province of Zamora Chinchipe. Regarding the structure, it was determined that there are significant statistical differences as well as in the dasometric variables between one site and another, presenting better growths El Tundo with average values in DAP(cm)= 45.16; G(m2) = 1.41; HT(m)= 19.22; HC(m)= 13; VC(m3) = 3.55; VT(m3) = 5.22. Regarding the Morisita index, the species presents adistribution pattern >1. Regarding abundance, it was determined that Algeria presented a maximum of 297 (ind/ha), and La Victoria 46 (ind/ha) with a minimum.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0113.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: native yeast; biocontrol; fungal pathogens; VOCs
Online: 11 September 2019 (02:55:31 CEST)
Changes in consumer expectations have led to increasing demand for novel plant protection strategies, in order to reduce the application of chemical products, reduce the occurrence of new pests and the impact that all these actions generate in the environment. In recent years there have been numerous investigations related to biological control and the use of microorganisms as new control strategies. As part of integrated disease management, antagonistic microorganisms have been investigated lately and presented great interest. Such microorganisms can be applied in conventional and in organic farming as biological control agents (BCA). Many of these microorganisms are present in the microbial ecology generating interactive associations between surrounding microorganisms. For these reasons, it has become necessary to search new natural antimicrobial agents as alternatives to synthetic and chemical products. It has been discovered that there are microorganisms, particularly yeasts, that have antagonistic activity and different mechanisms of action, indicating that they could be interesting candidates for the development of BCA. Here, we evaluate the antagonist effect of four endophytic yeast, Cryptococcus antarcticus, Aureobasidium pullulans, Cryptococcus terrestris and Cryptococcus oeirensis over the growth of Botrytis cinerea, Monilinia laxa, Penicillium expansum and Geotrichum candidum in in vitro assays (inhibition zone diameter assay and confrontation assay).The results revealed that the four yeast strains evaluated showed antagonistic activity against the phytopathogens tested, suggesting that these yeasts produce compounds capable of inhibiting the growth of fungi and, depending on the assay, the evaluated antagonist-yeasts have differential biocontrolling-effect against the postharvest pathogens tested.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0118.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: iVikodak; Balsas Basin; tomate milpero; native plants
Online: 8 June 2022 (06:02:31 CEST)
Michoacan state has a long history in plant domestication’s. Physalis ixocarpa is a native plant that growth associated to corn crops from this region. Such plants have similar fruits to Physalis philadelphica (husk tomate). Due to the domestication process includes the adaptation to environmental factors, we ask if 1) Does P. ixocarpa has the capacity of association with bacterial communities of the zone where it was domesticated?, and 2) Does the rhizobiome of this plant can increase the potential functions in the soil?. An experiment was established in a traditional milpa system. Samples of rhizobiome from corn, P. ixocarpa, P. philadelphica, and soil were sequenced using Next Generation Sequencing in the region 16S. The potential function, metabolic pathway reconstruction and participation of each bacteria genus was inferred using iVikodak platform. A total of 34 Phyla and 795 genera were identified. Purine metabolism's was the principal function, where all rizhobiomes showed similar metabolic pathways. However, the difference among plant species is the participation of the distinct genera in the purine metabolism. We conclude that rhizobiome of P. ixocarpa shows complementarity for the soil functions, and their utilization can be helpful in zones where the agricultural practices have degraded microbiological soil conditions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0448.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: rural areas; smoke cooking; native gastronomy; sustainability
Online: 19 May 2021 (13:52:59 CEST)
The smoke house works as a tourism model that will directly impact women living across Quintana Roo communities and small towns, with the idea that this project will empower them, and provide them with a more dignified income, with the end goal to reduce the poverty rates in the state Likewise, to introduce an adequate formula of cuisine that promotes the regional gastronomic identity, since this typology of cultural heritage is linked to the experience of enjoying the state's native food. (Carrillo, J. and Vazquez, L., 2018) It should be noted that the main representatives and transmitters of gastronomy are women, usually housewives. Therefore, a methodology based on the qualitative approach was designed, taking as a basis the ethnographic method, which allows understanding the behavioral patterns of a society. In the first instance, a gastronomic laboratory is proposed for the university, which will later be used as a business model within the tourism industry, directed at people who seek to enjoy cultural and ex-periential tourism. And at the same time, it will benefit communities across the state by generating more income for them. In addition, the project of model smoke kitchen is oriented to go in accordance with the 2030 agenda. Which includes 17 objectives and 169 goals; six of those objectives are directly aligned with this project, and the rest can be observed to relate it in a more indirectly manner. In the same way, a summary of the results obtained by the five-year groundwork is presented, as well as the division of the gastronomy in the state according to the characteristics that conform the gastronomic region.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0659.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Beel, conservation, fish diversity, IUCN, native fishes
Online: 26 April 2021 (12:06:18 CEST)
This study was conducted in the Dhanu River and adjacent waters at Mithamain upazila (sub-district) under Kishoreganj district of Bangladesh to prepare a check list of available native fishes with their availability status, conservation perspectives, habitat preferences, population trends and intimidations. Data were collected monthly by direct field survey, focus group discussions, and personal interviews with fishers by using a semi-structured questionnaire and a pictorial check list of fish species. A total of 91 indigenous fish species of 59 genera belonging to 29 families under 11 orders were documented where 17.58% species was abundantly available, 27.47% was commonly available, 31.87% was moderately available and 23.08% was rarely available. Cypriniformes was found as the dominant order, consisting 37.36% of the fish species aggregation and Cyprinidae was the most dominant family with 32.97% of the entire species assemblage. Twenty four piscine species (26.37%) were under threatened category in Bangladesh which subsumed 3 critically endangered (3.29%), 11 endangered (12.08%), and 10 vulnerable species (10.99%). Notably globally threatened Cirrhinus cirrhosus, Channa orientalis, and Wallago attu were available there. Fish population trends of 24.18% and 59.34% of the entire fish species was found in decreasing trends in global and national level, respectively. Leading intimidation to the fish diversity was indiscriminately overfishing, followed by fishing by dewatering of wetlands, katha fishing method, use of deprecated fishing gears, climate change, etc. Minimization of anthropogenic impacts, assuring the flux of water round the year, enactments of fish laws, installation and management of fish sanctuaries, and raising public awareness can be effective for the conservation of existing fisheries resources.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0743.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Water Science And Technology Keywords: COVID-19; Alaska Native; water security; sanitation
Online: 30 November 2020 (16:36:11 CET)
The novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of COVID-19, emerged in the human population in December 2019 and spread worldwide within a few short months. Much of the public health focus for preventing and mitigating the spread of COVID-19 has been on individual and collective behaviors, such as social distancing, mask-wearing, and hygiene. Yet it is equally important to recognize that these behaviors and health outcomes occur within broader social and environmental contexts. Factors within local communities, regional policy, race, history, personal beliefs, and natural- and built environmental characteristics affect underlying population health and the spread of disease. For example, COVID-19 has renewed attention to secure water and sanitation services and their importance in protecting human health. Many remote Alaskan communities are particularly vulnerable because of inadequate water and sanitation systems. In this paper, we describe how inadequate water and sewer services may place the inhabitants of remote Alaskan communities at higher risk of COVID spread. We argue that insufficient water security and inadequate sewer systems, along with household overcrowding, multigenerational residences, limited transportation options, limited medical facilities, and higher prevalence of chronic diseases could lead to a greater potential of COVID-19 transmission and to more severe disease outcomes in these communities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0283.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: apomyoglobin; amyloid stability; unfolding transition; native electrophoresis; hydrophobicity
Online: 6 November 2023 (07:42:34 CET)
To date, most research on amyloid aggregation has focused on describing the structure of amyloids and the kinetics of their formation, while the conformational stability of fibrils remain insufficiently explored. The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of amino acid substitutions on the stability of apomyoglobin (ApoMb) amyloids. Study of amyloid unfolding of ApoMb and its six mutant variants by urea has been carried out. Changes in the structural features of aggregates during unfolding were recorded by the far UV CD and native electrophoresis. It was shown that during the initial stage of denaturation, amyloid's secondary structure partially unfolds. Then, the fibrils undergo dissociation and form intermediate aggregates weighing approximately 1 MDa, which at the last stage of unfolding decompose into 18 kDa monomeic unfolded molecules. The results of unfolding transitions allow concluding that the stability of studied amyloids relative to the intermediate aggregates and of the latter relative to unfolded monomers is higher for ApoMb variants with substitutions that increase the hydrophobicity of the residues. The results presented provide a new insight into the mechanism of stabilization of protein aggregates and can serve as a base for further investigations of the amyloids stability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1511.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: feeding strategies; food webs; native species; trophic niche
Online: 24 October 2023 (09:39:44 CEST)
Background: Understanding the trophic ecology of threatened freshwater fishes is relevant to managing their conservation. The genus Orestias is endemic to the Andes region and shows great biogeographical interest in the Neotropics due to its adaptation to the high-altitude systems of the Andes as well as because several species are considered threatened. (2) Methods: Here, we synthesize the documented trophic interaction of Orestias spp. in freshwater ecosystems of the Andes region available in the literature and use available data to explore the trophic interaction of Orestias species via null models. (3) Results: Our findings showed that Orestias spp. consume a wide range of prey (i.e., mainly aquatic insects, crustaceans, and mollusks) that varied according to their habitats and feeding morphology. The null model revealed that species associations in diet were random because of the presence of many repeated species. Our results would reveal that some Orestias spp. may show an opportunistic feeding strategy that concurs with previous reports. Additionally, we highlight major information gaps associated with the trophic ecology of Orestias spp. and propose some direction for future studies. (4): Our study provides valuable in-formation on Orestias spp. trophic ecology, which may be useful for developing conservation strategies for native fish in the Neotropical region.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202312.0469.v1
Subject: Forestry, Biology And Life Sciences Keywords: plant diversity; indigenous agroforestry system; coffee; enset; native species
Online: 7 December 2023 (07:13:42 CET)
Woody and non-woody plant species conservation is one of the ecosystem services provided by agroforestry (AF) systems across the agricultural landscapes. Little attention has been paid in as-sessing the plant diversity conservation of AF systems. The study was, thus, aimed to investigate plant species diversity, structure, and composition of three AF systems in Gedeo zone of south eastern Rift–valley Agricultural landscape of Ethiopia. The study was conducted in three agroforestry systems, namely, enset based, coffee–enset based (C-E based AF) and coffee-fruit trees–enset based (C-Ft-E based AF) agroforestry systems. Twenty farms representative of each AF system were randomly selected and inventory of the floristic diversity was employed in a 10×10 meter sample plot per farm. A total of 52 perennial woody and non–woody plant species belonging to 30 families were recorded. Of all species identified 33 (63.5%) were native, of which two species were registered as endemic. The highest proportion of native species was recorded in enset based AF (93.3%) and the least were in C–Ft–E based AF (59%). According to IUCN Red List and local criteria, 13 species were recorded as of interest for conservation in all AF systems. The woody species Prunus africana was identified as both vulnerable by IUCN Red List and rare for 25% of species that least occurred. The Shannon diversity index and richness showed that C–Ft–E based AF systems were significantly different from the two remaining AF systems. However, the species abundance and evenness did not show significant differences between the three AF systems. In general, retaining such number of woody and non–woody perennial plant species richness under AF systems of the present study underlines their potential for biodiversity conservation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0189.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: exotic species; native communities; biological invasion; dynamics of invasion
Online: 16 April 2019 (12:50:43 CEST)
The establishment and spread of exotic species is a contemporary major concern. Alien species may become invasive in their new habitat, leading to both/either environmental and/or economic impacts. I briefly reviewed the literature in the last decade about the relationship of exotic species and native communities. I identified that professionals usually approach the subject in two main points of view: (1) researchers tend to point out the impacts of alien species on entire communities, evaluating if the relationship is positive, negative or neutral; (2) they focus on the eco-evolutionary processes involved in the introductions, the dynamics of invasion, and individual study cases. When evaluating the response of introductions to entire communities, evidence seems to be ambiguous and may support positive, negative or neutral relationship, especially depending on the scale approached. The unique eco-evolutionary pathways of each introduction may be a great shortcoming in the searching for generalities. On the other hand, advances have been made in understanding the dynamics of invasion on different lineages through a more selective/individualized approach. I suggest that the dynamics of invasion might be studied through a perspective in which different eco-evolutionary processes, levels of organization (from gene to entire communities), the history of the organism(s) and time are taken into account. Individual cases might be compared in attempt to understand how the relationship exotic and native works and in the search for generalities.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0077.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: COVID-19; native American Indian; treatment; ACE2 receptor; pathophysiology; virulence
Online: 15 April 2020 (08:08:52 CEST)
Background: On Dec 19, 2019, the public health department of China reported that an outbreak of pneumonia was caused by a novel Coronavirus. The virulence of the new virus COVID-19 was much greater than either the SARs and MERSs viruses and on March 11, 2020, the World Health Department (WHO) declared a worldwide pandemic. Understanding the pathophysiology of virulence of the SARS-COV-2 virus is absolutely necessary for understanding the transmission, virulence factors, reduce risk factors, clinical presentation, predict outcomes of the disease and provide guidance for any current or future treatment protocols. Methodology: A comprehensive PubMed search was performed during December 20, 2019 and April 03, 2020, utilizing the words: Wuhan Virus, COVID-19, SARs coronavirus, ACE2, S-protein, virulence, clinical presentation, epidemiology, genome, treatment, structure, MERs, pathogenesis and/or pathology alone and in combination with other terms. Each paper was evaluated by three content experts for quality, reproducibility, credibility and reputation of the journal. Results: The SARS-COV-2 virus is much more virulent than either the SAR’s or MER’s virus and its ability to cause serious disease inversely corresponds to the person’s ability to produce T-cells which declines linearly with age. The ACE2 receptor binding site does not vary among different ethnic groups but do in ACE-2 expression levels. This variance in expression level may explain for different infectivity rates among men and women and predict and explain different susceptibilities to infection by different ethnic groups. Furthermore, by understanding the underlying pathophysiology one can explain and provide guidance to the clinical effectiveness of any treatment. Conclusions: The underlying pathophysiology of COVID-19 explains not only the virulence, and clinical presentation, but, explains at a molecular level the comorbidity risk factors such as hypertension, sex, and age. Ethnic and anatomic expression patterns of ACE-2 and associated pathophysiology suggests that Native Americans and Asians may be particularly susceptible to this disease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1156.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: native breed; vital parameters; body condition; poorer-quality feedstuffs; suckler cows
Online: 18 September 2023 (11:54:27 CEST)
The aim of the study was to assess the adaptability of Polish Red cows to extensive housing and feeding conditions. The study was carried out using 22 cows together with their offspring, kept on a certified organic family farm, from 15 October 2017 – the start of the winter feeding season – to 30 October 2018 – the end of the pasture season. The animals were kept as beef suckler cows, which stayed in the pasture during the summer and were kept in buildings with permanent access to a large cattle run in winter. The following were determined in the study: changes in the cows’ weight and body condition, daily gains in calves, 210-day standardized body weight, and estimated milk yield of suckler cows. To evaluate the cows’ health, blood was collected from them twice and analysed for haematological and biochemical parameters. The results indicated that during the study period the Polish Red cows had adequate body condition, normal vital parameters, and a normal course and development of pregnancy despite the sparse winter diet. This definitively confirms the breed’s high capacity to adapt to an extensive system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0005.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Helicobacter pylori; gastric cancer; Navajos; Native Americans; American Indians; virulence factors
Online: 1 March 2022 (06:52:14 CET)
Background: In Arizona Helicobacter pylori prevalence of infection among Navajo adults is about 62% and gastric cancer incidence rate is 3-4 times higher than that of the non-Hispanic White population. Aim: The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of specific H. pylori virulence factors (cagA and vacA) among Navajo patients undergoing and their association with gastric disease. Methods: Virulence genes, cagA and vacA, in H. pylori were investigated in gastric biopsies from 96 Navajo patients over age 18 who were undergoing esophagogastroduodenoscopy. Biopsies from the antrum and fundus were used for molecular characterization to determine cagA type and number of EPIYA motifs and presence of alleles in the signal (s) and medium (m) regions of the vacA gene. Results: H. pylori infection was found in 22.9% of the biopsy samples. The cagA gene amplified in 57.6% of samples and showed a predominant “Western cagA” type, with the EPIYA-ABC motif (45.4%), most prevalent. The vacA allele s1bm1 was the most prevalent (54.5%). Conclusions: H. pylori genotypes were predominantly cagA Western-type and ABC EPIYA motifs. The vacA s1bm1 genotype was the most prevalent and seemed to be associated with gastritis. American Indian/Alaska Native populations are at higher risk for gastric cancer. It is important to identify genotypes of H. pylori and virulence factors involved in the high prevalence of H. pylori and associated disease among the Navajo population.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0080.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Cognitive Science Keywords: Foreign Language effect; decision-making; native language; second language; risk-taking
Online: 6 September 2021 (09:47:03 CEST)
Decision-making is a complex process of selecting an option from the given choices by analyzing the background information like risk, loss, and gain within the alternative options presented. It has been observed in earlier studies that people are prompt to make less rational decisions when choices are given in a language less known to them. Therefore, to understand the effect of languages on decision-making, we have questioned native Hindi speakers in French and English. French being the foreign language, and English as their second language. Thus, this effect of a non-native language brings to light the important role that the native language plays routinely in judgment and decision-making. In this paper, we developed a Neuropsychological assessment to decipher the effects on decision-making between choices when given in foreign language and second language in comparison with the native language of an individual, which is termed as foreign language effect(Fle). We have explored various possible situations to understand the foreign language effect(Fle) in decision-making and does this change translates when the decision is to be made in the second language. Our study concludes that the Foreign language is least affected by the intuitive biases, followed by the second language, and the native language is most affected by it.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0456.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Land dispute; land alienation; communal grant; native customary land; institutional approach
Online: 18 December 2020 (11:40:17 CET)
Land management and community involvement are two main elements in ensuring the absence of conflict between landowners and agencies. Disputes between owners and agencies will be the biggest obstacle in the land development effort. Therefore, this article aims to address the cause of landowners’ objections against land alienation using the institutional approach. To enable the researchers to understand the root causes of landowners' objections against the alienation of land using the Communal Grant method, the institutional approach has been adopted to identify the issue of the objection. Therefore, questionnaires for 100 landowners were distributed in two villages in Semporna district in Sabah. The purpose is to obtain their views on the cause leading to the dispute of land alienation using the Communal Grant method. The Likert scale was used to enable community rankings on issues that can be understood according to the level of seriousness of the population's views on the issue of using Communal Grants in native customary land alienation. The study results explain that there are four factors that drive objection of the Communal Grant land alienation which involves the formal factors. The findings explained that there are 4 formal provisions which lead to the community's objection against Communal Grants, namely the native customary lands (NCR) act, provision of Communal Grants, provisions in the land ownership and land allocation in Sabah Land Ordinance.Due to numerous objections among native customary peoples concerning the native customary land alienation using Communal Grants, the government has acted in substitution with a fair method of individual ownership for the native customary peoples. This situation explains that disputes in land ownership can be a threat to the country if it cannot be resolved in ways and methods acceptable to the native customary community. This study will benefit the government and NGO’s to alert and focusing on barriers in the context of local community land laws. Communal grants are intended to address land issues in Sabah.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0122.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Transcriptionally controlled tumor protein (TCTP); Tryptophan; Florescence; Flavonoid; Native gel electrophoresis
Online: 7 July 2020 (09:49:17 CEST)
Transcriptionally controlled tumor protein (TCTP) is a highly conserved protein performing a large number of cellular functions by binding with various partner proteins. The importance of its roles in many diseases requires an assay method to find regulatory compounds. However, the molecular characteristics of TCTP made it difficult to search for chemicals interacting with it. In this study, a tryptophan-based assay method was designed and Y151W mutant TCTP was constructed to search binding chemicals. Since there is no tryptophan in the native sequence of TCTP, the incorporation of tryptophan in the Y151W mutant was very effective to establish the method. A flavonoid library was employed to the assay with the method. With the native and Y151W mutant TCTPs, three flavonoids such as morin, myricetin and isobavachalcone have been found to interact with TCTP. Combined with native gel electrophoresis, the binding region of isobavachalcone was suggested to be the flexible loop of TCTP. This approach can be easily applicable to find binding compounds of proteins with similar molecular characteristics of TCTP.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0300.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: marginal soil; basalt material; land degradation; native plant species; microbial community
Online: 17 September 2018 (10:54:36 CEST)
The plant-microbe-soil nexus is critical in maintaining biogeochemical balance of the biosphere. However, soil loss and land degradation are occurring at alarmingly high rates, with soil loss exceeding soil formation rates. This necessitates evaluating marginal soils for their capacity to support and sustain plant growth. In a greenhouse study, we evaluated the capacity of marginal incipient basaltic parent material to support native plant growth, and the associated variation in soil microbial community dynamics. Three plant species, native to the Southwestern Arizona-Sonora region were tested with three soil treatments including basaltic parent material, parent material amended with 20% compost, and potting soil. The parent material with and without compost supported germination and growth of all the plant species, though germination was lower than the potting soil. A 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing approach showed Proteobacteria to be the most abundant phyla in both parent material and potting soil, followed by Actinobacteria. Microbial community composition had strong correlations with soil characteristics but not plant attributes within a given soil material. Predictive functional potential capacity of the communities revealed chemoheterotrophy as the most abundant metabolism within the parent material, while photoheterotrophy and anoxygenic photoautotrophy were prevalent in the potting soil. These results show that marginal incipient basaltic soil has the ability to support native plant species growth, and non-linear associations may exist between plant-marginal soil-microbial interactions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1862.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: Ex-situ conservation; exotic species; Gullele; invasive species; native species
Online: 29 November 2023 (11:05:04 CET)
Gullele Botanic Garden was established to preserve and safeguard indigenous, rare, endemic and endangered plant species that have economic significance. A study was conducted to identify and map non-native plant species that exist in various land use types, including natural vegetation, plantation, roadside, and garden edges. The research involved placing plots at different distances in each land use type and collecting vegetation data with geo-location information for exotic and invasive species. The data was analyzed using Sorensen's similarity index to measure the similarity between plant communities. Invasive species were identified using ArcGIS, and descriptive statistical methods were employed to analyze the remaining data. The recorded a total of 80 plant species belonging to 70 genera in 44 families in the garden, with Fabaceae and Asteraceae having the most species. Acacia decurrens, Acacia melanoxylon, Cuscuta campestris, Galinsoga parviflora, Nerium oleander, and Cyathula uncinulata are the most prevalent invasive or potentially invasive species among the species that have been documented. These species are spreading quickly and may displace native plant species if not properly managed. The study found that roadside and garden edge land use types had the most diverse exotic plants, with Acacia decurrens, Nerium oleander, Acacia melanoxylon, Agave species, Cyathula uncinulata, and Eucalyptus species being the most dominant exotic species in the garden. The total density of exotic species was 2.36 plants/m2. The study provides valuable information for managing and conserving both native and exotic plant species in the garden.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0063.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: Native shrubs; In vitro fermentation; volatile fatty acids; greenhouse gases; hill country
Online: 5 July 2022 (07:40:50 CEST)
Information on the nutritive value and in vitro fermentation characteristics of native shrubs in New Zealand is scant. This is despite their potential as alternatives to exotic trees and shrubs for sup-plementary fodder, and mitigation of greenhouse gas and soil erosion on hill country sheep and beef farms. The objectives of this study were to measure the in vitro fermentation gas production, predict parameters of in vitro fermentation kinetics and to estimate in vitro fermentation of volatile fatty acids (VFA), microbial biomass (MBM) and greenhouse gases of four native shrubs (Coprosma robusta, Griselinia littoralis, Hoheria populnea and Pittosporum crassifolium) and an exotic fodder tree species, Salix schwerinii. Total in vitro gas production was higher (p<0.05) for natives than S. schwerinii. Prediction using the single pool model resulted in biologically incorrect negative in vitro total gas production from the immediately soluble fraction of the native shrubs. However, the dual pool model better predicted in vitro total gas production and was in alignment with measured in vitro fermentation end products. In vitro VFA and greenhouse gas production from fermentation of leaf and stem material were higher (p<0.05), and MBM lower (p<0.05), for native shrubs com-pared to S. schwerinii. The lower in vitro total gas production, VFA and greenhouse gases produc-tion, and higher MBM of S. schwerinii may be explained by the presence of condensed tannins (CT), although this was not measured and requires further study. In conclusion, results from this study suggests that when consumed by ruminant livestock, the browsable native shrubs can provide adequate energy and microbial protein, and that greenhouse gas production from these species is within ranges reported for typical New Zealand pastures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0180.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: biliary atresia; Kasai portoenterostomy; cholangitis; portal hypertension; bile ducts dilatations; native liver survival
Online: 7 August 2020 (09:27:14 CEST)
The prospective study enrolled 144 patients after surgical treatment of biliary atresia in early infancy. We analyze the immediate effectiveness of the surgery and the age-related structure of complications in the up to 16-year follow-up. The immediate 2-year survival rate after the surgery constituted 49.5%. At the time of this writing, 17 of the patients have celebrated their 10th birthdays with good quality of life and no indications for LT. The obtained results underscore the critical importance of surgical correction of BA by Kasai surgery during the first 60 days of life and subsequent dynamic follow-up of the patients for the purpose of the early detection and timely correction of possible complications.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0084.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: zika virus; unfolded protein response; persistent er stress; aggregate; non-native disulfide bond
Online: 6 December 2019 (13:28:38 CET)
Flaviviruses replicate in membranous factories associated with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Significant levels of flavivirus polyprotein integration contribute to ER stress and the host cell may exhibit an Unfolded Protein Response (UPR) to this protein accumulation, stimulating appropriate cellular responses such as adaptation, autophagy or cell death. These different stress responses support other antiviral strategies initiated by infected cells and can help to overcome viral infection. In epithelial A549 cells, a model currently used to study the flavivirus infection cycle and the host cell responses, all three pathways leading to UPR are activated during infection by Dengue virus (DENV), Yellow Fever virus (YFV) or West Nile virus (WNV). In the present study, we investigated the capacity of ZIKA virus (ZIKV) to induce ER stress in A549 cells. We observed that the cells respond to ZIKV infection by implementing an UPR through activation of the IRE1 and PERK pathway without activation of the ATF6 branch. By modulating the ER stress response, we found that UPR inducers significantly inhibit ZIKV replication. Interestingly, our findings provide evidence that ZIKV could manipulate the UPR to escape this host cell defence system. Since incomplete UPR could lead to unresolved and persistent ER stress, we found that ZIKV infection was associated with an abnormal accumulation of viral envelope proteins, which were aggregated with non-native disulfide bridges. As the presence of these “amyloid like” protein polymers may be cytopathic, our observations provide new insights into specific neuropathologies associated with ZIKA virus infections.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0593.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: mariculture; aquaculture; community restoration; conservation ecology; Native Hawaiian fishpond; microbes; microbial source tracking
Online: 30 September 2018 (04:49:28 CEST)
In Hawaiʻi, the transition from customary subsistence flooded taro agroecosystems, which regulate stream discharge rate trapping sediment and nutrients, to a plantation-style economy (c. the 1840s) led to nearshore sediment deposition - smothering coral reefs and destroying adjacent coastal fisheries and customary fishpond mariculture. To mitigate sediment transport, Rhizophora mangle was introduced in estuaries across Hawai’i (c. 1902) further altering fishpond ecosystems. Here, we examine the impact of cultural restoration between 2012-2018 at Heʻeia Fishpond, a 600-800-year-old walled fishpond. Fishpond water quality was assessed by calculating water exchange rates, residence times, salinity distribution, and abundance of microbial indicators prior to and after restoration. We hypothesized that R. mangle removal and concomitant reconstruction of sluice gates would increase mixing and decrease bacterial indicator abundance in the fishpond. We find that Heʻeia Fishpond’s physical environment is primarily tidally driven; wind forcing and river flux are secondary drivers. Post-restoration, two gates in the northeastern region account for >80% of relative flux in the fishpond. Increase in exchange rates during spring and neap tide and shorter minimum water residence time corresponded with the reconstruction of a partially obstructed 56 m gap together with the installation of an additional sluice gate in the fishpond wall. Lower mean salinities post-restoration suggests increased freshwater influx due to R. mangle removal. Spatial distribution of microbial bio-indicator species inversely correlated with salinity. Average abundance of Enterococcus and Bacteroidales did not significantly change after restoration efforts, however, average abundance of a biomarker specific to birds nesting in the mangroves decreased significantly after restoration. This study demonstrates the positive impact of biocultural restoration regimes on water flushing and water quality parameters, encouraging the prospect of revitalizing this and other culturally and economically significant sites for sustainable aquaculture in the future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0145.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: ATP-dependent proteolysis, Non-native membrane proteins, Periplasmic domain, Crystal structure, Photosystem II.
Online: 29 December 2016 (17:16:52 CET)
Prompt removal of misfolded membrane proteins and misassembled membrane protein complexes is essential for membrane homeostasis. However, the elimination of these toxic proteins from the hydrophobic membrane environment has high energetic barriers. Transmembrane FtsH is the only known ATP-dependent protease responsible for this task, unlike other well-studied soluble ATP-dependent proteases. The mechanisms by which FtsH recognizes, unfolds, translocates, and proteolyzes its substrates remain unclear. Here, we report the crystal structures of the Thermotoga maritima FtsH periplasmic domain (PD) in an associative trimeric state at a 1.5-1.95 Å resolution. We also describe the pH-dependent oligomerization states of the isolated PD using dynamic light scattering. These observations help us understand how FtsH recognizes membrane-anchored misfolded proteins.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0037.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Language And Linguistics Keywords: non-native speech learning; talker variability; phonetically-irrelevant variability; long-term retention; cognitive abilities
Online: 2 November 2022 (03:05:23 CET)
Talker variability has been reported to facilitate generalization and retention of speech learning, but is also shown to place demands on cognitive resources. Our recent study provided evidence that phonetically-irrelevant acoustic variability in single-talker (ST) speech is sufficient to induce equivalent amounts of learning to the use of multiple-talker (MT) training. This study is a follow-up contrasting MT versus ST training with varying degrees of temporal exaggeration to examine how cognitive measures of individual learners may influence the role of input variability in immediate learning and long-term retention. Native Chinese-speaking adults were trained on the English /i/-/ɪ/ contrast. We assessed the trainees’ working memory and selective attention before training. Trained participants showed retention of more native-like cue weighting in both perception and production regardless of talker variability condition. The ST training group showed long-term benefit in word identification, whereas the MT training group did not retain the improvement. The results demonstrate the role of phonetically-irrelevant variability in robust speech learning and modulatory functions of nonlinguistic working memory and selective attention, highlighting the necessity to consider the interaction between input characteristics, task difficulty, and individual differences in cognitive abilities in assessing learning outcomes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0571.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geophysics And Geology Keywords: native hydrogen; deep-seated source of natural hydrogen; H2 seepage; radiolysis; serpentinization; draining faults
Online: 24 July 2020 (05:23:26 CEST)
Hydrogen gas is seeping from the sedimentary basin of São Franciso, Brazil. The seepages of H2 are accompanied by helium whose isotopes reveal a strong crustal signature. Geophysical data indicates that this intra-cratonic basin is characterized by i) a relatively high geothermal gradient, ii) deep faults delineating a horst and graben structure and affecting the entire sedimentary sequence, iii) an archean to paleoproterozoïc basements enriched in radiogenic elements and displaying mafic and ultramafic units, and iv) a possible karstic reservoir located 400 m below the surface. The high geothermal gradient could be due to a thin lithosphere enriched in radiogenic elements, which can also contribute to a massive radiolysis process of water at depth, releasing an important amount of H2. Alternatively, ultramafic rocks that may have generated H2 during their serpentinization are also documented in the basement. The seismic profiles show that the faults seen at the surface are deeply rooted in the basement, and can drain deep fluids to shallow depths in a short time scale. The carbonate reservoirs within the Bambuí group which forms the main part of the sedimentary layers are crossed by the fault system and represent good candidates for temporary H2 accumulation zones. The formation by chemical dissolution of sinkholes located at 400 m depth might explain the presence of sub-circular depressions seen at the surface. These sinkholes might control the migration of gas from temporary storage reservoirs in the upper layer of the Bambuí formation to the surface. The very high fluxes of H2 escaping out of these structures which have been recently documented are, however, in disagreement with the newly developed H2 production model in the Precambrian continental crust. They either question the validity of these models or the measurement methodology.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0123.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Religious Studies Keywords: Protestantism; Protestant Churches; post-Soviet Russia; ethnic groups; national intelligentsia; native peoples; social activity
Online: 20 November 2017 (08:10:47 CET)
This paper considers two types of Protestant ethnic groups of some areas of Urals and Western Siberia. The first type consist of representatives of members of different ethnic groups consisting of well-educated professionals, incorporated into industrial society and associated with the intellectualism of Protestantism. The second type is represented by the indigenous peoples of the Polar Urals and Western Siberia, who use the Protestant religious organizations as tool for restoring life-sustaining elements of the native peoples’ traditional economy. I employed the inductive approach and the comparison method; during the fieldwork I used ethnographic participant observations, sociological structured interviews and closed-ended questionnaires. The empirical data have been collected in the Southern, Middle and Polar Urals and Western Siberia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0422.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Fresh cassava root; pellet containing high sulfur; ruminal characteristics; blood thiocyanate; Thai native beef cattle
Online: 17 December 2020 (09:16:26 CET)
The objective of this experiment was to study the effect of feeding pellet containing high sulfur (PELFUR) diet and fresh cassava root (FCR) to Thai native beef cattle on feed use efficiency, ruminal characteristics, and blood metabolites. Four male Thai native beef cattle (150 ± 15.0 kg of body weight (BW)) were allocated with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement in a 4 × 4 Latin square design. Factor A was FCR supplementation at 15 and 20 g/kg of BW. Factor B was the sulfur level in the PELFUR ration at 15 and 30 g/kg of dry matter (DM). No interaction effect was found among FCR supplementation and PELFUR in terms of feed intake and nutrient intake (p > 0.05). Cyanide intake was significantly increased based on FCR supplementation (p < 0.05), whereas sulfur intake was increased by level addition of PELFUR levels (p < 0.05). There were interaction effects among FCR supplementation and PELFUR on digestibility coeﬃcients of DM and organic matter (OM) (p < 0.05). FCR supplementation at 20 g/kg BW with PELFUR 30 g/kg demonstrated the highest digestibility of DM and OM. Moreover, interactions were observed between FCR and PELFUR for bacterial populations (p < 0.01). The populations of bacteria were highest in FCR supplementation at 20 g/kg BW with PELFUR 30 g/kg at various feeding times. An interaction effects from among feeding FCR with PELFUR was found on blood thiocyanate concentrations at various feeding times (p < 0.01). The highest mean values of blood thiocyanate were observed when feeding FCR at 20 g/kg BW with PELFUR at 30 g/kg. No interaction effect was found between FCR and PELFUR on total volatile fatty acids (VFA) and their profiles (p >0.05). However, the proportions of the total VFA at 0 and 4 h post-feeding were increased when FCR at 20 g/kg BW was supplemented (p < 0.01). FCR at 20 g/kg BW could enhance propionate (C3) at 4 h post-feeding when compared with FCR at 15 g/kg BW (p < 0.01). Moreover, supplementation of PELFUR at 30 g/kg increased the total VFA at 0 and 4 h post-feeding, whereas the concentration of C3 at 4 h post-feeding was enhanced (p < 0.05). However, no significant changes were found for any parameters among treatments and between the main effect of FCR and PELFUR supplementation (p > 0.05). In conclusion, feeding of two combinations (FCR 20 g/kg BW with PELFUR 30 g/kg) could promote the nutrient digestibility, the bacterial populations, and the rate of disappearance of cyanide without having any adverse effect on rumen fermentation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0145.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Ecology Keywords: definition; degrees of separation; objective; primary conservation; secondary conservation; tertiary conservation; native species; ecological replacement species
Online: 2 August 2023 (10:19:57 CEST)
The term “conservation,” as it relates to biodiversity in a Western context, has had a contested history and as conservation science and societal values have evolved, consensus over its precise meaning has remained elusive. The broad scope of contemporary definitions hampers effective communication during a period of environmental crisis and is troublesome for any derivative concept which aims to quantify the efforts of the conservation community. This presents an avoidable hindrance to the systematic planning of the conservation field. To remedy this situation, we provide an outcome separation framework that is based on the expected degree of separation of the action’s proximate outcome from its intended, ultimate outcome for native habitat and/or native or ecological replacement species. Framing a definition of conservation through this lens of outcome separation allows for conservation-related actions to be clearly categorized into one of three discrete tiers (primary, secondary, and tertiary) based on both the proximate outcome’s degree of separation from its intended, ultimate outcome and the conservation status of native habitat and/or native or ecological replacement species. A distillation of this tiered framework also provides a fully inclusive, succinct definition of biodiversity conservation that is resilient to future conceptual evolutions of the field.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0284.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Aquatic Science Keywords: Recreational fisheries fishery management; introgressive hybridization; stocking; non-native species; allochthonous species; trout fishing; trout taxonomy
Online: 23 February 2022 (03:09:39 CET)
During the last 150 years, the trout-culture industry focused on enhancing trout populations by stocking, in response to the growing anglers’ demand and the habitat degradation associated to the rapid urbanization and hydropower development. The industrialized north of Italy, home to the Italian Alpine and subalpine trout populations, is the source of most of the revenues of the national trout-culture industry. Its rapid growth and the massive introduction of non-native interfertile trouts eroded the genetic diversity of native lineages, leading to harsh confrontations between scientists, institutions, and sportfishing associations. We review here the state of art of the taxonomy and distribution of the northern Italian native trouts, presenting both scientific results and historical documentation. We think the only native trouts in this region are Salmo marmoratus, widespread in this region, plus small and fragmented populations of S. ghigii, present only in the Southwestern Alps. We strongly recommend the interruption of stocking of domesticated interfertile non-native trouts in this area, and recommend the adoption of Evolutionary Significant Units for salmonid fishery management. We further propose future research directions for a sustainable approach to the conservation and ecosystem management of the fishery resources and inland waters of northern Italy.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: non-native populations; geographic expansion; invasiveness; invasibility; dispersal; phenotypic plasticity; evolution; historical ecosystem; hybrid ecosystem; novel ecosystem
Online: 30 October 2019 (07:13:34 CET)
Biological invasions have reached an unprecedented level and the number of introduced species is still increasing worldwide. Despite major advances in invasion science, the determinants of success of introduced species, the magnitude and dimensions of their impact, and the mechanisms sustaining successful invasions are still debated. Empirical studies show divergent impacts of non-native populations on ecosystems and contrasting effects of biotic and abiotic factors on the dynamics of non-native populations; this is hindering the emergence of a unified theory of biological invasions. We propose a synthesis that merges perspectives from population, community, and ecosystem levels. Along a timeline of ecosystem transformation driven by non-native species, from historical to human-modified ecosystems, we order invasion concepts and theories to clarify their chaining and relevance during each step of the invasion process. This temporal sorting of invasion concepts shows that each concept is relevant at a specific stage of the invasion. Concepts and empirical findings on non-native species may appear contradictory. However, we suggest that, when mapped onto an invasion timeline, they may be combined in a complementary way. An overall scheme is proposed to summarise the theoretical dynamics of ecosystems subjected to invasions. For any given case study, this framework provides a guide through the maze of theories and should help choose the appropriate concepts according to the stage of invasion.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0027.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: pollination value; native bees; economics; production function; willingness to pay; contingent valuation; stated preference; wild blueberry; cranberry; survey
Online: 3 July 2018 (06:33:59 CEST)
Recent pollinator declines have focused efforts on their conservation which require clear estimates of pollination value to agriculture. Our socio-economic producer surveys and agronomic field research data were used to present a new way of estimating ecosystem service value of native pollinators. Using two regionally important U.S.A. crops, Maine wild blueberry and Massachusetts cranberry as models, we present perceived values of native bee pollinators from both consumer and producers. Wild blueberry’s Replacement Cost (RC) was greater than Attributable Net Income (ANI), since greater rented honey bee stocking densities are required. Attributable Net Income for native bees were similar for wild blueberry ($613/ha) and cranberry ($689/ha). Marginal Net Farm Income (MNFI) from incrementally adding more hives per ha was greater from stocking a third/fourth hive per ha for cranberry ($6,206) than stocking a ninth/tenth hive per ha for wild blueberry ($556), given greater responsiveness of yield, revenue, and profit to using rented honey bee hives in cranberry compared to wild blueberry. Both crops’ producers were only willing to annually invest $140–188/ha in native pollination enhancements on their farms, justifying government support. Consumers are willing to pay ~6.7 times more to support native bees than producers, supporting market-based support for invertebrate conservation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0427.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: cloud-native; observability; cloud computing; logging; structured logging; logs; metrics; traces; distributed tracing; log aggregation; log forwarding; log consolidation
Online: 25 August 2022 (07:32:18 CEST)
Background: Cloud-native software systems often have a much more decentralized structure and many independently deployable and (horizontally) scalable components, making it more complicated to create a shared and consolidated picture of the overall decentralized system state. Today, observability is often understood as a triad of collecting and processing metrics, distributed tracing data, and logging. The result is often a complex observability system composed of three stovepipes whose data is difficult to correlate. Objective: This study analyzes whether these three historically emerged observability stovepipes of logs, metrics and distributed traces could be handled more integrated and with a more straightforward instrumentation approach. Method: This study applied an action research methodology used mainly in industry-academia collaboration and common in software engineering. The research design utilized iterative action research cycles, including one long-term use case. Results: This study presents a unified logging library for Python and a unified logging architecture that uses the structured logging approach. The evaluation shows that several thousand events per minute are easily processable. Conclusion: The results indicate that a unification of the current observability triad is possible without the necessity to develop utterly new toolchains.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0276.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: cloud computing; service-oriented architecture; SOA; cloud-native; serverless; microservice; container; unikernel; distributed cloud; P2P; service-to-service; service-mesh
Online: 16 July 2018 (10:57:39 CEST)
This paper presents a review of cloud application architectures and its evolution. It reports observations being made during the course of a research project that tackled the problem to transfer cloud applications between different cloud infrastructures. As a side effect we learned a lot about commonalities and differences from plenty of different cloud applications which might be of value for cloud software engineers and architects. Throughout the course of the research project we analyzed industrial cloud standards, performed systematic mapping studies of cloud-native application related research papers, performed action research activities in cloud engineering projects, modeled a cloud application reference model, and performed software and domain specific language engineering activities. Two major (and sometimes overlooked) trends can be identified. First, cloud computing and its related application architecture evolution can be seen as a steady process to optimize resource utilization in cloud computing. Second, this resource utilization improvements resulted over time in an architectural evolution how cloud applications are being build and deployed. A shift from monolithic servce-oriented architectures (SOA), via independently deployable microservices towards so called serverless architectures is observable. Especially serverless architectures are more decentralized and distributed, and make more intentional use of independently provided services. In other words, a decentralizing trend in cloud application architectures is observable that emphasizes decentralized architectures known from former peer-to-peer based approaches. That is astonishing because with the rise of cloud computing (and its centralized service provisioning concept) the research interest in peer-to-peer based approaches (and its decentralizing philosophy) decreased. But this seems to change. Cloud computing could head into future of more decentralized and more meshed services.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0414.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: ethnobotanical indices; ethnobotanical uses; native and exotic species; local community; semi-structured interviews; natural resources in mountains areas; traditional knowledge and manage-ment; ornamental plants
Online: 24 August 2022 (05:51:58 CEST)
Iturbide is located in the Northeast of Mexico, it has a rich native and exotic flora, however, there are no ethnobotanical records, therefore, it requires attention in the documentation of traditional practices and uses of its botanical resources. In 2021, twelve field trips were carried out, applying 110 semi-structured interviews. Plant samples were collected, identified and deposited in an herbarium. We used the Chi-square test to compare ethnobotanical uses with respect to others reported in Mexico. To determine the cultural importance, three ethnobotanical indices were applied (UVI, ICF and FL). We recorded 250 species with ethnobotanical uses associated with 121 genera and 83 families, including 140 native and 110 exotic species. The most common plant families were Asteraceae, Lamiaceae, and Fabaceae. The main uses were ornamental, medicinal and food. The species with the highest UVI values were Lepidium peruvianum, Ocimum basilicum and Rosmarinus officinale. The multifunctionality of the native and exotic flora demonstrates the extensive knowledge associated with botanical resources. Examples, the role of ornamental plants, with a direct impact on human well-being, the resilience of healers and traditional inhabitants by using different species for the treatment of various ailments. or indigenous edible plants in the daily diet.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0397.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: group A rotavirus gastroenteritis; emerging zoonotic viral diseases; leopardus tigrinus and leopardus pardalis; endangered neotropical rain forest felids; rehabilitation of injured or orphaned native wild cats
Online: 19 August 2020 (08:06:31 CEST)
Rotaviruses are highly infectious and typically transmitted by fecal-oral route via in the tropics and leading the cause of diarrheal deaths in children of developing countries, besides causing significant economic impacts like neonatal disease agents of domestic animals. This present report aims to present the clinical and diagnostic findings of two confirmed cases of rotavirus (RV) infection in orphaned Leopardus tigrinus (Schreber, 1775) and Leopardus pardalis (Linnaeus, 1758), the first register of the infection by group A rotavirus in these species. Both felids were rescued in the Pará State Amazon Brazil by the IBAMA (the Brazilian Institute of Environment and Renewable Natural Resources), and treated by veterinarians into intensive care ward in a public Environmental Park of Belém city. After the adaptation period to the quarantine, these animals showed non-specific symptoms of acute fulminant gastroenteritis. Rotavirus group A antigen was identified in blood and faecal samples of L. tigrinus analyzed by immunochromatography (ICG) and immunoassay methods (ELISA) at the Virology Laboratory of the Institute Evandro Chagas. The animals died within few days during the clinical exacerbation unresponsive to current treatment, its necropsies and histopathological analysis were performed in the Laboratory of Veterinary Pathology of the Federal Rural University of Amazonia (UFRA). Despite the compatible pathologic findings of rotavirus infection in both animals, the atypical hemorrhagic character was a curious finding, considering the presumed etiology.