REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0643.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Nanocarriers; Nanotheranostics; Nuclear Medicine; Nanoparticles; Drug delivery
Online: 26 May 2021 (14:00:58 CEST)
Background: Convectional methods for drug delivery often faces setbacks due to systemic distribution, short half-life and degradation of therapeutics and therefore reduce concentrations of drug available to target tissue. Nanotheranostic provide a novel method for treating and diagnosing diseases Methodology: collection and review of relevant literatureResult: while nanotheranostic offer advantage of personalized medicine and often combines diagnosis and therapy using single molecular approach, nuclear medicine relies on radioactive isotopes to diagnosed and destroys cancer cells. In both cases, nanocarriers such as lipid-based, polymer-based, drug-conjugate, inorganic nanoparticles are used to deliver drugs/probes/isotopes to target site, generating images and thereafter chemotherapy/radiotherapy begins.Conclusion: Nanotheranostic plays important role in diseases diagnostic, therapy, imaging, monitoring of disease progression / response through the use of nanocarriers. This is made possible through nanoparticles/nanocarriers that delivers drug to the target tissues/cells.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1255.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: caffeine; health benefits; athletics effects; dietary supplements; nanocarriers
Online: 17 May 2023 (14:19:41 CEST)
Caffeine is a naturally occurring alkaloid found in various plants. It acts as a stimulant, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and even an aid in pain management, and is found in several over-the-counter medications. This naturally derived bioactive compound is the best-known ingredient in coffee and other beverages, such as tea, soft drinks, and energy drinks, and is the most widely consumed substance worldwide. Therefore, it is extremely important to research the effects of this substance on the human body. With this in mind, caffeine and its derivatives have been extensively studied to evaluate its ability to prevent diseases and exert anti-aging and neuroprotective effects. This review is intended to provide an overview of the effects of caffeine on cancer, cardiovascular, immunological, inflammatory, and neurological diseases, among others. The heavily researched area of caffeine in sports will also be discussed. Finally, recent advances in the development of novel formulations, in the form of dietary supplements of caffeine and nanocarriers, to enhance the bioavailability of caffeine and its beneficial effects will be discussed. On the other hand, caffeine may contribute to elevated blood pressure, anemia, and migraine.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1873.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Bacterial Extracellular Vesicles; Therapeutics; Neurodegenerative Disease; Alzheimer's Disease; Nanocarriers
Online: 27 June 2023 (09:27:15 CEST)
Bacterial Extracellular Vesicles (BEVs) generated from the bacteria has high feasibility of intracellular interactions with other cells, can be used as a cargo to deliver any therapeutic substances like monoclonal antibodies, proteins, plasmids, siRNA and small molecules for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases (NDs). BEVs have a high ability for delivering therapeutic molecules across the blood-brain barrier to treat Alzheimer's Disease (AD) via various mechanisms. In this review, we have sum up in-depth research details of the role and advancement of BEVs in NDs, AD and its Therapeutics. Moreover, details about offensive and defensive functions of BEVs in ND pathogenesis and examine the critical BEV networks in the microbiome-gut-brain axis and their role in neurodegenerative disorders. Additionally determining the roles of BEVs in the neuroimmune system and their interaction with neurodegenerative disorders and exploring the risk factors of BEVs in the autophagy-lysosomal pathway and their possible effects on neurodegenerative disorders are summarised in detail. In conclusion, this review seeks to contribute to a better understanding of the potential function of BEVs in NDs and to identify new therapeutic intervention strategies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0440.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: Au nanoparticles; nanocarriers; methotrexate; anticancer drug; chemotherapeutics; controlled release
Online: 16 November 2020 (17:38:03 CET)
In the present study the synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) loaded with methotrexate (MTX) has been carried out in order to obtain controlled size and monodispersed nanocarriers, around 20nm. Characterization study shows metallic AuNPs with MTX polydispersed on the surface. MTX is linked by a replacement of citrate by the MTX carboxyl group. The drug release profiles showed faster MTX release when it is conjugated, which leads to the best control of plasma concentration. Also, the enhanced release observed at pH 5 could take advantage of the pH gradients that exist in tumor microenvironments to achieve high local drug concentrations. AuNPs-MTX conjugates were tested by flow cytometry against lung (A-549) and colon (HTC-116) cancer cell lines. Results for A-549 showed a lighter dose-response effect than for colon cancer ones. This could be related to the presence of folate receptors in line HTC-116 on the contrary than line A-549, supporting the specific uptake of folate-conjugated AuNPs-MTX by folate receptor positive tumor cells. Conjugates exhibited considerably higher cytotoxic effects compared with the effects of equal doses of free MTX. Anexin V-PI test sustain as cell death mechanism apoptosis, which is normally disabled in cancer cells.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0214.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: cancer; conventional therapy; combined therapy; lipid-based nanocarriers; natural compounds
Online: 13 March 2023 (04:32:05 CET)
Cancer is one of the leading causes of death, and latest predictions indicate that cancer- related deaths will increase over the next few decades. Despite significant advances in conventional therapies, treatments remain far from ideal due to limitations such as lack of selectivity, non-specific distribution, and multidrug resistance. Current research is focusing on the development of several strategies to improve the efficiency of chemotherapeutic agents and, as a result, overcome the conventional therapies challenges. In this regard, combined therapy with natural compounds and other therapeutic agents, such as chemotherapeutics or nucleic acids, has recently emerged as a new strategy for tackling the drawbacks of conventional therapies. Taking this strategy into consideration, the co-delivery of the above-mentioned agents in lipid-based nanocarriers provide some advantages by improving the potential of the therapeutic agents carried. This review encompassed different strategies associated with combined therapy, at the same time highlighting the most recent advances and outstanding advantages of lipid-based nanocarriers for achieving a promising combination therapy that may overcome cancer treatment challenges.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0671.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Folate-targeted nanoparticles; BSA/Alginate nanocarriers; paclitaxel; cellular uptake; cell viability.
Online: 27 May 2021 (13:55:13 CEST)
Among the different ways to reduce the secondary effects of antineoplastic drugs in cancer treatment, the use of nanoparticles has demonstrated good results due to the protection of the drug and the possibility of releasing compounds to a specific therapeutic target. The α-isoform of folate receptor (FR) is overexpressed on a significant number of human cancers; therefore, folate-targeted crosslinked nanoparticles based on BSA and alginate mixtures and loaded with paclitaxel (PTX) have been prepared to maximizing the proven antineoplastic activity of the drug against solid tumors. Nanometric-range sized particles (169 ± 28nm - 296 ± 57nm), with negative Z-potential values (between -0.12 ± 0.04 and -94.1± 0.4), were synthesized. The loaded PTX (2.63±0.19 - 3.56 ±0.13 µg PTX/mg Np) was sustainably released along 23 and 27h. Three cell lines (MCF-7, MDA-MB-231 and HeLa) were selected to test the efficacy of the folate-targeted PTX-loaded BSA/ALG nanocarriers. The presence of FR on cell membrane led to a significant larger uptake of BSA/ALG-Fol nanoparticles regarding to the equivalent nanoparticles without folic acid on its surface. The cell viability results demonstrated a cytocompatibility of unloaded nanoparticle-Fol and a gradual decrease in cell viability after treatment with PTX-loaded nanoparticles-Fol due to the sustainable PTX release.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0513.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: apoferritin nanocarriers; controlled drug delivery; idarubicin; ferritin receptor targeting; folate receptor targeting
Online: 21 December 2020 (11:28:08 CET)
The interactions of chemotherapeutic drugs with nanocage protein apoferritin (APO) are the key features in the effective encapsulation and release of highly toxic drugs in APO-based controlled drug delivery systems. The encapsulation enables mitigating the drugs side effects, collateral damage to healthy cells, and adverse immune reactions. Herein, the interactions of anthracycline drugs with APO were studied to assess the effect of drug lipophilicity on their encapsulation excess n and in vitro activity. Anthracycline drugs, including doxorubicin (DOX), epirubicin (EPI), daunorubicin (DAU), and idarubicin (IDA), with lipophilicity P from 0.8 to 15, were investigated. We have found that in addition to hydrogen-bonded supramolecular ensemble formation with n = 24, there are two other competing contributions that enable increasing n under strong polar interactions (APO(DOX)) or under strong hydrophobic interactions (APO(IDA) of the highest efficacy). The encapsulation/release processes were investigated using UV-Vis, fluorescence, circular dichroism, and FTIR spectroscopies. In vitro cytotoxicity/growth inhibition tests and flow cytometry corroborate high apoptotic activity of APO(drugs) against targeted MDA-MB-231 adenocarcinoma and HeLa cancer cells, and low activity against non-tumorigenic MCF10A cells, demonstrating targeting ability of nanodrugs. A model for molecular interactions between anthracyclines and APO nanocarriers was developed, and the relationships derived compared with experimental results.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0822.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Complementary And Alternative Medicine Keywords: Medicinal plants; antiviral; SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; Influenza; Delivery systems; Nanomedicine; Nanocarriers; Antiviral therapies
Online: 11 May 2023 (08:30:22 CEST)
Synthetic antivirals and corticosteroids have been used to treat both influenza and the SARS-CoV-2 disease named COVID-19. However, these medications are not always effective, produce several adverse effects, and are associated with high costs. Medicinal plants and their constituents act in several different targets and signaling pathways involved in the pathophysiology of Influenza and COVID-19. This study aimed to perform a review to evaluate the effects of medicinal plants on Influenza and COVID-19 and to investigate the potential delivery systems for new antiviral therapies. EMBASE, PubMed, GOOGLE SCHOLAR, and COCHRANE databases were searched. The studies included in this review showed that medicinal plants, in different formulations, can help decrease viral spread and time of full recovery. Plants reduced the incidence of acute respiratory syndromes and the symptom scores of the illnesses. Moreover, plants are related to few adverse effects and have low costs. In addition to their significance as natural antiviral agents, medicinal plants and their bioactive compounds may exhibit low bioavailability. This highlights the need for alternative delivery systems, such as metal nanoparticles, that can effectively transport these compounds to infected tissues.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0204.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: Alzheimer's disease; blood-brain barrier; cognitive aging; cognitive impairment; dementia; drug targeting; nanoemulsion; nanocarriers; scavenger receptors
Online: 10 August 2018 (12:28:34 CEST)
A frequent co-morbidity of cerebrovascular pathology and Alzheimer's disease pathology has been observed over past decades. Accordingly, much evidence has been reported which indicates that microvascular endothelial dysfunction, due to cerebrovascular risk factors (e.g., atherosclerosis, obesity, diabetes, smoking, hypertension, aging), precedes cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease and contributes to its pathogenesis. By incorporating appropriate drug(s) into biomimetic (lipid cubic phase) nanocarriers, one obtains a multitasking combination therapeutic which targets certain cell-surface scavenger receptors, mainly class B type I (i.e., SR-BI), and crosses the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Such targeting allows for various Alzheimer's-related cell types to be simultaneously searched out, in vivo, for localized drug treatment. This in vivo targeting advantage may be particularly important for repurposing an FDA-approved drug, especially one which has shown the added ability to restore some cognitive functions in certain animal models of Alzheimer's disease (e.g., the anticancer drug bexarotene); this (candidate repurposing) drug up to now, by itself (i.e, without nanocarrier), displayed poor CNS penetration in human subjects.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0190.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease; biomimetic nanocarriers; blood-brain barrier; dementia; drug targeting; lipid cubic phases; nanoemulsion; SR-BI; scavenger receptors
Online: 28 February 2018 (07:49:13 CET)
Over past decades, a frequent co-morbidity of cerebrovascular pathology and Alzheimer's disease pathology has been observed. Numerous published studies indicate that preservation of healthy cerebrovascular endothelium can be an important therapeutic target. By incorporating appropriate drug(s) into biomimetic (lipid cubic-phase) nanocarriers, one obtains a multitasking combination therapeutic which targets certain cell-surface scavenger receptors, mainly class B type 1 (i.e., SR-BI), and crosses the blood-brain barrier. This targeting allows for various Alzheimer’s-related cell types to be simultaneously searched out for localized drug treatment in vivo.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0553.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Raman biosensor; Au-coated nanoparticles; hot-spot SERS substrate; anticancer drug nanocarriers; targeted drug delivery sensing; magneto-plasmonic nanoparticles.
Online: 20 April 2021 (17:43:09 CEST)
Safe administration of highly cytotoxic chemotherapeutic drugs is a challenging problem in cancer treatment due to the adverse side effects and collateral damage to non-tumorigenic cells. To mitigate these problems, new promising approaches, based on the paradigm of controlled targeted drug delivery (TDD), utilizing drug nanocarriers with biorecognition ability to selectively target neoplastic cells, are being considered in cancer therapy. Herein, we report on the design and testing of a nanoparticle-grid based biosensing platform to aid in the development of new targeted drug nanocarriers. The proposed sensor grid consists of superparamagnetic gold-coated core-shell Fe2Ni@Au nanoparticles, further functionalized with folic acid targeting ligand, model thiolated chemotherapeutic drug doxorubicin (DOX), and a biocompatibility agent, 3,6,-dioxa-octanethiol (DOOT). The employed dual transduction based on electrochemical and enhanced Raman scattering detection have enabled efficient monitoring of the drug loading onto the nanocarriers, attached to the sensor surface, as well as the drug release under simulated intracellular conditions. The grid’s nanoparticles serve here as the model nanocarriers for new TDD systems under design and optimization. The superparamagnetic properties of the Fe2Ni@Au NPs aid in nanoparticles’ handling and constructing a dense sensor grid with high plasmonic enhancement of the Raman signals due to the minimal interparticle distance.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0938.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacy Keywords: extracellular vesicles; exosomes; chemical composition; miRNA; nanocarriers; inflammation; neurological diseases; liver; kidney and lung injuries; rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis; intestinal bowel diseases
Online: 14 August 2023 (05:22:25 CEST)
Inflammatory diseases are common pathological processes caused by various acute and chronic factors and some of them are autoimmune diseases. Exosomes are fundamental extracellular vesicles secreted by almost all cells, which contain a series of constituents, i.e. cytoskeletal and cytosolic proteins (actin, tubulin, histones), nucleic acids (mRNA, miRNA, DNA), lipids (diacylglycerophosphates, cholesterol, sphingomyelin, ceramide), and other bioactive components (cytokines, signal transduction proteins, enzymes, antigen presentation and membrane transport/fusion molecules, adhesion molecules). This review would be a synopsis of the actual knowledge on the contribution of exosomes from different cell sources as possible therapeutic agents against inflammation, focusing on several inflammatory diseases, neurological diseases, rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis, intestinal bowel disease, asthma, liver and kidney injuries. Current knowledge indicates that the role of exosomes in therapy of inflammation and in inflammatory diseases could be distinctive. Main limitations to their clinical translation are still production, isolation, and storage. Additionally, there is an urgent need to personalize the treatments in terms of selection of exosomes, their dosages and routes of administration, and a deeper knowledge about their biodistribution, type and incidence of adverse events and long-term effects of exosomes. In conclusion, exosomes can very promising next generation therapeutic option, superior to synthetic nanocarriers and cell therapy, and can represent a new strategy of effective, safe, versatile and selective delivery systems in the future.