ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0083.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: nanofluid; numerical simulation; heat transfer; sedimentation
Online: 23 September 2016 (08:36:48 CEST)
In the present paper, laminar forced convection nanofluid flows in a uniformly heated horizontal tube were revisited by direct numerical simulations. Single and two-phase models were employed with constant and temperature-dependent properties. Comparisons with experimental data showed that the mixture model performs better than the single-phase model in the all cases studied. Temperature-dependent fluid properties also resulted in a better prediction of the thermal field. A particular attention was paid to the grid arrangement. The two-phase model was used then confidently to investigate the influence of the nanoparticle size on the heat and fluid flow with a particular emphasis on the sedimentation process. Four nanoparticle diameters were considered: 10, 42, 100 and 200 nm for both copper-water and alumina/water nanofluids. For the largest diameter dnp = 200 nm, the Cu nanoparticles were more sedimented by around 80 %, while the Al2O3 nanoparticles sedimented only by 2.5 %. Besides, it was found that increasing the Reynolds number improved the heat transfer rate, while it decreased the friction factor allowing the nanoparticles to stay more dispersed in the base fluid. The effect of nanoparticle type on the heat transfer coefficient was also investigated for six different water-based nanofluids. Results showed that the Cu-water nanofluid achieved the highest heat transfer coefficient, followed by C, Al2O3, CuO, TiO2, and SiO2, respectively. All results were presented and discussed for four different values of the concentration in nanoparticles, namely φ = 0, 0.6, 1 and 1.6%. Empirical correlations for the friction coefficient and the average Nusselt number were also provided summarizing all the presented results.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0517.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Microchannel; Nanofluid; Heat transfer enhancement; Numerical simulation.
Online: 22 July 2021 (12:22:39 CEST)
The study of the influence of the nanoparticle volume fraction and aspect ratio of microchannels on the fluid flow and heat transfer characteristics of nanofluids in microchannels is important in the optimal design of heat dissipation systems with high heat flux. In this work, the computational fluid dynamics method was adopted to simulate the flow and heat transfer characteristics of two types of water–Al2O3 nanofluids with two different volume fractions and five types of microchannel heat sinks with different aspect ratios. Results showed that increasing the nanoparticle volume fraction reduced the average temperature of the liquid–solid heat transfer surface and thereby improved the heat transfer capacity of the nanofluids. Meanwhile, the increase of the nanoparticle volume fraction led to a considerable increase in the pumping power of the system. Changing the aspect ratio of the microchannel effectively improved the heat transfer capacity of the heat sink. Moreover, increasing the aspect ratio effectively reduced the average temperature of the heating surface of the heat sink without significantly increasing the flow resistance loss. When the aspect ratio exceeded 30, the heat transfer coefficient did not increase with the increase of the aspect ratio. The results of this work may offer guiding significance for the optimal design of high heat flux microchannel heat sinks.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0168.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: Casson fluid; Magneto-hydrodynamics; Nanofluid; Porous medium; Extending cylinder
Online: 7 December 2020 (15:08:26 CET)
It is a theoretical exportation for mass transpiration and thermal transpiration of Casson nanofluid over an extending cylindrical surface. The Stagnation point flow through porous matrix is influenced by magnetic field of form strength. Appropriate similarity functions are availed to yield the transmuted system of leading differential equations. Existence for the solution of momentum equation is proved for various values of Casson parameter β, magnetic parameter M, porosity parameter Kp and Raynolds number Re in two situations of mass transpiration (suction/injuction). Moreover, uniqueness results are discussed and for skin friction factor are established to attain accuracy for large injection values. Thermal and concentration profiles are delineated numerically by applying Runge-Kutta method and shooting technique.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0074.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: natural convection; entropy generation; square cavity; low pressure; nanofluid
Online: 8 January 2019 (15:29:16 CET)
Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is utilized to study entropy generation for the rarefied steady state laminar 2-D flow of air-Al2O3 nanofluid in square cavity equipped with two solid fins at the hot wall. Such flows are of great importance in industrial applications, such cooling of the electronic equipment’s and nuclear reactors. In the current study, effects of Knudsen number (Kn), Rayleigh number (Ra) and the nano solid particles volume fraction (ϕ) on the entropy generation are investigated. The values of parameters considered in this work are as follows: 0≤Kn≤0.1, 〖10〗^3≤Ra≤〖10〗^6,0≤ϕ≤0.2. Length of the fins (LF) is considered to be fixed and equals to 0.5 m, whereas the location of the fins with respect to the lower wall (HF) is set to 0.25 and 0.75 m. Simulations demonstrate that there is an inverse direct effect of Kn on the entropy generation. Moreover, it is found that when Ra is less than 104, the entropy generation, due to the flow, increases as ϕ increases. In addition, the entropy generation due to the flow will decrease at Ra greater than 104 as ϕ increases. Moreover, the entropy generation due to heat will increase as both the ϕ and Ra increase. In addition, a correlation model of the total entropy generation as a function of all of the investigated parameters in this study is proposed. Finally, an optimization technique is adapted to find out the conditions at which the total entropy generation is minimized
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0094.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: solar collector; nanofluid; thermal efficiency; economic analysis; CO2 reduction
Online: 15 November 2017 (04:44:54 CET)
In this study, the efficiencies of flat-plate and U-tube solar collectors were investigated experimentally when an Al2O3 nanofluid was used as a working fluid and compared to those of solar collectors using water. The energy saving and CO2 and SO2 generated were calculated and compared to those of solar collectors using water. In addition, based on the experimental results, an economic analysis of the use of solar collectors in various countries was performed. As the concentration of the Al2O3 nanofluid increased, the performance of the solar collector improved. The highest efficiency for the solar collectors was shown at the concentration of 1.0 vol% with the nanoparticle size of 20 nm. The maximum efficiencies of the flat-plate and U-tube solar collectors using 1.0 vol%-Al2O3 nanofluid with 20-nm nanoparticles was 74.9% and 72.4%, respectively, when the heat loss parameter was zero. The efficiencies of the flat-plate and U-tube solar collectors using Al2O3 nanofluid were 14.8% and 10.7 higher, respectively, than those using water. When 50 EA flat-plate solar collectors were operated for one year using Al2O3 nanofluid, the coal use, generated CO2, and generated SO2 were 189.99 kg, 556.69 kg, and 2.03 kg less than those of solar collectors using water, respectively. In addition, the largest electricity cost reduction was in Germany.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0259.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Solar Flat Plate Collector; Efficiency; Nanofluid; Surfactant; Al2O3-Water; Ultrasonic agitation
Online: 10 December 2020 (12:58:10 CET)
This paper investigates the improvement in solar energy collection and conversion using Al2O3-Water nanofluids in a solar flat plate collector (SFPC). The efficiency of a solar flat plate collector using water as the fluid medium is analyzed experimentally and theoretically. For theoretical analysis, a mathematical model in MATLAB is used to simulate and is validated by the experimental results. To enhance the solar energy collection and conversion efficiency of the SFPC, Al2O3-Water nanofluid was selected as the fluid medium. The nanofluid properties like density, specific heat capacity, thermal conductivity and viscosity are analyzed and compared for several models of Al2O3-Water nanofluids and the best model was selected to modify the simulation. Effect of particle diameter in the nanofluid was found to be marginal on the nanofluid properties. The optimum volume concentration of the nanofluid was found to be 4% giving an efficiency increase of 7.78% in the SFPC over the use of water. This reduces the area of the SFPC by 10.5%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0138.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Applied Mathematics Keywords: Unsteady 3-D axisymmetric nanofluid; Entropy generation; Spectral quasi-linearization method.
Online: 17 March 2017 (15:10:32 CET)
We investigate entropy generation in unsteady three-dimensional axisymmetric MHD nanofluid flow over a non-linearly stretching sheet. The flow is subject to thermal radiation and a chemical reaction. The conservation equations were solved using the spectral quasi-linearization method. The novelty of the work is in the study of entropy generation in three-dimensional axisymmetric MHD nanofluid and the choice of the spectral quasilinearization method as the solution method. The effects of Brownian motion and thermophoresis are also taken into account when the nanofluid particle volume fraction on the boundary in passively controlled. The results show that as the Hartman number increases, both the Nusselt number and the Sherwood number decrease whereas the skin friction increases. It is further shown that an increase in the thermal radiation parameter corresponds to a decrease in the Nusselt number. Moreover, entropy generation increases with the physical parameters.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0080.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Fluids & Plasmas Keywords: homogeneous and heterogeneous reactions; hall and ion-slip currents; nanofluid; MHD; partially ionized
Online: 6 December 2018 (08:47:53 CET)
Homogeneous and heterogeneous chemical reactions in partially ionized magneto-nano-liquid are investigated theoretically using finite element method (FEM). The effects of ions and electrons collisions on the transport of heat and mass are analyzed for both the cases of heterogeneous and homogeneous chemical reactions. The simultaneous effects of dispersion of nanosized particles in partially ionized nano-liquid in the presence of magnetic field are also investigated. Through numerical experiments, it is noted that the temperature of partially ionized nano-liquid increases when electrons collision rate and ion collisions are increased. The transport rate of reacting species decreases when heterogeneous and homogeneous chemical reactions strengths are increased. It is also observed that the effect of electron collisions on the flow in y-direction is the same to that of ion collisions on the flow in y-direction. Homogeneous and heterogeneous chemical reactions have similar effects on concentration of chemically reacting species in qualitative sense. However, in quantitative sense, homogeneous chemical reaction has more significant effect on the concentration reacting species as compared to heterogeneous chemical reaction.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0342.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Applied Mathematics Keywords: Jeffery nanofluid; radiation; thermal diffusion; finite difference method; moving plate and porous medium
Online: 19 August 2018 (05:19:58 CEST)
This paper reveals the physical properties of Jeffery nanofluid flow past a moving plate embedded in porous medium under the existence of radiation and thermal diffusion. The analysis is carried out in three cases of moving plate, namely stationary plate λ = 0, forth-moving plate λ = 1, back-moving plate λ = −1. Finite difference method is applied to solve the governing equations of the flow and pointed out the variations in velocity, temperature and concentration with the use of graphical presentations. The impact of several parameters on local skin friction, Nusselt number and Sherwood number is also noticed and discussed. Enhancement of velocity is observed under the impact of Jeffery parameter for the cases of stationary plate and back-moving plate, whereas reverse nature is found in the case of forth-moving plate. The velocity enhances as the values of porosity parameter increases for the case of stationary plate and forth-moving plate but a reverse nature is noticed in the case of back-moving plate.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0040.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: heat transfer fluid; nanofluid; heating; ventilation and air conditioning system; experimental test; coefficient of performance
Online: 6 April 2022 (10:08:59 CEST)
Nowadays, energy saving is considered a key issue worldwide, as it brings a variety of benefits: reducing greenhouse gas emissions, reducing demand for energy imports, and lowering costs on a household and economy-wide level. Researchers and building designers are looking to optimize building efficiency by means of new energy technologies. Changes in existing buildings can also be made to reduce energy consumption and costs. These may include the usage of new heat transfer fluids based on nanofluids. In this work, an extended experimental campaign (from February 2020 to March 2021) has been carried out on an educational building in the Campus of University of Salento, Lecce – Italy, in order to evaluate the increase in performance of the HVAC system, due to the usage of a nanofluid. The results show that, under optimal operating conditions, plant performance improves more than 10%, with average daily peaks of about 15%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0232.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Darcy-Forchheimer; Surface stretch; Unsteady boundary layer; MHD flow; Nanofluid; Heat generation / absorption and entropy analysis
Online: 8 March 2021 (15:57:01 CET)
The aim of this articles is to investigate the entropy optimization in unsteady MHD flow Darcy-Forchheimer nanofluids towards a stretchable sheet. The surface we tend to think about is porous and stretchy under acceleration. Flow occurs due to the stretching of the surface. Four distinct types of aqueous nanostructures are taken in this examination where copper oxide ( ), copper ( ), titanium dioxide ( ) and aluminum oxide ( ) are the nanoparticles. Irreversibility analysis are discussed through second law of thermodynamics. The expression of energy is mathematically designed and discussed according to heat generation / absorption, dissipation, thermal radiation, and joule heating. The nonlinear PDE (partial differential conditions) is first changed to ODE (normal differential conditions) through appropriate similarity variables. Here we used the numerically embedded solution technique to develop a numerical result for the obtained nonlinear flow expression. Influence of various flow parameter velocity temperature distribution and entropy generation are discussed. Reduction occurs in velocity profile for larger porosity and magnetic parameters. An enhancement in entropy generation and temperature distribution is seen for Brinkman number. An opposite effect is noticed in velocity and temperature through solid volume friction.