ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1176.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Other Keywords: sulforaphane; osteoclasts; osteoclastogenesis; NRF2 and NF-KB
Online: 17 November 2023 (14:54:59 CET)
Sulforaphane, the native but unstable form of SFX-01, is an antioxidant that activates NRF2 and inhibits NF-KB pathways to achieve its actions. Resolving the mechanism(s) by which SFX-01 serves to control the various osteoclastogenic stages may expose pathways that could be explored for therapeutic use. Here we seek to identify the stage of osteoclastogenesis targeted by SFX-01 and explore whether, like SFN, it exerts its actions via the NRF2 and NF-KB pathways. Osteoclasts generated from the bone marrow (BM) of mice were cultured with SFX-01 at different timepoints to examine each phase of osteoclastogenesis separately. This showed that SFX-01 exerted actions throughout the process of osteoclastogenesis, but had its largest effects in the early osteoclast precursor differentiation stage. Thus, treatment with SFX-01 for the duration of culture, for the initial 3 days differentiation or for as little as the first 24 hours was sufficient for effective inhibition. This aligned with data suggesting that SFX-01 reduced DC-STAMP levels, osteoclast nuclear number and modified cytoskeletal architecture. Pharmacological regulation of NRF2 pathways, via selective inhibitors/activators, supported anti-osteoclastogenic roles for an SFX-01-mediated by NRF2 activation, as well as a need for tight NF-KB pathway regulation in osteoclast formation/function.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0130.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: COVID-19; Pandemic; Natural Products; NF-KB
Online: 4 June 2021 (10:00:12 CEST)
Many inflammatory mechanisms are involved in the pathophysiology of COVID-19 infection. COVID-19 inhibits IFN antiviral responses, so we should expect an out-of-control viral replication. “Cytokine storms” occur due to the over-production of pro-inflammatory cytokines after an influx of neutrophils and monocytes/macrophages and may be responsible for the immunopathology of the lung involvement. Several cascades have been reported in the activation process of NF-κB. In this paper, to find new therapeutic options for COVID-19 infection, we reviewed some natural products that could potentially inhibit the NF-κB pathway. We found that sevoflurane, quercetin, resveratrol, curcumin, KIOM-C, bergenin, garcinia kola, shenfu, piperlongumine, wogonin, oroxylin, plantamajoside, naringin, ginseng, kaempferol, allium sativum L, illicium henryi, isoliquiritigenin, lianhua qingwen, magnoflorine, and ma Huang Tang might be effective in inhibiting the NF-KB pathway. These natural products could be helpful in the control of COVID-19 infections. However, larger clinical trials are needed to ascertain the efficacy of these products fully.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0394.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: EGF; LUBAC; HOIP; PKP2; linear ubiquitin; NF-kB; tumorigenesis
Online: 22 September 2021 (22:51:26 CEST)
Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a receptor tyrosine kinase that instigates several signaling cascades, including the NF-kB signaling pathway, to induce cell differentiation and proliferation. Overexpression and mutations of EGFR are found in up to 30% of solid tumors and correlate with a poor prognosis. Although it is known that EGFR-mediated NF-kB activation is involved in tumor development, the signaling axis is not well elucidated. Here, we found that PKP2 and the LUBAC complex were required for EGFR-mediated NF-kB activation. Upon EGF stimulation, EGFR recruited PKP2 to the plasma membrane, and PKP2 bridged HOIP, the catalytic E3 ubiquitin ligase in the LUBAC, to the EGFR complex. The recruitment activated the LUBAC complex and the linear ubiquitination of NEMO, leading to IkB phosphorylation and subsequent NF-kB activation. Furthermore, EGF-induced linear ubiquitination was critical for tumor cell proliferation and tumor development. Knockout of HOIP impaired EGF-induced NF-kB activity and reduced cell proliferation. HOIP knockout also abrogated the growth of A431 epidermal xenograft tumors in nude mice by more than 70%. More importantly, the HOIP inhibitor, HOIPIN-8, inhibited EGFR-mediated NF-kB activation and cell proliferation of A431, MCF-7, and MDA-MB-231 cancer cells. Overall, our study reveals a novel linear ubiquitination signaling axis of EGFR, and perturbation of HOIP E3 ubiquitin ligase activity is potential targeted cancer therapy.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0354.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Wound healing; metastasis; oxidative stress; macrophage; HIF; NF-kB; Nrf2
Online: 23 September 2022 (03:28:28 CEST)
Many signaling pathways, molecular and cellular actors which are critical for wound healing have been implicated in cancer metastasis. These two conditions are a complex succession of cellular biological events and accurate regulation of these events is essential. Apart from inflammation, macrophages-released ROS arise as major regulators of these processes. But, whatever the pathology concerned, oxidative stress is a complicated phenomenon to control and requires a finely tuned balance over the different stages and responding cells. This review provides an overview of the pivotal role of oxidative stress in both wound healing and metastasis, encompassing the contribution of macrophages. Indeed, macrophages are major ROS producers but also appear as their targets since ROS interfere with their differentiation and function. Elucidating ROS functions in wound healing and metastatic spread may allow the development of innovative therapeutic strategies involving redox modulators.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0506.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: NF-kB; non-canonical NF-κB pathway; sTNFR2; sTNFSF8; sTNFSF13; mitochondrial dynamics; fission and fusion; TFAM
Online: 26 August 2021 (11:46:14 CEST)
Interactions between receptors and ligands of the tumor necrosis factor superfamily (TNFSF) provide costimulatory signals that control the survival, proliferation, differentiation, and effector function of immune cells. All components of the TNF superfamily are associated with NF-kB functions that are not limited to cell death and may promote survival in the face of adipose tissue inflammation in obesity. Inflammation and pro-inflammatory dysfunction of mitochondria are key factors associated with insulin resistance in obesity. The aim of the study was to analyze the relationship of soluble forms of receptors and ligands of the TNF superfam-ily in blood plasma with mitochondrial dynamics in adipose tissue (greater omentum (GO) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (Sat)) of obese patients with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Increased plasma sTNF-R1, sTNF-R2, sTNFRSF8 receptors and ligands TNFSF12, TNFSF13, TNFSF13B are characteristic of obese patients without T2DM. Increases in TNFSF12, TNFSF13B, and sTNF-R1 levels are associated with decreased glucose concentration and decreased BMI in obese patients. The gene expression levels responsible for regulating mitochondrial dynamics were increased in obese patients without T2DM and were unbalanced in patients with obesity and T2DM.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0087.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; CMap; Cytokine Storm; NF-kB; Glucocorticoids; MEK; Estrogens
Online: 7 June 2020 (12:04:46 CEST)
The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic is one of the biggest health and societal challenges of the recent decades. Among the causes of mortality triggered by SARS-CoV-2 infection, the presence of an inflammatory "cytokine storm" (CS) at later stages of the disease has been found to play a determinant role. Here, we used available transcriptomic data from the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of COVID-19 patients suffering from a CS to obtain gene-signatures associated to this pathological process. Using these signatures, we interrogated the Connectivity MAP (CMap) dataset that contains the effects of over 5,000 small molecules on the transcriptome of human cancer cell lines, and looked for molecules which effects on transcription mimic or oppose those associated to the CS. Consistent with their medical use, this analysis found a significant enrichment of glucocorticoids or inhibitors of the Janus Kinases (JAK) as drugs that could revert the CS. On the other hand, molecules that potentiate the immune response such as PKC activators are predicted to worsen the CS. Besides these expected findings, our analysis also reveals a potential effect of the antibiotic doxycycline or MAPK/RAF/MEK inhibitors in reverting the CS, or of topoisomerase inhibitors and the anti-alcohol abuse drug disulfiram in potentiating its effects. Finally, our analyses support that the gender-related differences in the severity of COVID-19 are related to the anti-inflammatory properties of female hormones. While acknowledging that this is an analysis based on limited available data, we decided to share it as a resource that might help others in the selection of drugs that could be tested in the context of experimental models of CS triggered by viral infections.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2171.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: caffeic acid phenethyl ester; CAPE derivatives; anti-inflammatory; NF-kB; antioxidant; Nrf2; neuroprotection
Online: 31 May 2023 (05:32:19 CEST)
Neurodegenerative disorders are characterized by a progressive process of degeneration and neuronal death, where oxidative stress and neuroinflammation are key factors that contribute to the progression of these diseases. Therefore, two major pathways involved in these pathologies have been proposed as relevant therapeutic targets: The nuclear transcription factor erythroid 2 (Nrf2), which responds to oxidative stress with cytoprotecting activity and the nuclear factor NF-κB pathway, which is highly related to the neuroinflammatory process by promoting cytokine expression. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) is a phenylpropanoid naturally found in propolis that shows important biological activities, including neuroprotective activity by modulating the Nrf2 and NF-kB pathways, promoting antioxidant enzyme expression and inhibition of proinflammatory cytokine expression. Its simple chemical structure has inspired the synthesis of many derivatives, with aliphatic and/or aromatic moieties, some of which have improved the biological properties. Moreover, new drug delivery systems increase the bioavailability of these compounds in vivo, allowing its transcytosis through the blood-brain barrier, thus protecting brain cells from the increased inflammatory status associated to neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorders. This review summarizes the biosynthesis and chemical synthesis of CAPE derivatives, their miscellaneous activities, and relevant studies (from 2010 to 2023) addressing their neuroprotective activity in vitro and in vivo.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0184.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: Prediabetes, type 2 diabetes mellitus, 25-hydroxyvitamin D3, inflammation, interleukins, TNF-α, NF-kB, MAPK
Online: 4 October 2023 (13:09:57 CEST)
In this study, we aimed to reveal the proinflammatory effects of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (Vit D) deficiency and insufficiency in new-onset type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and prediabe-tes. We recruited 84 prediabetes patients, 94 new-onset T2DM patients and 113 healthy partici-pants. Levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), fibrinogen, ferritin, interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleu-kin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8 (IL-8), tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) were measured in the serum of the par-ticipants. The ANOVA Bonferonni and Kruskal Wallis Dunn tests were used for the comparison of the inflammation markers and vitamin D levels between the groups. Upon covariance analy-sis with age, gender and BMI; Vit D levels of T2DM group were found to be significantly lower (p<0.003). Proinflammatory markers and CRP were found to be significantly higher in predia-betic and diabetic subjects. In the prediabetes group, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α and MAPK were significantly higher in those with Vit D insufficiency and deficiency groups. In T2DM group, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, NF-κB, MAPK and CRP were significantly higher in those with Vit D insufficiency and deficiency. Our study emphasizes the proinflammatory effects of Vit D on the initiation of inflammation in both prediabetes and diabetes mellitus.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0376.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Diffuse large B cell lymphoma; non-Hodgkin lymphoma; apoptosis; genetics; BCL2; NF-kB; TP53; mutations; translocations; amplifications
Online: 14 April 2021 (12:32:31 CEST)
Diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is curable with chemoimmunotherapy in ~65% of patients. One of the hallmarks of the pathogenesis and resistance to therapy in DLBCL is inhibition of apoptosis, which allows malignant cells to survive and acquire further alterations. Inhibition of apoptosis can be the result of genetic events inhibiting the intrinsic or extrinsic apoptotic pathways, as well as their modulators, such as the inhibitor of apoptosis proteins, P53, and components of the NF-kB pathway. Mechanisms of dysregulation include upregulation of anti-apoptotic proteins and downregulation of pro-apoptotic proteins via point mutations, amplifications, deletions, translocations, and influences of other proteins. Understanding the factors contributing to resistance to apoptosis in DLBCL is crucial in order to be able to develop targeted therapies that could improve outcomes by restoring apoptosis in malignant cells. This review describes the genetic events inhibiting apoptosis in DLBCL, provides a perspective of their interactions in lymphomagenesis, and discuss their implication for the future of DLBCL therapy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0216.v6
Online: 29 August 2023 (09:31:10 CEST)
Recent studies revealing varied responses of infected cells to LRAs underscore the limited effectiveness of these agents and emphasize the wide array of determinants contributing to the heterogeneity of reservoirs, including virus genetic background, cell model, cell type, silencing mechanisms, tissue reservoirs, integration sites, patient, and gender specific factors. The enhancer region of the HIV-1 LTR contains two adjacent NF-κB binding sites that play a central role in mediating inducible HIV-1 gene expression. Beyond the involvement of various transcription factors, such as NF-κB, epigenetic constraints also play a pivotal role in suppressing the initiation of latent HIV transcription. Consequently, even latent viruses containing functional NF-κB sites remain unresponsive to drugs that activate NF-κB. Thus, it is evident that the activation of NF-κB alone does not suffice to trigger latent HIV, contradicting the central hypothesis of this study. The author used bioinformatics methods to analyze the viral proteins and their primer binding sites. The results show that the amino acid sequence ARG of Gag proteins of HTLV-1, HTLV-2, STLV-1 and STLV-2 match their primer binding site GGGGGCTCG in the 3'-to-5' direction and that the amino acid sequence SPR of Gag proteins of HIV-1, HIV-2, SIV and FIV match their primer binding site GGCGCCCGA in the 3'-to-5' direction. Related studies have shown that the genomic Gag/Gag-Pol complex recruits the LysRS/tRNA complex. The selective packaging of the tRNA primer requires HIV-1 Gag and Gag-Pol, and an interaction between LysRS and Gag is observed in vitro. In HIV-1, Gag/LysRS interaction depends on Gag sequences within the CTD of CA around amino acids 283-363 and motif 1 of LysRS around amino acids 208-259. It should be noted that the amino acid sequence SPR of the Gag protein is located at amino acids 148-150 within the NTD of CA, specifically at the NTD-NTD interface 1. Although this research is purely bioinformatics analysis, the relevant studies have demonstrated that Gag proteins match the HIV-1 primer binding site and possess the potential to directly activate dormant retroviruses.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0170.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Scandoside; NF-κB; MAPK; Anti-inflammation
Online: 18 January 2018 (07:03:53 CET)
The iridoids of H. diffusa play an important role in the anti-inflammatory process, but the specific iridoid with anti-inflammatory effect and its mechanism is lack of study. An iridoid compound named scandoside (SCA) was isolated from H. diffusa and its anti-inflammatory effect was investigated in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW 264.7 cells. Its anti-inflammatory mechanism was confirmed by in intro experiment and molecular docking analysis. As results, SCA significantly decreased the productions of nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) and inhibited the levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), TNF-α and IL-6 mRNA expression in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells. SCA treatment suppressed the phosphorylation of inhibitor of nuclear transcription factor kappa-B alpaha (IκB-α), p38, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). The docking data suggested that SCA had great binding abilities to COX-2, iNOS and IκB. Taken together, the results indicated that the anti-inflammatory effect of SCA is due to inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokines and mediators via suppressing the nuclear transcription factor kappa-B (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways, which provided useful information for its application and development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0200.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: 4-Thiazolidinones; ORAC assay; Metalloproteinase-9; Docking study; Keratinocytes cultures; Nuclear factor -kB.
Online: 31 October 2017 (16:36:16 CET)
Nine 2-(1,2-benzothiazol-3-yl)-N-(4-oxo-2-phenyl-1,3-thiazolidin-3-yl) propanamides were designed and synthesized, combining benzisothiazole and 4-thiazolidinone in one frame. The aim of the study was to verify their effectiveness to contrast the inflammatory/oxidative process in which free oxygen and nitrite (ROS and RNS) radicals, advanced glycation products (AGEs), inflammatory cytokines and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are involved. Docking studies of all the compounds were performed in order to explore their binding mode at the MMP-9 protein. An appreciable anti-inflammatory/wound healing effects of the tested compounds was highlighted. Derivative 23, bearing a 4-carboxyphenyl substituent at C2 of the 4-thiazolidinone ring, exhibited the highest activity, being able to inhibit MMP-9 at nanomolar level (IC50 = 40 nM).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1337.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Aquatic Science Keywords: MALT1; Litopenaeus vannamei; WSSV; AMPs; NF-κB
Online: 22 November 2023 (07:36:42 CET)
MALT1 (mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma translocation protein 1) serves as a pivotal mediator for NF-κB activation in response to a wide spectrum of transmembrane receptor stimuli. In the present study, a homolog of MALT1 is cloned from the Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) named LvMALT1, and its potential function in shrimp innate immunity are explored. The open reading frame of LvMALT1 is 2364 bp that encodes 787 amino acids. The predicted LvMALT1 protein structure comprises a death domain, three immunoglobulin domains, and a caspase-like domain, exhibiting remarkable similarity to other homologs. LvMALT1 is a cytoplasmic-localized protein and could interact with LvTRAF6. Overexpression of LvMALT1 induces the activation of promoter elements governing the expression of several key antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), including Penaeidins (PENs) and Crustins (CRUs). Conversely, silencing of LvMALT1 leads to a reduction in the phosphorylation levels of Dorsal and Relish, along with a concomitant decline in the in vivo expression levels of multiple AMPs. Furthermore, LvMALT1 is prominently upregulated in response to a challenge by the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), facilitating the NF-κB-mediated expression of AMPs as a defense against viral infection. Taken together, we identified a MALT1 homolog from shrimp L. vannamei, which plays a positive role in the TRAF6/NF-κB/AMPs axis mediated innate immunity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1894.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: OTUD6A; IFNβ; Ubc13; NF-κB; innate immunity
Online: 27 June 2023 (11:42:11 CEST)
Abstract: OTUD6A is a deubiquitinase that plays crucial roles in various human diseases. However, the precise regulatory mechanism of OTUD6A remains unclear. In this study, we found that OTUD6A significantly inhibited the production of type I interferon. Consistently, peritoneal macrophages and bone marrow-derived macrophages from Otud6a-/- mice produced more type I interferon after virus infection compared to cells from WT mice. Otud6a-/- mice also exhibited increased resistance to lethal HSV-1 and VSV infections, as well as LPS attack due to decreased inflammatory responses. Mechanistically, mass spectrometry results revealed that UBC13 was an OTUD6A-interacting protein, and the interaction significantly enhanced after HSV-1 stimulation. Taken together, our findings suggest that OTUD6A plays a crucial role in the innate immune response and may serve as a potential therapeutic target for infectious disease.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0124.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Senescence; EMT; NF-κB; Inflammation; Epigenetics; Aging
Online: 13 April 2022 (10:22:37 CEST)
The origin of cancer remains one of the most important enigmas in modern biology. This paper presents a hypothesis for the origin of carcinomas in which cellular aging and inflammation enable the recovery of cellular plasticity that may ultimately result in cancer. The process is described as the result of dedifferentiation undergone by epithelial cells in hyperplasia due to replicative senescence towards a mesenchymal cell state with potential cancerous behavior. In support of the hypothesis, the molecular, cellular, and histopathological evidence was critically reviewed and reinterpreted when necessary to postulate a plausible generic model for the origin and progression of carcinomas. In addition, the implications of this theoretical framework for the current strategies of cancer treatment are discussed against recent evidence of the molecular events underlying the epigenetic switches involved in the resistance of breast carcinomas. Subsequently, is proposed an epigenetic landscape for their progression and a potential mechanism to restrain the degree of dedifferentiation and malignant behavior. Finally, is suggested a novel understanding of the involution and carcinogenesis of tissues associated with aging as a perspective that might inspire integrative approaches in the study and management of chronic diseases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1718.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: VDUP1; inflammation; macrophage infiltration; NF-B; ulcerative colitis
Online: 26 July 2023 (05:28:59 CEST)
The loss of vitamin D3 upregulated protein 1 (VDUP1) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of various inflammation-related diseases. Notably, reduced expression of VDUP1 has been observed in clinical specimens of ulcerative colitis (UC). However, the role of VDUP1 deficiency in colitis remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the role of VDUP1 in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced experimental colitis in mice. VDUP1-deficient mice were more susceptible to DSS-induced colitis than their wild-type (WT) littermates after 2% DSS administration. VDUP1-deficient mice exhibited an increased disease activity index (DAI) and histological scores, as well as significant colonic goblet cell loss and an increase in apoptotic cells. These changes were accompanied by a significant decrease in MUC2 mRNA expression and a marked increase in proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines within damaged tissues. Furthermore, phosphorylated NF-B p65 expression was significantly upregulated in damaged tissues in the context of VDUP1 deficiency. VDUP1 deficiency also led to significant infiltration of macrophages into the site of ulceration. An in vitro chemotaxis assay confirmed that VDUP1 deficiency enhanced bone marrow-derived macrophage (BMDM) chemotaxis induced by CCL2. Overall, the loss of VDUP1 plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of UC, and blocking VDUP1 dissociation may represent a promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of UC.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0701.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: Iron isomaltoside; NF-kappaBeta; dehydroxymethyepoxyquinmicin (DHMEQ); mesothelial cells
Online: 9 June 2023 (10:37:47 CEST)
Background. Intravenous iron therapy is used in treatment of anemia in uremic pa-tients. In patients treated with peritoneal dialysis iv. infused iron diffuses into the peritoneal cavity and may cause injury to the mesothelial cell. Methods. We studied effect of Iron Isomaltoside (IIS) in presence of NF-κβ inhibitor dehydroxymethyepoxyquinmicin (DHMEQ) on function of the peritoneal mesothelial cells. Experiments were performed on human peritoneal mesothelial cells in in vitro culture ex-posed to IIS 15 ug/dL ± DHMEQ 1 ug/mL. Intracellular oxidative stress, secretory activity and collagen synthesis in the cells were studied. Results. IIS induced oxidative stress in the mesothelial cells and that effect was weaker in presence of DHMEQ (-52%,p<0.001). In cells exposed to IIS increased expression of genes for IL6 (+74%,p<0.001), PAI-1 (+43%, p<0.01) and TGFβ (+53%,p<0.001) was observed and reduced for tPA (-36%,p<0.01). In presence of IIS increased secretion of IL6 (+56%, p<0.001), TGFβ (+49%,p<0.001) and PAI-1 (+51%, p<0.001) was observed whereas secretion of tPA was reduced (-25%, p0.001). DHMEQ reduced changes in genes and secre-tory activity caused by IIS. In presence of IIS synthesis of collagen in mesothelial cells was increased (+45%,p<0.001) and that effect was weaker (-25% vs. IIS, p<0001) when simulta-neously DHMEQ was used. Discussion. IIS induces proinflammatory changes in mesothelial cells, deteriorates their fibrinolytic activity and stimulates synthesis of collagen. All these effects are reduced when simultaneously NF-κβ inhibitor – DHMEQ is used.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0824.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: Flavonoids; NF-κB; cancer; neurodegenerative diseases; cardiac diseases
Online: 11 May 2023 (08:39:50 CEST)
Flavonoids are polyphenolic phytochemical compounds found in many plants, fruits, vegetables, and leaves. They have a multitude of medicinal applications due to their anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, anti-viral, and anti-carcinogenic properties. Furthermore, they also have neuroprotective and cardioprotective effects. Their biological properties depend on the chemical structure of flavonoids, their mechanism of action, and their bioavailability. The flavonoid’s beneficial effects have been proven for a variety of diseases. In the last few years, it is demonstrated that flavonoids’ effects are mediated by inhibiting the NF-κB (Nuclear Factor-κB) pathway. In this review, we have summarized the effects of some flavonoids on the most common diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular, and neurodegenerative human diseases. In particular, here we collected all recent studies describing plant-derived flavonoids’ protective and prevention role, by specifically focusing their action on the NF-κB signaling pathway.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0158.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: dauricine; STAT5; NF-κB; Inflammation; Ischemia-reperfusion injury
Online: 8 August 2022 (13:18:00 CEST)
Inflammatory reaction after ischemia-reperfusion contributes significantly to prognosis, and microglia activation is the main resource of inflammation in nervous system. STAT5 is proving to be a highly effective anti-inflammatory therapy with great potential, and inhibition of STAT5 has demonstrated significant anti-inflammation and therapeutic effects, but rarely focus on mechanism of neuroinflammation and brain injury from ischemia-reperfusion. It is the first time to found that the anti-inflammation of dauricine is mainly through STAT5-NF-κB pathway, might act as a STAT5 inhibitor. Dauricine suppressed the inflammation cytokines Eotaxin, KC, TNF-α, IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-12β, IL-17α, and also inhibited the microglia activation. STAT5b mutant at Tyr-699 reversed the protective effect of dauricine on oxygen-glucose deprivation-reperfusion injury of neurons, and reactivated the suppression of dauricine on P-NF-κB of microglia. These results suggest that dauricine might suppress the neuroinflammation and protect the neuron from the injury of post-ischemia-reperfusion via mediating the microglia activation through STAT5-NF-κB pathway, and ss a potential therapeutic target for neuroinflammation, STAT5 needs to be raised concern in ischemic stroke.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0116.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: 6-OHDA, NF-κB, Mangiferin, Inflammation, Cox, Caspases
Online: 4 August 2021 (13:22:51 CEST)
Background: Persistent up regulation of NF-κB leads to chronic inflammation and subsequent microglial activation and takes neurons towards death by activating death receptor domains and the p53 pathway. Thus, inhibition of NF-κB may lead to more effective treatment for Parkinson’s disease. Therefore, we have used mangiferin, specific inhibitor of NF-κB in this study. Method: The study utilized male Wistar rats weighing 200-250 gm (n=8 in each group). Stereotactic surgery of rats was done to induce 6-OHDA lesioning in rats. On day 42, rats were subjected to behavioural studies to evaluate effect of mangiferin and their brains were taken out after euthanasia to perform biochemical and molecular studies. Results: Mangiferin significantly increases locomotor parameters in 6-OHDA lesioned rats. It also decreases activity of Cyclooxygenase enzyme which then leads to decrease concentration of inflammatory cytokines. Microglial inflammation was also substantially reduced by reducing MPO concentration. Oxidative stress burden was also reduced after treatment with mangiferin as indicated by increase in Total Antioxidant Capacity, SOD and Catalase and reduction in concentration of MDA. Treatment with mangiferin also reduces burden of oxidative stress by increasing the activity of NRF2/ARE pathway. Activity of Caspase 3 and 9 was also significantly reduced after treatment with mangiferin. Significant decrease in activity of both Cox1 and Cox 2 was also observed. Maximum improvement in all parameters was observed in rats treated with grouping of mangiferin 45mg.kg-1 and levodopa 10mg.kg-1. Treatment with levodopa alone has no significant effect on biochemical and molecular parameters though it significantly improves behavioural parameters. Conclusion and Implications: Results of this study suggest that mangiferin has protective effect in hemi-parkinsonian rats by inhibiting NF-κB. Current treatment of Parkinson’s disease does not target the underlying problem of the disease. Therefore, combination therapy of mangiferin and levodopa can be helpful in better management of Parkison’s.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0168.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: NF-kappaB; HIF; ARNT; TRAF6; Transcription; ChIP; Drosophila
Online: 10 March 2020 (11:14:37 CET)
NF-B signalling is crucial for cellular responses to inflammation but has also been associated with the hypoxia response. NF-B and HIF transcription factors possess an intense molecular crosstalk. Although it is known that HIF-1beta modulates NF-kappaB transcriptional response, very little is understood regarding how HIF-1beta contributes to NF-kappaB signalling. Here, we demonstrate that HIF-1beta is required for full NF-kappaB activation in cells following canonical and non-canonical stimuli. We found that HIF-1beta specifically controls TRAF6 expression in human cells but also in Drosophila melanogaster. HIF-1beta binds to the TRAF6 gene and controls its expression independently of HIF-1alpha. Furthermore, exogenous TRAF6 expression is able to rescue all of the cellular phenotypes observed in the absence of HIF-1beta. These results indicate that HIF-1beta is an important regulator of NF-kappaB with consequences for homeostasis and human disease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0144.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: Cnidii Rhizoma; DSS; inflammation; NF-Κb; MAPKs; TFF3
Online: 8 October 2018 (12:19:03 CEST)
In this study, dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced in vivo model and LPS-stimulated in vitro model were used to confirm whether ethanol extract of Cnidii Rhizoma (EtCR) could ameliorate UC. EtCR improved symptoms of UC, including body weight loss, colon length shortening, disease activity index (DAI), and colon mucosal damage. In addition, EtCR decreased inflammatory mediators, including cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), in colon tissue. To further confirm the UC improving mechanism, RAW 264.7 cells and HT29 human epithelial cells were used. EtCR reduced expression of inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-6) and inflammatory mediators (nitric oxide and prostaglandin E2) via JNK and NF-κB signaling pathway in RAW 264.7 cells. In addition, EtCR increased expression of trefoil factor 3 (TFF3), which is an epithelial cell protective factor, in HT29 cells. Taken together, our study suggests that EtCR has treatment effect on UC and can be a therapeutic agent.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201706.0072.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Specnvezhenide; osteoarthritis; chondrocyte; NF-κB; wnt/β-catenin
Online: 16 June 2017 (04:20:07 CEST)
As a chronic disease, osteoarthritis (OA) leads to degradation of both cartilage and subchondral bone, of which the development is related to proinflammatory cytokines like interleukin-1β. In the present study, the anti-inflammatory effect of Specnvezhenide in osteoarthritis and mechanism of it was studied in vitro and in vivo. The results showed that Specnvezhenide decreases interleukin-1β-induced expression of matix-degrading enzymes and reduces the activation of NF-κB and wnt/β-catenin pathways in vitro. Furthermore, Specnvezhenide treatment prevents the degeneration of both cartilage and subchondral bone in rats OA model. As conclusion, to the best of our knowledge, we report firstly that Specnvezhenide decreases interleukin-1β-induced inflammation on rat chondrocytes by inhibiting activation of NF-κB and wnt/β-catenin pathways, and has therapeutic potential in OA treatment.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: Calmodulin; Ketosis; Lipolysis; Inflammation; Adipocytes; TLR4/IKK/NF-κB
Online: 30 August 2023 (07:56:18 CEST)
Clinical ketosis is a crucial metabolic disease in dairy cows that is often accompanied by severe lipolysis and inflammation in adipose tissue. Our previous study suggested that the fold change of calmodulin (CaM) was upregulated 2.401-fold in the adipose tissue of cows with clinical ketosis. Therefore, we hypothesize that CaM may regulate lipolysis and inflammatory responses in clinical ketosis cows. To verify the hypothesis, we conducted a thorough veterinary assessment of clinical symptoms and serum β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) concentration before collecting subcutaneous adipose tissue samples from six healthy and six clinically ketotic Holstein cows at 17 ± 4 days postpartum. Commercial kits were used to test the abundance of BHB, Non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA), Liver function index (LFI), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). We found that Clinical ketosis cows had higher levels of BHB, NEFA, LFI, IL-6, IL-1β, TNF-α, and lower glucose levels compared to healthy cows. Furthermore, the abundance of CaM, toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), inhibitor of nuclear factor κB kinase subunit β (IKK), phosphorylated nuclear factor κB/nuclear factor κB, (p-NF-κB/NF-κB), adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) and phosphorylated hormone-sensitive lipase/hormone-sensitive lipase (p-HSL/HSL) were increased, while that of perilipin-1 (PLIN1) was decreased in the adipose tissue of cows with clinical ketosis. To investigate the mechanistic underlying the responses, we isolated the primary bovine adipocytes from the adipose tissue of healthy cows and induced the inflammatory response mediated by TLR4/IKK/NF-κB with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), in addition to treating with CaM overexpression adenovirus and CaM small interfering RNA. In vitro, LPS upregulated the abundance of CaM, TLR4, IKK, NF-κB, ATGL, p-HSL/HSL, and CaM and downregulated PLIN1. CaM silencing downregulated the abundance of LPS-activated p-HSL/HSL, TLR4, IKK, and NF-κB and upregulated PLIN1 in bovine adipocytes, except for ATGL. By contrast, CaM overexpression upregulated the abundance of LPS-activated p-HSL/HSL, TLR4, IKK, and NF-κB and downregulated PLIN1 expression in bovine adipocytes. In summary, these data suggest that CaM promotes lipolysis in adipocytes through HSL and PINL1 while activating the TLR4/IKK/NF-κB inflammatory pathway to promote an inflammatory response. There is a positive feedback loop between CaM, lipolysis, and inflammation. Overall, inhibiting CaM may act as an adaptive mechanism to alleviate metabolic dysregulation in adipose tissue, contributing to relief from lipolysis and inflammatory response.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0882.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: COVID-19; Necroptosis; NFAT; NO; TNF-α; NF-κB
Online: 25 April 2023 (04:06:34 CEST)
SARS-CoV-2 was detected in China in December 2019. Myocardial injury is a crucial presentation of COVID-19, based on the association of ACE-2 and SARS-CoV-2. Down-regulating ACE-2 decreases the cardioprotective effects of angiotensin, leading to a higher TNF-α activation. TNF-α causes the inflammatory response in the myocardial damage as an apoptotic inducer. Moreover, as an inducer of necroptosis, TNF-α binds to a part of TNF receptor 1, which involves receptor-interacting protein 1 (RIP1) and causes cell death through RIP1 inhibition and NF-κB stimulation, which are also done through Tpl-2. Calcineurin controls the Tpl-2-driven NFAT stimulation. Bcl-2 or Bcl-XL entirely blocks these pathways. Bcl-2 overexpression reduces FasL expression with a mechanism based on Bcl-2 inhibiting the NFAT. Moreover, the Fas/FasL system activates apoptosis in various cells. Bcl-XL stimulates Fas-related cell death. Additionally, TNF-α, as a part of inflammatory cytokine storms, indirectly interacts with NFAT/Bcl-2 through Tpl-2/NF-κB. Diversely, TNF-α and IL-1ẞ, the basis of inflammatory cytokine storms in COVID-19, can stimulate generating NO. Also, IL-2 is highly up-regulated in COVID-19 patients and stimulates NO generation in patients. TNF-α can provoke the generation of superoxides in neutrophils. A well-determined mechanism is the intracellular production of NO via calcium-calmodulin-dependent NO synthase (NOS). NO enhances NFAT’s calcium-dependent activity. Also, Intra/extracellular calcium exchange activates calcineurin and its related molecule, NFAT. Nitration provokes RIP1 necroptosis cascade, with respiratory complex I. Nitrites converse protection against ischemia-reperfusion injuries in the myocardium. Regulating this intrinsic molecular pathway can prevent the necroptosis of cardiomyocytes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0130.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Geniposide; NF-ĸB; IEC-6; Signaling pathway; Cell migration
Online: 8 January 2021 (08:35:25 CET)
The nuclear factor-ĸB (NF-ĸB) transcriptional system is a major effector pathway involved in inflammatory responses. Previous studies found that a Gardenia decoction (GD) inhibited the expression of NF-κB in a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated mouse intestinal injury model. Herein, we hypothesized that geniposide (GE), a component of Gardenia jasminoides Ellis, also exerts anti-inflammatory effects and inhibits NF-ĸB activity in LPS-induced intestinal epithelial cells (IEC-6). IEC-6 cells were stimulated with LPS, following which the effects of GE on NF-ĸB signaling in the IEC-6 cells were examined by western blotting to detect IĸB phosphorylation/degradation. The expression of NF-κB was determined by immunofluorescence assay (IFA). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to detect the inhibitory effect of GE on the release of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) activated by LPS in IEC-6 cells. In addition, the migration ability of IEC-6 cells was observed by the scratch method. These results showed that GE dose-dependently downregulated levels of the proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β that had been upregulated by LPS and suppressed the phosphorylation of IĸB and NF-ĸB induced by LPS. Our findings indicated that GE could reduce LPS-induced NF-ĸB signaling and proinﬂammatory expression in IEC-6 cells and significantly enhance the migration of IEC-6 cells. Moreover, GE inhibited the expression of NF-κB, nuclear transfer, and transcriptional activity in IEC-6 cells. GE could block the synthesis of inflammatory factors of IEC-6 cells by inhibiting activation of the IĸB/NF-κB signaling pathway induced by LPS.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0007.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: HIF; NF-kappaB; EPAS1; LIGHT; TNFSF14; p52; NIK; ChIP
Online: 2 July 2018 (09:53:29 CEST)
Non-canonical NF-kB signalling plays important roles in development and function of the immune system but also is deregulated in a number of inflammatory diseases. Although, NF-kB and HIF crosstalk has been documented, this has only been described following canonical NF-kB stimulation, involving RelA/p50 and the HIF-1 dimer. Here we report that the non-canonical inducer TNFSF14/LIGHT leads to HIF induction and activation in cancer cells. We demonstrate that only HIF-2a is induced at the transcriptional level following non-canonical NF-kB activation, via a mechanism dependent on the p52 subunit. Furthermore, we demonstrate that p52 can bind to the HIF-2a gene in cells. These results indicate that non-canonical NF-kB can lead to HIF signalling implicating HIF-2a as one of the downstream effectors of this pathway in cells.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0240.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: NF-кB, Hypoxia, Inflammation, IKK, PHDs, Cancer, TAK1, FIH
Online: 31 March 2017 (17:21:52 CEST)
Cancer is often characterised by the presence of hypoxia and inflammation. Paramount to the mechanisms controlling cellular responses under such stress stimuli, are the transcription factor families of Hypoxia Inducible Factor (HIF) and Nuclear Factor of kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-кB). Although, a detailed understating of how these transcription factors respond to their cognate stimulus is well established, it is now appreciated that HIF and NF-кB undergo extensive crosstalk, in particular in pathological situations such as cancer. Here, we focus on the current knowledge on how HIF is activated by inflammation and how NF-кB is modulated by hypoxia. We summarise the evidence for the possible mechanism behind this activation and how HIF and NF-кB function impacts cancer, focusing on colorectal, breast and lung cancer. We discuss possible new points of therapeutic intervention aiming to harness the current understanding of the HIF-NF-кB crosstalk.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0677.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: microRNA; celecoxib; glucosamine sulfate; chondrocytes; osteoarthritis; NF-κB; inflammation; chondroprotection
Online: 12 September 2023 (05:43:01 CEST)
This study investigated the role of a pattern of microRNA (miRNA) as possible mediators of celecoxib and prescription-grade glucosamine sulfate (GS) effects in human osteoarthritis (OA) chondrocytes. Chondrocytes were treated with celecoxib (1.85 µM) and GS (9 µM), alone or in combination, for 24 hrs, with or without interleukin (IL)-1β (10 ng/mL). Viability was detected by MTT assay, apoptosis and reactive oxygen species (ROS) by cytometry, nitric oxide (NO) by Griess method. Gene levels of miRNA, antioxidant enzymes, nuclear factor erythroid (NRF)2, and B-cell lym-phoma (BCL)2 expressions were analyzed by quantitative real time PCR. Protein expression of NRF2 and BCL2 was also detected at immunofluorescence and western blot. Celecoxib and GS, alone or in combination, significantly increased viability, reduced apoptosis, ROS and NO production and the gene expression of miR-34a, -146a, -181a, -210, in comparison to baseline and to IL-1β. The transfection with miRNA specific inhibitors significantly counteracted the IL-1β activity and potentiated the properties of celecoxib and GS on viability, apoptosis and oxidant system, through NF-κB regulation. The observed effects were enhanced when the drugs were tested in combination. Our data confirmed the synergistic anti-inﬂammatory and chondroprotective properties of celecoxib and GS, suggesting miRNA as possible mediators.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1402.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: acute lymphoblastic leukemia; methotrexate; NF-κB; TNF-α; drug resistance
Online: 19 August 2023 (12:13:09 CEST)
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the most common childhood cancer. Although prognosis continually improved along years, a significant proportion of patients still relapse from the disease due to leukemia resistance to therapy. Methotrexate (MTX), a folic acid antagonist, is a chemotherapy agent commonly used against ALL and a immune-system suppressant for rheumatoid arthritis, that presents multiple and complex mechanisms of action and resistance. Previous studies have shown that MTX modulates the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) pathway, an important family of transcription factors involved in inflammation, immunity, cell survival, and proliferation, frequently hyperactivated in ALL. Using gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) on publicly available gene expression data from 161 newly diagnosed pediatric ALL patients, we found “TNF-α signaling pathway” to be the most enriched Cancer Hallmark in MTX poor responder patients. Transcriptomic analysis in a panel of ALL cell lines (6 BCP-ALL and 7 T-ALL) also identified the same pathway as differentially enriched among MTX resistant cell lines, as well as in slowly dividing cells. To better understand the crosstalk between NF-κB activity and MTX resistance, we genetically modified the cell lines to express luciferase under a NF-κB biding site promoter. We observed that the fold change in NF-κB activity triggered by TNF-α (but not MTX) treatment correlated with MTX resistance and proliferation across the lines. At the individual gene level, NFKB1 expression was directly associated with a poorer clinical response to MTX, and with both an increased TNF-α-triggered NF-κB activation and MTX resistance in the cell lines. Despite these results, pharmacological inhibition (with BAY 11-7082 and parthenolide) or stimulation (with exogenous TNF-α supplementation) of the NF-κB pathway did not alter MTX resistance of the cell lines significantly, evidencing a complex interplay between MTX and NF-κB in ALL.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1804.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: EVs; Macrophages 1; STAT3, AKT; NF-κB; metastasis; colorectal cancer.
Online: 25 May 2023 (10:48:17 CEST)
Despite the numerous advances in target therapy for the treatment of colorectal cancer, aggressive colorectal cancer remains an incurable disease whose negative modulation of the immune system in the tumor microenvironment is still critical for improving the patient's prognosis. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) have received attention for their use as cell-membrane-camouflaged nanoparticles and drug delivery systems in nanomedicine derived by nearly all cell types for intercellular communication and regulation in the tumor microenvironment (TME). In this study, M1 Macrophage EVs (M1EVs) were used as nanocarriers of oxaliplatin (M1EV1) associated with retinoic acid (M1EV2) and Libidibia ferrea (M1EV3), or combined together with retinoic acid and Libidibia ferrea (M1EV4) to evaluate their antiproliferative and immunomodulatory potential on CT-26 and MC-38 colorectal cancer cell lines, as well as their capacity to prevent metastases in mouse models of colorectal cancer such as allographic and peritoneal. Tumors were evaluated by qRT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. The cell death profile and epithelial-mesenchymal transition process (EMT) were analyzed in vitro in colorectal cancer cell lines. Polarization of murine macrophages (RAW264.7 cells) was also carried out. M1EV2 and M1EV3 used alone or especially combined (M1EV4) downregulated the tumor progression by TME immunomodulation, leading to a decrease in primary tumor size and metastases in peritoneum, liver and lungs. STAT3, NF-kB and AKT were the major genes downregulated by systems of M1EVs. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) switched M2 phenotype (CD163) towards M1 (CD68) reducing levels of IL-10, TGF-β and CCL22. Furthermore, malignant cells showed overexpression of FADD, APAF-1, caspase-3, and E-cadherin, and decreased expression of MDR-1, survivin, vimentin, CXCR4, and PD-L1 after treatment with systems of M1EVs. The results obtained in this study provided evidence that EVs from M1 antitumor macrophages can transport drugs and increase their immunomodulatory and antitumor activity by stimulating activation or blockage of pathways involved in cell proliferation, migration, cell survival, and drug resistance processes.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: Vericiguat; osteoclast (OCs), MAPK, NF-κB; RANKL; AKT, molecular mechanism
Online: 8 September 2021 (13:02:05 CEST)
The nature of bone homeostasis is the coordination between the osteoblasts (OBs) and osteoclasts (OCs). However, abnormal activation of osteoclasts (OCs) could compromise the bone homeostasis. Thus, it is imperatively urgent to explore effective medical interventions for patients. NO/guanylate cyclase (GC)/cGMP signaling cascade has been widely reported in regulating bone metabolism, and GC plays a significantly critical role. Vericiguat, a novel oral soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) stimulator, has been firstly reported in 2020 to treat patients with heart failure. However, the effect of Vericiguat on the function of OCs has not been explored. In this present study, we found that the concentration range of Vericiguat between 0-8uM was none- cytotoxic to BMMs. Vericiguat could enhance differentiation of OCs at concentration of 500nM, whereas it inhibited differentiation at 8 uM in terms of the number and size of OCs. In addition, Veirciguat also showed dural effect on RANKL‐induced OC fusion and bone resorption in a concentration‐dependent manner. Further, molecular assay suggested that the dually regulatory effect of Vericiguat on OCs was mediated by the bidirectional activation of IκB-α/NF-κB signaling pathway. Taken together, our present study demonstrated the dual effects of Vericiguat on the formation of functional OCs in a concentration-dependent manner. The regulatory effect of Vericiguat on OCs was mediated by the bidirectional activation of IκB-α/ NF-κB signaling pathway, and a potential balance between IκB-α/ NF-κB signaling pathway and sGC/cGMP/VASP may exist.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0028.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: Differentiation, germinal center, antibody-secreting cells, phosphorylated STATs, NF-κB1
Online: 2 December 2020 (14:17:41 CET)
Flow cytometric detection of intracellular (IC) signaling proteins and transcription factors (TFs) will help elucidate the regulation of B cell survival, proliferation and differentiation. However, simultaneous detection of signaling proteins or TFs, with membrane markers (MM) can be challenging as required fixation and permeabilization procedures can affect functionality of conjugated antibodies. Here, a phosphoflow method is presented for detection of activated NF-κB p65 and phosphorylated STAT1, STAT3, STAT5 and STAT6 together with B cell differentiation MM CD19, CD27 and CD38. Additionally, a TF-flow method is presented that allows detection of B cell TFs; PAX5, c-MYC, BCL6, AID and antibody-secreting cell (ASC) TFs BLIMP1 and XBP-1s together with MM. Applying these methods on in vitro induced human B cell differentiation cultures showed significantly different steady-state levels, and responses to stimulation, of phosphorylated signaling proteins in CD27-expressing B cell and ASC populations. The TF-flow protocol and UMAP analysis revealed heterogeneity in TF-expression within stimulated CD27 or CD38-expressing B cell subsets. The methods presented here allow for sensitive analysis of STAT and NF-κB p65 signaling and TFs together with B cell differentiation MM at single-cell resolution. This will aid further investigation of B cell responses in both health and disease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0082.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Resveratrol; TRAIL; apoptosis; lung cancer cells; NF-κB; Cytochrome c
Online: 13 August 2018 (06:18:03 CEST)
Aims TRAIL is a promising anticancer agent that has the potential to sensitize a wide variety of cancer or transformed cells by inducing apoptosis. However, resistance to TRAIL is a growing concern. Current manuscript aimed to employing combination treatment to investigate resveratrol induced TRAIL sensitization in NSCLC. Method A549 and HCC-15 cells were used in experimental design. Cell viability was determined by morphological image, crystal violet staining and MTT assay. Apoptosis was evaluated by LDH assay, Annexin V and DAPI staining. Autophagy and apoptosis indicator protein were examined by western blotting. TEM and puncta assay were carried out to evaluate the autophagy. MTP and ROS activity were evaluated by JC-1 and H2DCFDA staining. Findings Resveratrol is a polyphenolic compound capable of activation of tumor suppressor p53 and its pro-apoptotic modulator PUMA. Herein, we showed the p53-independent apoptosis by decrease the expression of phosphorylated Akt-mediated suppression of NF-κB that is also substantiated with the downregulation of anti-apoptotic factors Bcl-2 and Bcl-xl in NSCLC, resulting in an attenuation of TRAIL resistance in combined treatment. Furthermore, apoptosis was induced in TRAIL-resistant lung cancer cells with a co-treatment of resveratrol and TRAIL assessed by the loss of MMP, ROS generations which resulting the translocation of cytochrome c from the mitochondria into the cytosol due to mitochondrial dysfunction. Moreover, autophagy flux was not affected by resveratrol-induced TRAIL-mediated apoptosis in NSCLC. Significance Overall, targeting the NF-κB (p65) pathway via resveratrol attenuates TRAIL resistance and induces TRAIL-mediated apoptosis which could be the effective TRAIL-based cancer therapy regimen.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0208.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: TP53; HSPCB; Nf-kB1; Potentilla nepalensis; network pharmacology; computational studies; biomarkers
Online: 4 October 2023 (05:14:41 CEST)
Potentilla nepalensis belongs to the Rosaceae family, and has numerous therapeutic applications as potent plant-based medicine. Forty phytoconstituents (PCs) from the root and stem through n-hexane (NR and NS) and methanolic (MR and MS) extracts were identified in our earlier studies. However, the PCs affecting human genes and their roles in the body are not disclosed till now. In this study, we employed network pharmacology, molecular docking, molecular dynamics simulations (MDS), and MMGBSA methodologies. SMILES format of PCs from the PubChem used as input to DIGEP-Pred, 764 identified as the inducing genes. Their enrichment studies have shown inducing genes gene ontology descriptions, involved pathways, associated diseases, and drugs. PPI networks constructed in String DB and network topological analysing parameters done in Cytoscape v3.10 revealed three biomarkers, TP53 from MS, NR, and NS induced genes; HSPCB and Nf-kB1 from MR induced genes. From 40 PCs, two PCs 1b (MR) and 2a (MS), showed better binding scores (kcal/mol) with p53 protein of -8.6, and -8.0; three PCs 3a, (NR) 4a and 4c (NS) with HSP protein of -9.6, -8.7, and -8.2. MDS and MMGBSA revealed these complexes are stable without higher deviations with better free energy values. Biomarkers identified in this study, have a prominent role in numerous cancers. Thus, further investigations such as in-vivo and in-vitro should be done to find the molecular functions and interlaying mechanism of the identified biomarkers on numerous cancer cell lines in considering the PCs of P.nepalensis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0025.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: Ellagic acid; cisplatin; hepatotoxicity; Nrf2/HO-1 pathway; NF-κB pathway
Online: 2 October 2023 (03:19:16 CEST)
Cisplatin (CDDP), an important chemotherapeutic agent, could result in potential hepatotoxicity, but the precious molecular mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, the protective effect of ellagic acid (EA) on CDDP exposure-induced hepatotoxicity and underlying molecular mechanisms were investigated using a mouse model. Mice were randomly divided into control, CDDP model, EA100 (i.e., EA 100 mg/kg/day), and CDDP plus EA 25, 50, and 100 mg/kg/day. Mice in all CDDP-treated groups were intraperitoneally injected with CDDP 20 mg/kg/day for 2 days. In all EA co-treatments, mice were orally administrated with EA for 7 days. Our results found that, compared to the control group, CDDP treatment resulted in liver dysfunction, oxidative stress, and hepatocyte necrosis, which are effectively revised by EA supplementation in a dose-dependent manner. Meanwhile, EA supplementation inhibited CDDP-induced the elevation of caspases-9 and -3 activities in the liver tissues of mice. Furthermore, EA supplementation significantly downregulated CDDP exposure-induced the increases of NF-κB, IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-6 proteins and mRNAs, while further upregulated the expression of Nrf2, and HO-1 proteins and mRNAs. Taken together, our results reveal that EA supplementation could ameliorate CCDP-induced liver injury in mice via the opposite regulation of Nrf2/HO-1 and NF-kB pathways.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0535.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: chemotherapy; cachexia; 5-fluorouracil; skeletal muscle; p38; NF-κB; dystrophin; desmin
Online: 22 March 2021 (13:12:15 CET)
Skeletal myopathy encompasses both atrophy and dysfunction and is a prominent event in cancer and chemotherapy-induced cachexia. Here, we investigate the effects of chemotherapeutic agent, 5-fluorouracil (5FU), on skeletal muscle mass and function, and whether small molecule therapeutic candidate, BGP-15, could be protective against the chemotoxic challenge exerted by 5FU. Additionally, we explore the molecular signature of 5FU treatment. Male Balb/c mice received metronomic tri-weekly intraperitoneal delivery of 5FU (23 mg/kg), with and without BGP-15 (15 mg/kg), 6 times in total over a 15-day treatment period. We demonstrated that neither 5FU, nor 5FU combined with BGP-15, affected body composition indices, skeletal muscle mass or function. Adjuvant BGP-15 treatment did, however, prevent the 5FU-induced phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and p65 NF-κB subunit, signalling pathways involved in cell stress and inflammatory signalling, respectively. This as associated with mitoprotection. 5FU reduced the expression of the key cytoskeletal proteins, desmin and dystrophin, which was not prevented by BGP-15. Combined, these data show that metronomic delivery of 5FU does not elicit physiological consequences to skeletal muscle mass and function but is implicit in priming skeletal muscle with a molecular signature for myopathy. BGP-15 has modest protective efficacy against the molecular changes induced by 5FU.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0133.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: cell migration; hepatic stellate cell; TGF-β1; Rap1; RhoA; NF-κB
Online: 7 September 2018 (12:19:49 CEST)
Although the migration of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) is important for hepatic fibrosis, the regulation of HSC migration is poorly understood. Interestingly, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 induces monocyte migration to sites of injury or inflammation in the early phase but inhibits cell migration in the late phase. In this study, we investigated the role of RhoA signaling in TGF-β1-induced HSC migration. We found that TGF-β1 increased the protein and mRNA levels of α-SMA and collagen type I in HSC-T6 cells. The level of RhoA-GTP in TGF-β1-stimulated cells was significantly higher than that in control cells. Moreover, cofilin phosphorylation and F-actin formation was more strongly detected in TGF-β1-stimulated cells than in control cells. Additionally, TGF-β1 induced the activation of NF-κB and the expression of extracellular matrix proteins and several cytokines in HSC-T6 cells. The active form of Rap1 (Rap1 V12) suppressed RhoA-GTP levels, whereas the dominant negative form of Rap1 (Rap1 N17) augmented RhoA-GTP levels. Therefore, we confirmed that Rap1 regulates RhoA activation in TGF-β1-stimulated HSC-T6 cells. These findings suggest that TGF-β1 regulates Rap1, resulting in RhoA suppression, NF-κB activation and F-actin formation during the migration of HSCs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0194.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: Caveolin 1; Obesity; Adipose tissue; Metabolic inflammation; Cytokines; TNF-α; NF-κB
Online: 12 December 2022 (06:02:18 CET)
Obesity is characterized by chronic low-grade inflammation. Caveolin-1 (CAV1), a structural and functional protein found in adipose tissues (AT), is augmented in obese individuals. We aimed to define the inflammatory mediators that influence CAV1 gene regulation and associated mechanism in obesity. Using subcutaneous AT from 27 (7 lean/20 obese) normoglycemic individuals, in vitro human adipocyte models, and in vivo mice models, we found elevated CAV1 expression in obese AT and a positive correlation between the gene expression of CAV1, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and the nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-kB). CAV1 gene expression was associated with that of proinflammatory cytokines/chemokines, and their cognate receptor (r ≥ 0.447, p ≤ 0.030) but not with anti-inflammatory markers. CAV1 expression was correlated with CD163, indicating a prospective role for CAV1 in adipose inflammatory microenvironment. Unlike wild-type animals, mice lacking TNF-α exhibited reduced levels of CAV1 mRNA/proteins, which were elevated by administering exogenous TNF-α. Mechanistically, TNF-α induces CAV1 gene transcription by mediating NF-kB binding to its two regulatory elements located in the CAV1 proximal regulatory region. The interplay between CAV1 and TNF-α signaling pathway is interesting and has potential as a target for therapeutic interventions in obesity and metabolic syndromes.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: Aerobic exercise; Myocardial ischemia/reperfusion; autophagy; SIRT3; SOD2; NF-κB; Biochemical indicators
Online: 1 April 2021 (13:28:32 CEST)
Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of aerobic exercise on myocardial injury induced by I/ R in rats by regulating SIRT3/SOD2/NF-κB signaling pathway, and to provide theoretical guidance for clinical treatment of myocardial I/R injury.Methods:SPF Male Sprague-Dawley(SD) rats were randomly assigned to 4 groups: Sham operation group(n=10), I/R group(n=10), Aerobic exercise group(n=10)and Aerobic exercise+κ-receptor antagonist group(Pro DTC group，n=10). The left anterior descending coronary artery(LAD) of rats was ligated and re-canalized to establish I/R rat model. Hematoxylin-eosin(HE) staining was performed to examine histological morphology in myocardial tissues of each group. The biological analysis was performed to measure cTnI、CK-MB、BNP levels in blood samples of each group. The expression levels of SOD2, TLR4, and p65 in myocardial tissues were measured by immunohistochemical assay. The influence of aerobic exercise on Beclin-1 、LC3II/I、SIRT3, TLR4, and phosphorylated p65 was measured by Western blotting.Results: The result of histological morphology examination revealed that Aerobic exercise group exhibited integrated cardiac myofilament, less inflammatory cell infiltration, as much as significantly decreased cellular edema. Measurement of cTnI、CK-MB、BNP revealed that oxycodone post-treatment reduces the injury of myocardial tissues(P<0.05). Immunohistochemical staining results revealed that aerobic exercise clearly decreased the expression of TLR4 and p65, and increased the expression of SOD2(P<0.05). Besides, Western blotting revealed that aerobic exercise down-regulated the expression of Beclin-1 、LC3II/I、TLR4 and phosphorylated p65, up-regulated the expression of SIRT3(P<0.05).Conclusions: Aerobic exercise significantly improved myocardial I/R injury. The mechanisms may be associated with activating κ-receptor to regulate SIRT3/SOD2/NF-κB pathway.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0242.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Non-small cell lung cancer; Lambertianic acid; Apoptosis; TRAIL; XIAP; NF-B
Online: 18 April 2018 (15:25:10 CEST)
Lambertianic acid (LA) is a biologically active compound from the leaves of Pinus koraiensis. In the present study, apoptotic mechanisms of LA plus TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) were elucidated in non-small cell lung cancer cells (NSCLCs). Cytotoxicity assay, flow cytometry, immunoprecipitation and Western blotting were performed. Here, combined treatment of LA and TRAIL increased cytotoxicity, sub-G1 population and cleaved poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) and caspase3/8/9 in A549 and H1299 cells compared to LA or TRAIL alone. Furthermore, combined treatment of LA and TRAIL significantly decreased anti-apoptotic proteins such as B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), Fas-like inhibitor protein (FLIP) and X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) and enhanced the activation of pro-apoptotic proteins Bid compared to LA or TRAIL alone. In addition, combined treatment of LA and TRAIL upregulated the expression of Death receptor 4 (DR4) and downregulated phosphorylation of nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (p-NF-B), inhibitory protein of kB family (p-IB) and FLIP in A549 and H1299 cells along with disrupted binding of XIAP with caspase3 or NF-B. Overall, these findings suggest that lambertianic acid enhances TRAIL-induced apoptosis via inhibition of XIAP/NF-B in TRAIL resistant NSCLCs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1788.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: diesel exhaust particles; neutrophil; NF-κB; particulate matter; inflammatory respiratory disease; Siraitia grosvenorii
Online: 26 July 2023 (09:21:00 CEST)
Exposure to particulate matter (PM) causes considerable breathing-related health risks. We assessed the inhibitory effect of Siraitia grosvenorii extract (SGE) on airway inflammation in mice exposed to a fine dust mixture of PM10 (PM diameter < 10 mm) and diesel exhaust particles (DEPs) known as PM10D. SGE attenuated neutrophil infiltration and the number of immune B and T cells in lung tissue and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of PM10D-exposed mice. SGE reduced the secretion of cytokines and chemokines, including interleukin (IL)-1a, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)- a, IL-17, chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand (CXCL)-1, and macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-2 in BALF. Airway inflammation, accumulation of inflammatory cells, and collagen fibrosis in the lung after PM10D exposure were investigated by histopathological analysis, and SGE treatment ameliorated these symptoms. SGE decreased the mRNA expression of mucin 5AC (MUC5AC), CXCL-1, TNF-a, MIP-2, and transient receptor potential vanilloid and ankyrin 1 ion channels in the lung tissues of mice. Furthermore, SGE ameliorated mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signaling activated by PM10D in mice. We conclude that SGE attenuated PM10D-induced neutrophilic airway inflammation via inhibiting MAPK/NF-κB activation. These results show that SGE may be a candidate for the treatment of inflammatory respiratory diseases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1988.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: Nrf2; NF-κB; MAPK; HCC; Ibuprofen; Ketoprofen; oleanolic acid oximes; liver cancer; NSAIDs
Online: 28 June 2023 (10:01:48 CEST)
HCC is a highly aggressive malignancy with limited treatment options. In this study, novel conjugates, of NSAIDs - Ibuprofen and Ketoprofen with oleanolic acid oximes derivatives (OAO) were synthesized and their activity as modulators of signaling pathways involved in HCC pathogenesis was evaluated in normal THLE-2 liver cells and HCC derived HepG2 cells. The results demonstrated that conjugation with OAO derivatives reduces the cytotoxicity of parent compounds in both cell lines. In THLE-2 cells treatment with conjugates resulted in increased activation of the Nrf2-ARE pathway. An opposite effect was observed in HepG2 cells. In the later reduction of NF-κB was observed along with modulation of MAPK signaling pathways (AKT, ERK, p38, p70S6K, and JNK). Moreover, STAT3, STAT5, and CREB transcription factors on protein levels were significantly reduced as a result of treatment with IBU- and KET-OAO derivatives conjugates. The most active were conjugates with OAO-morpholide. Overall, the findings of this study demonstrate that IBU-OAO and KET-OAO derivatives conjugates modulate the key signaling pathways involved in hepatic cancer development. Their effect on specific signaling pathways varied depending on the structure of the conjugate. Since the conjugation of IBU and KET with OAO derivatives reduced their cytotoxicity, the conjugates may be considered good candidates for the prevention of liver cancer.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0303.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: Inflammation; NF-κB; drug repurposing; drug development; autoimmunity; COVID-19; multiple sclerosis; rheumatoid arthritis
Online: 20 January 2022 (11:16:25 CET)
NF-κB is a central mediator of inflammation, response to DNA damage and oxidative stress. As a result of its central role in so many important cellular processes, NF-κB dysregulation has been implicated in the pathology of important human diseases. NF-κB activation causes inappropriate inflammatory responses in diseases including rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and multiple sclerosis (MS). Thus, modulation of NF-κB signaling is being widely investigated as an approach to treat chronic inflammatory diseases, autoimmunity and cancer. The emergence of COVID-19 in late 2019, the subsequent pandemic and the huge clinical burden of patients with life-threatening SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia led to a massive scramble to repurpose existing medicines to treat lung inflammation in a wide range of healthcare systems. These efforts continue and these efforts continue to be con-troversial. Drug repurposing strategies are a promising alternative to de-novo drug development, as they minimize drug development timelines and reduce the risk of failure due to unexpected side effects. Different experimental approaches have been applied to identify existing medicines which inhibit NF-κB that could be repurposed as anti-inflammatory drugs.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0482.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Inflammasome; NF-κB; IRF; NLRP3; caspase-1; epigenetic modification; transcription factor; chromatin; promoter; enhancer
Online: 23 October 2020 (10:41:25 CEST)
Inflammasomes are multimolecular complexes with potent inflammatory activity. As such, their activity is tightly regulated at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. In this review, we present the transcriptional regulation of inflammasome genes from sensors (e.g NLRP3) to substrates (e.g. IL-1β). Lineage-determining transcription factors shape inflammasome responses in different cell types with profound consequences on the responsiveness to inflammasome-activating stimuli. Pro-inflammatory signals (sterile or microbial) have a key transcriptional impact on inflammasome genes, which is largely mediated by NF-κB and, that translates into higher antimicrobial immune responses. Furthermore, diverse intrinsic (e.g. circadian clock, metabolites) or extrinsic (e.g. xenobiotics) signals are integrated by signal-dependent transcription factors and chromatin structure changes to modulate transcriptionally inflammasome responses. Finally, anti-inflammatory signals (e.g. IL-10) counterbalance inflammasome genes induction to limit deleterious inflammation. Transcriptional regulations thus appear as the first line of inflammasome regulation to raise the defense level in front of stress and infections but also to limit excessive or chronic inflammation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0038.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: NF-κB; IL-1β; IL-6; VEGF; TNF-α; FN; ICAM-1; VCAM-1
Online: 2 September 2020 (09:46:10 CEST)
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) is a metabolic disorder characterized by inappropriate insulin function. Despite wide progress in genome studies, defects in gene expression for diabetes prognosis still incompletely identified. Prolonged hyperglycemia activates NF-κB, which is a main player in vascular dysfunctions of diabetes. Activated NF-κB, triggers expression of various genes that promote inflammation and cell adhesion process. Alteration of pro-inflammatory and profibrotic gene expression contribute to the irreversible functional and structural changes in the kidney resulting in diabetic nephropathy (DN). To identify the effect of some important NF-κB related genes on mediation of DN progression, we divided our candidate genes on the basis of their function exerted in bloodstream into three categories (Proinflammatory; NF-κB, IL-1B, IL-6, TNF-α and VEGF); (Profibrotic; FN, ICAM-1, VCAM-1) and (Proliferative; MAPK-1 and EGF). We analyzed their expression profile in leukocytes of patients and explored their correlation to diabetic kidney injury features. Our data revealed the overexpression of both proinflammatory and profibrotic genes in DN group when compared to T2D group and were associated positively with each other in DN group indicating their possible role in DN progression. In DN patients, increased expression of proinflammatory genes correlated positively with glycemic control and inflammatory markers indicating their role in DN progression. Our data revealed that the persistent activation NF-κB and its related genes observed in hyperglycemia might contribute to DN progression and might be a good diagnostic and therapeutic target for DN progression. Large-scale studies are needed to evaluate the potential of these molecules to serve as disease biomarkers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0083.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Cognitive decline, Epigenetics, Epigenetic inheritance, Methylation, Nrf2, NF-kβ, Oxidative stress, Inflammation, resveratrol, SAMP8
Online: 11 February 2019 (08:56:08 CET)
A variety of environmental factors contribute significantly to age-related cognitive decline and Alzheimer’s Disease (AD). Nutrition can alter epigenetics, improving health outcomes, which transmitted across generations; this process is called epigenetic inheritance. We investigate the beneficial effects of maternal resveratrol supplementation in offspring. We feed females SAMP8 with resveratrol-enriched diet during two months prior to mating. Direct exposed F1 generation and the transgenerational F2 generation were investigated. Object novel recognition and Morris water maze demonstrated improvements in cognition in the 6-month-old F1 and F2 generations from resveratrol fed mothers. A significant increase in global DNA methylation with a decrease in hydroxymethylation in F1 and F2 were found. Accordingly, Dnmt3a/b and Tet2 gene expression changed. Methylation levels of Nrf2 and NF-kβ genes promoters raised in offspring, inducing changes in target genes expression, as well as hydrogen peroxide levels. Offspring resulted from resveratrol fed mother showed increase AMPKα activation, mTOR inhibition and an increase in Pgc-1α gene expression and Beclin-1 protein levels. Endoplasmic reticulum stress sensors were found changed both in F1 and F2 generations. Overall, our results demonstrated that maternal resveratrol supplementation could prevent cognitive impairment in the SAMP8 mice offspring through epigenetic changes and cell signaling pathways.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.2000.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Nanofiber (NF); cytotoxicity; polyurethane (PU); polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF); DMSO stocks; nitric oxide production; protein expression
Online: 31 October 2023 (07:17:49 CET)
Nanofiber (NF) products exhibit outstanding performances in the materials science, textile, and medical fields, which cannot be realized using conventional technologies. However, the safety of such products is debated because of the potential risk of nanomaterials and lack of standardized guidelines for safely evaluating NF products. The global safety evaluations of nanomaterials focused on evaluating the cytotoxicity of zero-dimensional materials including nanoparticles and nanotubes based on OECD criteria. The NFs are one-dimensional materials with nanometer diameters and considerable lengths. Many fibers are applied in a densely woven web-like form, and therefore, assessing cellular penetration and fiber toxicity using the same methods is inappropriate. This study verifies the safety of polyurethane (PU) and polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) polymers, which are currently applied in filters and masks. To this end, polymer NFs were collected from each product, and the NFs were compared with reference samples considering their physical properties using FT-IR and Raman spectroscopy. For the safety evaluation, DMSO stocks of varying concentrations of PVDF and PU NFs (at 0.5, 1, 5, and 10 μg/mL) were prepared, and the cytotoxicity and inhibitory effects on nitric oxide production and protein expression obtained via Western blot were identified.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0051.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: atherosclerosis; cardiovascular disease; chaos theory; non-coding RNAs; Alu-elements; NF-κB; miRNA; miRNA sponges
Online: 4 April 2018 (06:36:55 CEST)
Atherosclerosis (ATH) and Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) are chronic inflammatory diseases with an important genetic background which derive from the cumulative effect of multiple common risk alleles, most of them located in genomic non-coding regions. These complex diseases behave as non-linear dynamical systems that show a high dependence on their initial conditions, so that long-term predictions of disease progression are unreliable. One likely possibility is that the non-linear nature of ATH could be dependent on non-linear correlations in the structure of the human genome. In this review we show how Chaos theory analysis highlighted genomic regions that shared specific structural constraints that could have a role in ATH progression. These regions were shown to be enriched in repetitive sequences of the Alu family, genomic parasites which colonized the human genome, which show a particular secondary structure and have been involved in the regulation of gene expression. We also review the impact of Alu elements on the mechanisms that regulate gene expression, especially highlighting the molecular mechanisms by which the Alu elements could alter the inflammatory homeostasis. We devise especial attention to their relationship with the lncRNA ANRIL, the strongest risk factor for ATH, their role as miRNA sponges, and their ability to interfere with the regulatory circuitry of the NF-kB response. We aim to characterize ATH as a non-linear dynamic system in which small initial alterations in the expression of a number of repetitive elements are somehow amplified to reach phenotypic significance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0339.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Sallen-Key filters; LPF; HPF; BPF; NF; voltage followers; buffer amplifiers; CJFET; neutron flux; cryogenic temperatures
Online: 21 December 2021 (13:49:14 CET)
In this paper consider the circuitry of voltage followers (VF) with unity-gain, intended for practical use in active Sallen-Key RC-filters (LPF, HPF, BPF, RF). The results of research and computer modeling of radiation-resistant and low-temperature VF in the LTSpice environment on models of CJFET transistors operating under the influence of neutron flux up to 10e14 n/cm2 and cryogenic temperatures up to -197°C are presented.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0229.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: quercetogetin (QUE); anti-inflammatory; inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS); cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2); MAPK; NF-κB
Online: 9 November 2018 (03:31:28 CET)
Citrus peel has been used in Asian traditional medicine for the treatment of cough, asthma, and bronchial disorders. However, the anti-inflammatory effect of quercetogetin (QUE), a polymethoxylated flavone isolated from the peel of citrus unshui is poorly understood. We investigated the anti-inflammatory effect and the molecular mechanisms of QUE in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW264.7 cells. QUE inhibited the production of NO and prostaglandin E2 by suppressing the LPS-induced expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 at both the mRNA and protein levels. QUE suppressed the production of proinflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α. QUE also inhibited the translocation of the nuclear factor kappa B subunit, p65, into the nucleus by interrupting the phosphorylation of IκB-α in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells. Based on the finding that QUE significantly decreased p-ERK protein expression in LPS-induced RAW264.7 cells, we confirmed that suppression of the inflammatory process by QUE was mediated through the MAPK pathway. This is the first report on the strong anti-inflammatory effects of QUE, which is a compound that can potentially be used as a therapeutic agent for inflammatory diseases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0197.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: Cudratricusxanthone L; Cudrania tricuspidata; Neuroinflammation; Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB); Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)
Online: 9 August 2018 (20:43:24 CEST)
Neuroinflammatory responses are implicated in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. In neurodegenerative diseases, neuroinflammatory reactions to neuronal injury are modulated by microglial cells, which are vital innate immune cells in the central nervous system. Activated microglial cells release proinflammatory cytokines, mediators, and neurotoxic factors that induce fatal neuronal injury. The present study investigated the anti-neuroinflammatory effects of cudratricusxanthone L (1), which was isolated from Cudrania tricuspidata. This compound reduced the levels of lipopolysaccharide-stimulated inflammatory mediators and cytokines, including nitric oxide, prostaglandin E2, interleukin (IL)-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α, IL-6, and IL-12. These effects suggested that cudratricusxanthone L (1) suppressed the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signaling pathway. Specifically, cudratricusxanthone L (1) also attenuated the phosphorylation of Jun kinase and inhibited p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling in BV2 and rat primary microglial cells. These results indicated that cudratricusxanthone L (1) effectively repressed neuroinflammatory processes in BV2 and rat primary microglial cells by inhibiting NF-κB and the MAPK signaling pathway.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1342.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: ER stress; metabolic stress; obesity; metabolic syndrome; inflammation; TNF-α; ROS; CHOP; HIF-1α; MAPK/NF-κB
Online: 20 July 2023 (02:35:45 CEST)
Obesity and metabolic syndrome involve chronic low-grade inflammation called metabolic inflammation as well as metabolic derangements from increased endotoxin and free fatty acids. It is debated whether the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in monocytic cells can contribute to amplify metabolic inflammation; if so, by which mechanism(s). To test this, metabolic stress was induced in THP-1 monocytic cells by treatments with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), palmitic acid (PA), or oleic acid (OA), in the presence or absence of ER stressor thapsigargin (TG). Gene expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and markers of ER/oxidative stress was determined by qRT-PCR, TNF-α protein by ELISA, ROS by DCFH-DA assay, HIF-1α/p38/ERK-1,2/NF-κB phosphorylation by immunoblotting, and insulin sensitivity by glucose-uptake assay. Regarding clinical analyses, adipose TNF-α was assessed by qRT-PCR/IHC and plasma TNF-α/hs-CRP/MDA/OX-LDL by ELISA. We found that the cooperative interaction between metabolic and ER stresses promoted TNF-α, ROS, CHOP, ATF6, SOD2, and NRF2 expression (P≤0.0183),. However, glucose uptake was not impaired. TNF-α amplification was dependent on HIF-1α/p38/NF-κB phosphorylation, while MAPK/NF-κB inhibitors and antioxidants/ROS scavengers attenuated TNF-α production (P≤0.05). Individuals with obesity displayed increased adipose TNF-α gene/protein expression as well as elevated plasma levels of TNF-α, CRP, MDA, and OX-LDL (P≤0.05). Our findings support a cooperative interaction between metabolic and ER stresses, favoring inflammation by triggering TNF-α production via the ROS/CHOP/HIF-1α and MAPK/NF-κB dependent mechanisms. This study also shows the therapeutic potential of ROS scavengers/anti-oxidants in inflammatory conditions involving metabolic/ER stresses.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1541.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: comfrey leaves; microwave-assisted extraction; optimal extraction condition; rosmarinic acid; antioxidation; anti-inflammation; NF-κB signaling; MAPK signaling
Online: 22 August 2023 (09:32:19 CEST)
The root extracts of Symphytum officinale (comfrey) are commonly used in traditional medicine to treat muscle, joint, skin and bone disorders. However, little information is available on the biomedical functions of comfrey leaves. In this study, sequencing results of Internal Transcribed Spacer and trnL-trnF genes showed that plants purchased from the local market were comfrey and named as S. officinale WL (WL). The optimal extraction conditions of WL leave with the highest extract yield and contents of total phenols and flavonoids by microwave-assisted extraction were identified. The antioxidative and anti-inflammatory activities and possible molecular mechanism(s) of the WL leaf extract (WLE) were evaluated. Furthermore, the major component of WLE was identified as rosmarinic acid by HPLC. Results showed that the optimal extract condition was obtained with 750W microwave power, 50℃, 75% methanol, the solid-to-solvent ratio of 1:10, and 15 minutes. Results of all DPPH, ABTS and superoxide radical scavenging activities, reducing power, ferrous ion chelating activity, and ferric reducing antioxidant power showed high antioxidative capacities of WLE. Furthermore, WLE showed obvious DNA protecting activity. WLE attenuated lipopolysaccharides-stimulated inflammation by suppressing iNOS, COX-2, IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α expressions in RAW264.7 macrophages. These attenuations involved in inactivations of lipopolysaccharides-induced NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0749.v2
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Mathematical And Computational Biology Keywords: SARS-CoV-2 infection; Interleukin 6; NFB; Nsp5; Cox2; SARS-CoV-2 interactome; Nonlinear dynamics of inflammation
Online: 15 March 2021 (12:18:02 CET)
In the present work we propose a dynamical mathematical model of the lung cells inflammation process in response to SARS-CoV-2 infection. In this scenario the main protease Nsp5 enhances the inflammatory process, increasing the levels of NF kB, IL-6, Cox2, and PGE2 with respect to a reference state without the virus. In presence of the virus the translation rates of NF kB and IkB arise to a high constant value, and when the translation rate of IL-6 also increases above the threshold value of 7 pg mL-1 s-1 the model predicts a persistent over stimulated immune state with high levels of the cytokine IL-6. Our model shows how such over stimulated immune state becomes autonomous of the signals from other immune cells such as macrophages and lymphocytes, and does not shut down by itself. We also show that in the context of the dynamical model presented here, Dexamethasone or Nimesulide have little effect on such inflammation state of the infected lung cell, and the only form to suppress it is with the inhibition of the activity of the viral protein Nsp5.To that end, our model suggest that drugs like Saquinavir may be useful. In this form, our model suggests that Nsp5 is effectively a central node underlying the severe acute lung inflammation during SARS-CoV-2 infection. The persistent production of IL-6 by lung cells can be one of the causes of the cytokine storm observed in critical patients with COVID19. Nsp5 seems to be the switch to start inflammation, the consequent overproduction of the ACE2 receptor, and an important underlying cause of the most severe cases of COVID19.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0193.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Ophthalmology Keywords: C. argyrosperma; corneal chemical burn; angiogenesis; corneal neovascularization (CNV); vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF); Interleukin-1β (IL-1β); Cyclooxigenase-2 (COX-2); Nuclear Factor-kappaB (NF-κB)
Online: 17 April 2019 (06:07:15 CEST)
Cornea severe inflammation produces opacity or even perforation, scarring, and angiogenesis, resulting in blindness. The cornea can be used to study the effect of new anti-angiogenic chemopreventive agents. We researched the anti-angiogenic effect of two extracts, Methanol (Met) and Hexane (Hex), from the seed of Cucurbita argyrosperma, in the inflamed corneas. The corneas of Wistar rats were alkali-injured and treated intragastrically for seven successive days. Clinical manifestation as opacity score, corneal neovascularization (CNV) area, re-epithelialization percentage, and histological evaluation were performed. Inflammatory (COX-2, NF-κB, and IL-1β), and angiogenic (VEGF-A, VEGFR1, VEGFR2) markers were assessed by immunohistochemistry. Cox-2, Il-1β, and Vegf-a mRNA levels were also determined. After treatments, we observed slim corneal thickness with lower opacity scores and low cell infiltration compared to untreated rats. Treatment also accelerated wound healing and decreased CNV area. The staining of inflammatory and angiogenic factors was significantly decreased. These effects are related to a down-expression of Cox-2, Il-1β, and Vegf. These results suggest that intake of C. argyrosperma seed can be used to attenuate the angiogenesis secondary to inflammation in corneal chemical damage.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0123.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: WNT; NF-κB, Ion Channels; Anthrax toxin recep- tors; Poliovirus receptors; Porcupine inhibitor ETC-1922159; Sensitivity analysis; Colorectal cancer; Unknown biological hypotheses; Combinatorial search space; Support vector ranking
Online: 7 February 2023 (06:16:12 CET)
Often, in biology, we are faced with the problem of exploring relevant unknown biological hypotheses in the form of myriads of combination of factors that might be affecting the pathway under certain conditions. For example, Brancati et al.1 observe that mutations in poliovirus receptor related protein 4 (PVRL4), encoding cell adhesion molecule nectin-4, causes Ectodermal dysplasia-syndactyly syndrome. Interaction with cad- herins also implies an influence of nectin-4 on Wnt signaling, which plays a relevant role in limb development (Brancati et al.1). However, not much work has been done to explore the relation of Wnts and PVR family. In CRC cells treated with ETC-1922159, both were found up regulated. In a recent unpublished work in Open Science Framework, Sinha2, we had the opportunity to rank these unknown biological hypotheses for both up and down regulated genes at 2nd order level after drug administration. The search engine alloted high nu- merical valued rankings to some combinations of PVR-WNT, thus indicating a possibility of high combinatorial synergy also. The in-silico derived influences can be represented graphically as - PVR w.r.t WNT with PVR <- WNT9A; and WNT w.r.t PVR with WNT-7B/9A <- PVR and WNT4 <- PVRL2; In the light of the recent findings of PVR with IFN (interferon) and the known interactions between IFN and Wnts, there might be a possibilty to explore the bridge of PVR, IFN and WNTs. The 3 fold (PVR - IFN; IFN - WNT; WNT - PVR), 2 way cross family analysis might shed light on the possible combinations that might be of import. Here, we present a 2-way cross family analysis of multiple, such in-silico ranked 2nd order synergistic combinations, after ETC-1922159 treatment of CRC cells. Via this 2-way cross family analysis, we are able to discover through majority voting, the combinations that might of interest to biologists and also derive plausible influences of components of combinations among themselves. Note that these form biological hypotheses which indicate whether a particular combination and the direction of influence within the combination, exist synergistically in CRC cells. Wet lab tests will indicate the veracity of these combinations and if proven true, will lead to further study of mechanism between the components.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0032.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: ACE2; Ang II; angiotensin(1-7); AT1R; Cathepsin; cell entry; COVID-19; Endocytosis; ERK1/2; Furin; IL-1β; IL-6; MAPK; MasR; NF-κB; PLC; PKC; RAS; RBD; SARS-CoV2; S protein; TMPRSS2; TNF-α
Online: 2 December 2022 (02:19:48 CET)
Since the spread of the deadly virus SARS-CoV2 in late 2019, researchers have restlessly been seeking for unraveling how the virus factually enters the host cells. Some proteins on each side of the interaction between the virus and the host cells are involved as the major contributors to this process: 1- the nano-machine Spike protein on behalf of the virus, 2- angiotensin converting enzyme II, the mono-carboxypeptidase and the key component of renin angiotensin system on behalf of the host cell, 3- some host proteases and proteins exploited by SARS-CoV2, In this review, the complex process of SARS-CoV2 entrance into the host cells with the contribution of the involved host proteins as well as the sequential conformational changes in the Spike protein tending to increase the probability of complexification of the latter with angiotensin converting enzyme II, the receptor of the virus on the host cells, are discussed. Besides, the release of the catalytic ectodomain of angiotensin converting enzyme II as its soluble form in the extracellular space and its positive or negative impact on the infectivity of the virus are considered.