ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0216.v4
Online: 16 September 2022 (11:45:33 CEST)
The technique of using drugs to target latent virus reservoirs has been introduced to reawaken dormant viruses such that the immune system can attack them, but further tests have shown this method fails. In this study, the author attempted to mathematically analyze whether drugs can be used to reawaken dormant virus reservoirs and proposed the use of viral proteins to activate the sleeping virus. The results show that the amino acid sequence ARG of Gag proteins of HTLV1, HTLV2, STLV1 and STLV2 match their primer binding site GGGGGCTCG in the 3'-to-5' direction and that the amino acid sequence SPR of Gag proteins of HIV1, HIV2, SIV and FIV match their primer binding site GGCGCCCGA in the 3'-to-5' direction. The author hence believes that the latency-reversing drugs are involved in the process of the transcription of cancer genes, and because the virus genome they reawaken contains the same NF-κB binding sites, the drugs indirectly reawaken dormant retrovirus infection. A related study showed that the genomic Gag/Gag-Pol complex recruits the LysRS/tRNA complex. The selective packaging of the tRNA primer requires HIV-1 Gag and Gag-Pol, and an interaction between LysRS and Gag is observed in vitro. In contrast, Gag proteins can more reliably be used to directly reawaken dormant HIV infection, which recruits human uncharged tRNA to serve as the reverse transcription primer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0170.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: Scandoside; NF-κB; MAPK; Anti-inflammation
Online: 18 January 2018 (07:03:53 CET)
The iridoids of H. diffusa play an important role in the anti-inflammatory process, but the specific iridoid with anti-inflammatory effect and its mechanism is lack of study. An iridoid compound named scandoside (SCA) was isolated from H. diffusa and its anti-inflammatory effect was investigated in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW 264.7 cells. Its anti-inflammatory mechanism was confirmed by in intro experiment and molecular docking analysis. As results, SCA significantly decreased the productions of nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) and inhibited the levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), TNF-α and IL-6 mRNA expression in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells. SCA treatment suppressed the phosphorylation of inhibitor of nuclear transcription factor kappa-B alpaha (IκB-α), p38, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). The docking data suggested that SCA had great binding abilities to COX-2, iNOS and IκB. Taken together, the results indicated that the anti-inflammatory effect of SCA is due to inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokines and mediators via suppressing the nuclear transcription factor kappa-B (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways, which provided useful information for its application and development.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0124.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: Senescence; EMT; NF-κB; Inflammation; Epigenetics; Aging
Online: 13 April 2022 (10:22:37 CEST)
The origin of cancer remains one of the most important enigmas in modern biology. This paper presents a hypothesis for the origin of carcinomas in which cellular aging and inflammation enable the recovery of cellular plasticity that may ultimately result in cancer. The process is described as the result of dedifferentiation undergone by epithelial cells in hyperplasia due to replicative senescence towards a mesenchymal cell state with potential cancerous behavior. In support of the hypothesis, the molecular, cellular, and histopathological evidence was critically reviewed and reinterpreted when necessary to postulate a plausible generic model for the origin and progression of carcinomas. In addition, the implications of this theoretical framework for the current strategies of cancer treatment are discussed against recent evidence of the molecular events underlying the epigenetic switches involved in the resistance of breast carcinomas. Subsequently, is proposed an epigenetic landscape for their progression and a potential mechanism to restrain the degree of dedifferentiation and malignant behavior. Finally, is suggested a novel understanding of the involution and carcinogenesis of tissues associated with aging as a perspective that might inspire integrative approaches in the study and management of chronic diseases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0158.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: dauricine; STAT5; NF-κB; Inflammation; Ischemia-reperfusion injury
Online: 8 August 2022 (13:18:00 CEST)
Inflammatory reaction after ischemia-reperfusion contributes significantly to prognosis, and microglia activation is the main resource of inflammation in nervous system. STAT5 is proving to be a highly effective anti-inflammatory therapy with great potential, and inhibition of STAT5 has demonstrated significant anti-inflammation and therapeutic effects, but rarely focus on mechanism of neuroinflammation and brain injury from ischemia-reperfusion. It is the first time to found that the anti-inflammation of dauricine is mainly through STAT5-NF-κB pathway, might act as a STAT5 inhibitor. Dauricine suppressed the inflammation cytokines Eotaxin, KC, TNF-α, IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-12β, IL-17α, and also inhibited the microglia activation. STAT5b mutant at Tyr-699 reversed the protective effect of dauricine on oxygen-glucose deprivation-reperfusion injury of neurons, and reactivated the suppression of dauricine on P-NF-κB of microglia. These results suggest that dauricine might suppress the neuroinflammation and protect the neuron from the injury of post-ischemia-reperfusion via mediating the microglia activation through STAT5-NF-κB pathway, and ss a potential therapeutic target for neuroinflammation, STAT5 needs to be raised concern in ischemic stroke.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0116.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: 6-OHDA, NF-κB, Mangiferin, Inflammation, Cox, Caspases
Online: 4 August 2021 (13:22:51 CEST)
Background: Persistent up regulation of NF-κB leads to chronic inflammation and subsequent microglial activation and takes neurons towards death by activating death receptor domains and the p53 pathway. Thus, inhibition of NF-κB may lead to more effective treatment for Parkinson’s disease. Therefore, we have used mangiferin, specific inhibitor of NF-κB in this study. Method: The study utilized male Wistar rats weighing 200-250 gm (n=8 in each group). Stereotactic surgery of rats was done to induce 6-OHDA lesioning in rats. On day 42, rats were subjected to behavioural studies to evaluate effect of mangiferin and their brains were taken out after euthanasia to perform biochemical and molecular studies. Results: Mangiferin significantly increases locomotor parameters in 6-OHDA lesioned rats. It also decreases activity of Cyclooxygenase enzyme which then leads to decrease concentration of inflammatory cytokines. Microglial inflammation was also substantially reduced by reducing MPO concentration. Oxidative stress burden was also reduced after treatment with mangiferin as indicated by increase in Total Antioxidant Capacity, SOD and Catalase and reduction in concentration of MDA. Treatment with mangiferin also reduces burden of oxidative stress by increasing the activity of NRF2/ARE pathway. Activity of Caspase 3 and 9 was also significantly reduced after treatment with mangiferin. Significant decrease in activity of both Cox1 and Cox 2 was also observed. Maximum improvement in all parameters was observed in rats treated with grouping of mangiferin 45mg.kg-1 and levodopa 10mg.kg-1. Treatment with levodopa alone has no significant effect on biochemical and molecular parameters though it significantly improves behavioural parameters. Conclusion and Implications: Results of this study suggest that mangiferin has protective effect in hemi-parkinsonian rats by inhibiting NF-κB. Current treatment of Parkinson’s disease does not target the underlying problem of the disease. Therefore, combination therapy of mangiferin and levodopa can be helpful in better management of Parkison’s.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0144.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: Cnidii Rhizoma; DSS; inflammation; NF-Κb; MAPKs; TFF3
Online: 8 October 2018 (12:19:03 CEST)
In this study, dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced in vivo model and LPS-stimulated in vitro model were used to confirm whether ethanol extract of Cnidii Rhizoma (EtCR) could ameliorate UC. EtCR improved symptoms of UC, including body weight loss, colon length shortening, disease activity index (DAI), and colon mucosal damage. In addition, EtCR decreased inflammatory mediators, including cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), in colon tissue. To further confirm the UC improving mechanism, RAW 264.7 cells and HT29 human epithelial cells were used. EtCR reduced expression of inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-6) and inflammatory mediators (nitric oxide and prostaglandin E2) via JNK and NF-κB signaling pathway in RAW 264.7 cells. In addition, EtCR increased expression of trefoil factor 3 (TFF3), which is an epithelial cell protective factor, in HT29 cells. Taken together, our study suggests that EtCR has treatment effect on UC and can be a therapeutic agent.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201706.0072.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: Specnvezhenide; osteoarthritis; chondrocyte; NF-κB; wnt/β-catenin
Online: 16 June 2017 (04:20:07 CEST)
As a chronic disease, osteoarthritis (OA) leads to degradation of both cartilage and subchondral bone, of which the development is related to proinflammatory cytokines like interleukin-1β. In the present study, the anti-inflammatory effect of Specnvezhenide in osteoarthritis and mechanism of it was studied in vitro and in vivo. The results showed that Specnvezhenide decreases interleukin-1β-induced expression of matix-degrading enzymes and reduces the activation of NF-κB and wnt/β-catenin pathways in vitro. Furthermore, Specnvezhenide treatment prevents the degeneration of both cartilage and subchondral bone in rats OA model. As conclusion, to the best of our knowledge, we report firstly that Specnvezhenide decreases interleukin-1β-induced inflammation on rat chondrocytes by inhibiting activation of NF-κB and wnt/β-catenin pathways, and has therapeutic potential in OA treatment.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: Vericiguat; osteoclast (OCs), MAPK, NF-κB; RANKL; AKT, molecular mechanism
Online: 8 September 2021 (13:02:05 CEST)
The nature of bone homeostasis is the coordination between the osteoblasts (OBs) and osteoclasts (OCs). However, abnormal activation of osteoclasts (OCs) could compromise the bone homeostasis. Thus, it is imperatively urgent to explore effective medical interventions for patients. NO/guanylate cyclase (GC)/cGMP signaling cascade has been widely reported in regulating bone metabolism, and GC plays a significantly critical role. Vericiguat, a novel oral soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) stimulator, has been firstly reported in 2020 to treat patients with heart failure. However, the effect of Vericiguat on the function of OCs has not been explored. In this present study, we found that the concentration range of Vericiguat between 0-8uM was none- cytotoxic to BMMs. Vericiguat could enhance differentiation of OCs at concentration of 500nM, whereas it inhibited differentiation at 8 uM in terms of the number and size of OCs. In addition, Veirciguat also showed dural effect on RANKL‐induced OC fusion and bone resorption in a concentration‐dependent manner. Further, molecular assay suggested that the dually regulatory effect of Vericiguat on OCs was mediated by the bidirectional activation of IκB-α/NF-κB signaling pathway. Taken together, our present study demonstrated the dual effects of Vericiguat on the formation of functional OCs in a concentration-dependent manner. The regulatory effect of Vericiguat on OCs was mediated by the bidirectional activation of IκB-α/ NF-κB signaling pathway, and a potential balance between IκB-α/ NF-κB signaling pathway and sGC/cGMP/VASP may exist.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0082.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: Resveratrol; TRAIL; apoptosis; lung cancer cells; NF-κB; Cytochrome c
Online: 13 August 2018 (06:18:03 CEST)
Aims TRAIL is a promising anticancer agent that has the potential to sensitize a wide variety of cancer or transformed cells by inducing apoptosis. However, resistance to TRAIL is a growing concern. Current manuscript aimed to employing combination treatment to investigate resveratrol induced TRAIL sensitization in NSCLC. Method A549 and HCC-15 cells were used in experimental design. Cell viability was determined by morphological image, crystal violet staining and MTT assay. Apoptosis was evaluated by LDH assay, Annexin V and DAPI staining. Autophagy and apoptosis indicator protein were examined by western blotting. TEM and puncta assay were carried out to evaluate the autophagy. MTP and ROS activity were evaluated by JC-1 and H2DCFDA staining. Findings Resveratrol is a polyphenolic compound capable of activation of tumor suppressor p53 and its pro-apoptotic modulator PUMA. Herein, we showed the p53-independent apoptosis by decrease the expression of phosphorylated Akt-mediated suppression of NF-κB that is also substantiated with the downregulation of anti-apoptotic factors Bcl-2 and Bcl-xl in NSCLC, resulting in an attenuation of TRAIL resistance in combined treatment. Furthermore, apoptosis was induced in TRAIL-resistant lung cancer cells with a co-treatment of resveratrol and TRAIL assessed by the loss of MMP, ROS generations which resulting the translocation of cytochrome c from the mitochondria into the cytosol due to mitochondrial dysfunction. Moreover, autophagy flux was not affected by resveratrol-induced TRAIL-mediated apoptosis in NSCLC. Significance Overall, targeting the NF-κB (p65) pathway via resveratrol attenuates TRAIL resistance and induces TRAIL-mediated apoptosis which could be the effective TRAIL-based cancer therapy regimen.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0506.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: NF-kB; non-canonical NF-κB pathway; sTNFR2; sTNFSF8; sTNFSF13; mitochondrial dynamics; fission and fusion; TFAM
Online: 26 August 2021 (11:46:14 CEST)
Interactions between receptors and ligands of the tumor necrosis factor superfamily (TNFSF) provide costimulatory signals that control the survival, proliferation, differentiation, and effector function of immune cells. All components of the TNF superfamily are associated with NF-kB functions that are not limited to cell death and may promote survival in the face of adipose tissue inflammation in obesity. Inflammation and pro-inflammatory dysfunction of mitochondria are key factors associated with insulin resistance in obesity. The aim of the study was to analyze the relationship of soluble forms of receptors and ligands of the TNF superfam-ily in blood plasma with mitochondrial dynamics in adipose tissue (greater omentum (GO) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (Sat)) of obese patients with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Increased plasma sTNF-R1, sTNF-R2, sTNFRSF8 receptors and ligands TNFSF12, TNFSF13, TNFSF13B are characteristic of obese patients without T2DM. Increases in TNFSF12, TNFSF13B, and sTNF-R1 levels are associated with decreased glucose concentration and decreased BMI in obese patients. The gene expression levels responsible for regulating mitochondrial dynamics were increased in obese patients without T2DM and were unbalanced in patients with obesity and T2DM.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0535.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: chemotherapy; cachexia; 5-fluorouracil; skeletal muscle; p38; NF-κB; dystrophin; desmin
Online: 22 March 2021 (13:12:15 CET)
Skeletal myopathy encompasses both atrophy and dysfunction and is a prominent event in cancer and chemotherapy-induced cachexia. Here, we investigate the effects of chemotherapeutic agent, 5-fluorouracil (5FU), on skeletal muscle mass and function, and whether small molecule therapeutic candidate, BGP-15, could be protective against the chemotoxic challenge exerted by 5FU. Additionally, we explore the molecular signature of 5FU treatment. Male Balb/c mice received metronomic tri-weekly intraperitoneal delivery of 5FU (23 mg/kg), with and without BGP-15 (15 mg/kg), 6 times in total over a 15-day treatment period. We demonstrated that neither 5FU, nor 5FU combined with BGP-15, affected body composition indices, skeletal muscle mass or function. Adjuvant BGP-15 treatment did, however, prevent the 5FU-induced phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and p65 NF-κB subunit, signalling pathways involved in cell stress and inflammatory signalling, respectively. This as associated with mitoprotection. 5FU reduced the expression of the key cytoskeletal proteins, desmin and dystrophin, which was not prevented by BGP-15. Combined, these data show that metronomic delivery of 5FU does not elicit physiological consequences to skeletal muscle mass and function but is implicit in priming skeletal muscle with a molecular signature for myopathy. BGP-15 has modest protective efficacy against the molecular changes induced by 5FU.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0133.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: cell migration; hepatic stellate cell; TGF-β1; Rap1; RhoA; NF-κB
Online: 7 September 2018 (12:19:49 CEST)
Although the migration of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) is important for hepatic fibrosis, the regulation of HSC migration is poorly understood. Interestingly, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 induces monocyte migration to sites of injury or inflammation in the early phase but inhibits cell migration in the late phase. In this study, we investigated the role of RhoA signaling in TGF-β1-induced HSC migration. We found that TGF-β1 increased the protein and mRNA levels of α-SMA and collagen type I in HSC-T6 cells. The level of RhoA-GTP in TGF-β1-stimulated cells was significantly higher than that in control cells. Moreover, cofilin phosphorylation and F-actin formation was more strongly detected in TGF-β1-stimulated cells than in control cells. Additionally, TGF-β1 induced the activation of NF-κB and the expression of extracellular matrix proteins and several cytokines in HSC-T6 cells. The active form of Rap1 (Rap1 V12) suppressed RhoA-GTP levels, whereas the dominant negative form of Rap1 (Rap1 N17) augmented RhoA-GTP levels. Therefore, we confirmed that Rap1 regulates RhoA activation in TGF-β1-stimulated HSC-T6 cells. These findings suggest that TGF-β1 regulates Rap1, resulting in RhoA suppression, NF-κB activation and F-actin formation during the migration of HSCs.
Subject: Keywords: Aerobic exercise; Myocardial ischemia/reperfusion; autophagy; SIRT3; SOD2; NF-κB; Biochemical indicators
Online: 1 April 2021 (13:28:32 CEST)
Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of aerobic exercise on myocardial injury induced by I/ R in rats by regulating SIRT3/SOD2/NF-κB signaling pathway, and to provide theoretical guidance for clinical treatment of myocardial I/R injury.Methods:SPF Male Sprague-Dawley(SD) rats were randomly assigned to 4 groups: Sham operation group(n=10), I/R group(n=10), Aerobic exercise group(n=10)and Aerobic exercise+κ-receptor antagonist group(Pro DTC group，n=10). The left anterior descending coronary artery(LAD) of rats was ligated and re-canalized to establish I/R rat model. Hematoxylin-eosin(HE) staining was performed to examine histological morphology in myocardial tissues of each group. The biological analysis was performed to measure cTnI、CK-MB、BNP levels in blood samples of each group. The expression levels of SOD2, TLR4, and p65 in myocardial tissues were measured by immunohistochemical assay. The influence of aerobic exercise on Beclin-1 、LC3II/I、SIRT3, TLR4, and phosphorylated p65 was measured by Western blotting.Results: The result of histological morphology examination revealed that Aerobic exercise group exhibited integrated cardiac myofilament, less inflammatory cell infiltration, as much as significantly decreased cellular edema. Measurement of cTnI、CK-MB、BNP revealed that oxycodone post-treatment reduces the injury of myocardial tissues(P<0.05). Immunohistochemical staining results revealed that aerobic exercise clearly decreased the expression of TLR4 and p65, and increased the expression of SOD2(P<0.05). Besides, Western blotting revealed that aerobic exercise down-regulated the expression of Beclin-1 、LC3II/I、TLR4 and phosphorylated p65, up-regulated the expression of SIRT3(P<0.05).Conclusions: Aerobic exercise significantly improved myocardial I/R injury. The mechanisms may be associated with activating κ-receptor to regulate SIRT3/SOD2/NF-κB pathway.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0303.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pathology & Pathobiology Keywords: Inflammation; NF-κB; drug repurposing; drug development; autoimmunity; COVID-19; multiple sclerosis; rheumatoid arthritis
Online: 20 January 2022 (11:16:25 CET)
NF-κB is a central mediator of inflammation, response to DNA damage and oxidative stress. As a result of its central role in so many important cellular processes, NF-κB dysregulation has been implicated in the pathology of important human diseases. NF-κB activation causes inappropriate inflammatory responses in diseases including rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and multiple sclerosis (MS). Thus, modulation of NF-κB signaling is being widely investigated as an approach to treat chronic inflammatory diseases, autoimmunity and cancer. The emergence of COVID-19 in late 2019, the subsequent pandemic and the huge clinical burden of patients with life-threatening SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia led to a massive scramble to repurpose existing medicines to treat lung inflammation in a wide range of healthcare systems. These efforts continue and these efforts continue to be con-troversial. Drug repurposing strategies are a promising alternative to de-novo drug development, as they minimize drug development timelines and reduce the risk of failure due to unexpected side effects. Different experimental approaches have been applied to identify existing medicines which inhibit NF-κB that could be repurposed as anti-inflammatory drugs.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0482.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Inflammasome; NF-κB; IRF; NLRP3; caspase-1; epigenetic modification; transcription factor; chromatin; promoter; enhancer
Online: 23 October 2020 (10:41:25 CEST)
Inflammasomes are multimolecular complexes with potent inflammatory activity. As such, their activity is tightly regulated at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. In this review, we present the transcriptional regulation of inflammasome genes from sensors (e.g NLRP3) to substrates (e.g. IL-1β). Lineage-determining transcription factors shape inflammasome responses in different cell types with profound consequences on the responsiveness to inflammasome-activating stimuli. Pro-inflammatory signals (sterile or microbial) have a key transcriptional impact on inflammasome genes, which is largely mediated by NF-κB and, that translates into higher antimicrobial immune responses. Furthermore, diverse intrinsic (e.g. circadian clock, metabolites) or extrinsic (e.g. xenobiotics) signals are integrated by signal-dependent transcription factors and chromatin structure changes to modulate transcriptionally inflammasome responses. Finally, anti-inflammatory signals (e.g. IL-10) counterbalance inflammasome genes induction to limit deleterious inflammation. Transcriptional regulations thus appear as the first line of inflammasome regulation to raise the defense level in front of stress and infections but also to limit excessive or chronic inflammation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0038.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pathology & Pathobiology Keywords: NF-κB; IL-1β; IL-6; VEGF; TNF-α; FN; ICAM-1; VCAM-1
Online: 2 September 2020 (09:46:10 CEST)
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) is a metabolic disorder characterized by inappropriate insulin function. Despite wide progress in genome studies, defects in gene expression for diabetes prognosis still incompletely identified. Prolonged hyperglycemia activates NF-κB, which is a main player in vascular dysfunctions of diabetes. Activated NF-κB, triggers expression of various genes that promote inflammation and cell adhesion process. Alteration of pro-inflammatory and profibrotic gene expression contribute to the irreversible functional and structural changes in the kidney resulting in diabetic nephropathy (DN). To identify the effect of some important NF-κB related genes on mediation of DN progression, we divided our candidate genes on the basis of their function exerted in bloodstream into three categories (Proinflammatory; NF-κB, IL-1B, IL-6, TNF-α and VEGF); (Profibrotic; FN, ICAM-1, VCAM-1) and (Proliferative; MAPK-1 and EGF). We analyzed their expression profile in leukocytes of patients and explored their correlation to diabetic kidney injury features. Our data revealed the overexpression of both proinflammatory and profibrotic genes in DN group when compared to T2D group and were associated positively with each other in DN group indicating their possible role in DN progression. In DN patients, increased expression of proinflammatory genes correlated positively with glycemic control and inflammatory markers indicating their role in DN progression. Our data revealed that the persistent activation NF-κB and its related genes observed in hyperglycemia might contribute to DN progression and might be a good diagnostic and therapeutic target for DN progression. Large-scale studies are needed to evaluate the potential of these molecules to serve as disease biomarkers.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0051.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: atherosclerosis; cardiovascular disease; chaos theory; non-coding RNAs; Alu-elements; NF-κB; miRNA; miRNA sponges
Online: 4 April 2018 (06:36:55 CEST)
Atherosclerosis (ATH) and Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) are chronic inflammatory diseases with an important genetic background which derive from the cumulative effect of multiple common risk alleles, most of them located in genomic non-coding regions. These complex diseases behave as non-linear dynamical systems that show a high dependence on their initial conditions, so that long-term predictions of disease progression are unreliable. One likely possibility is that the non-linear nature of ATH could be dependent on non-linear correlations in the structure of the human genome. In this review we show how Chaos theory analysis highlighted genomic regions that shared specific structural constraints that could have a role in ATH progression. These regions were shown to be enriched in repetitive sequences of the Alu family, genomic parasites which colonized the human genome, which show a particular secondary structure and have been involved in the regulation of gene expression. We also review the impact of Alu elements on the mechanisms that regulate gene expression, especially highlighting the molecular mechanisms by which the Alu elements could alter the inflammatory homeostasis. We devise especial attention to their relationship with the lncRNA ANRIL, the strongest risk factor for ATH, their role as miRNA sponges, and their ability to interfere with the regulatory circuitry of the NF-kB response. We aim to characterize ATH as a non-linear dynamic system in which small initial alterations in the expression of a number of repetitive elements are somehow amplified to reach phenotypic significance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0229.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: quercetogetin (QUE); anti-inflammatory; inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS); cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2); MAPK; NF-κB
Online: 9 November 2018 (03:31:28 CET)
Citrus peel has been used in Asian traditional medicine for the treatment of cough, asthma, and bronchial disorders. However, the anti-inflammatory effect of quercetogetin (QUE), a polymethoxylated flavone isolated from the peel of citrus unshui is poorly understood. We investigated the anti-inflammatory effect and the molecular mechanisms of QUE in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW264.7 cells. QUE inhibited the production of NO and prostaglandin E2 by suppressing the LPS-induced expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 at both the mRNA and protein levels. QUE suppressed the production of proinflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α. QUE also inhibited the translocation of the nuclear factor kappa B subunit, p65, into the nucleus by interrupting the phosphorylation of IκB-α in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells. Based on the finding that QUE significantly decreased p-ERK protein expression in LPS-induced RAW264.7 cells, we confirmed that suppression of the inflammatory process by QUE was mediated through the MAPK pathway. This is the first report on the strong anti-inflammatory effects of QUE, which is a compound that can potentially be used as a therapeutic agent for inflammatory diseases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0197.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: Cudratricusxanthone L; Cudrania tricuspidata; Neuroinflammation; Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB); Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)
Online: 9 August 2018 (20:43:24 CEST)
Neuroinflammatory responses are implicated in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. In neurodegenerative diseases, neuroinflammatory reactions to neuronal injury are modulated by microglial cells, which are vital innate immune cells in the central nervous system. Activated microglial cells release proinflammatory cytokines, mediators, and neurotoxic factors that induce fatal neuronal injury. The present study investigated the anti-neuroinflammatory effects of cudratricusxanthone L (1), which was isolated from Cudrania tricuspidata. This compound reduced the levels of lipopolysaccharide-stimulated inflammatory mediators and cytokines, including nitric oxide, prostaglandin E2, interleukin (IL)-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α, IL-6, and IL-12. These effects suggested that cudratricusxanthone L (1) suppressed the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signaling pathway. Specifically, cudratricusxanthone L (1) also attenuated the phosphorylation of Jun kinase and inhibited p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling in BV2 and rat primary microglial cells. These results indicated that cudratricusxanthone L (1) effectively repressed neuroinflammatory processes in BV2 and rat primary microglial cells by inhibiting NF-κB and the MAPK signaling pathway.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0193.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Ophthalmology Keywords: C. argyrosperma; corneal chemical burn; angiogenesis; corneal neovascularization (CNV); vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF); Interleukin-1β (IL-1β); Cyclooxigenase-2 (COX-2); Nuclear Factor-kappaB (NF-κB)
Online: 17 April 2019 (06:07:15 CEST)
Cornea severe inflammation produces opacity or even perforation, scarring, and angiogenesis, resulting in blindness. The cornea can be used to study the effect of new anti-angiogenic chemopreventive agents. We researched the anti-angiogenic effect of two extracts, Methanol (Met) and Hexane (Hex), from the seed of Cucurbita argyrosperma, in the inflamed corneas. The corneas of Wistar rats were alkali-injured and treated intragastrically for seven successive days. Clinical manifestation as opacity score, corneal neovascularization (CNV) area, re-epithelialization percentage, and histological evaluation were performed. Inflammatory (COX-2, NF-κB, and IL-1β), and angiogenic (VEGF-A, VEGFR1, VEGFR2) markers were assessed by immunohistochemistry. Cox-2, Il-1β, and Vegf-a mRNA levels were also determined. After treatments, we observed slim corneal thickness with lower opacity scores and low cell infiltration compared to untreated rats. Treatment also accelerated wound healing and decreased CNV area. The staining of inflammatory and angiogenic factors was significantly decreased. These effects are related to a down-expression of Cox-2, Il-1β, and Vegf. These results suggest that intake of C. argyrosperma seed can be used to attenuate the angiogenesis secondary to inflammation in corneal chemical damage.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0130.v1
Online: 4 June 2021 (10:00:12 CEST)
Many inflammatory mechanisms are involved in the pathophysiology of COVID-19 infection. COVID-19 inhibits IFN antiviral responses, so we should expect an out-of-control viral replication. “Cytokine storms” occur due to the over-production of pro-inflammatory cytokines after an influx of neutrophils and monocytes/macrophages and may be responsible for the immunopathology of the lung involvement. Several cascades have been reported in the activation process of NF-κB. In this paper, to find new therapeutic options for COVID-19 infection, we reviewed some natural products that could potentially inhibit the NF-κB pathway. We found that sevoflurane, quercetin, resveratrol, curcumin, KIOM-C, bergenin, garcinia kola, shenfu, piperlongumine, wogonin, oroxylin, plantamajoside, naringin, ginseng, kaempferol, allium sativum L, illicium henryi, isoliquiritigenin, lianhua qingwen, magnoflorine, and ma Huang Tang might be effective in inhibiting the NF-KB pathway. These natural products could be helpful in the control of COVID-19 infections. However, larger clinical trials are needed to ascertain the efficacy of these products fully.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0168.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: NF-kappaB; HIF; ARNT; TRAF6; Transcription; ChIP; Drosophila
Online: 10 March 2020 (11:14:37 CET)
NF-B signalling is crucial for cellular responses to inflammation but has also been associated with the hypoxia response. NF-B and HIF transcription factors possess an intense molecular crosstalk. Although it is known that HIF-1beta modulates NF-kappaB transcriptional response, very little is understood regarding how HIF-1beta contributes to NF-kappaB signalling. Here, we demonstrate that HIF-1beta is required for full NF-kappaB activation in cells following canonical and non-canonical stimuli. We found that HIF-1beta specifically controls TRAF6 expression in human cells but also in Drosophila melanogaster. HIF-1beta binds to the TRAF6 gene and controls its expression independently of HIF-1alpha. Furthermore, exogenous TRAF6 expression is able to rescue all of the cellular phenotypes observed in the absence of HIF-1beta. These results indicate that HIF-1beta is an important regulator of NF-kappaB with consequences for homeostasis and human disease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0394.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Immunology Keywords: EGF; LUBAC; HOIP; PKP2; linear ubiquitin; NF-kB; tumorigenesis
Online: 22 September 2021 (22:51:26 CEST)
Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a receptor tyrosine kinase that instigates several signaling cascades, including the NF-kB signaling pathway, to induce cell differentiation and proliferation. Overexpression and mutations of EGFR are found in up to 30% of solid tumors and correlate with a poor prognosis. Although it is known that EGFR-mediated NF-kB activation is involved in tumor development, the signaling axis is not well elucidated. Here, we found that PKP2 and the LUBAC complex were required for EGFR-mediated NF-kB activation. Upon EGF stimulation, EGFR recruited PKP2 to the plasma membrane, and PKP2 bridged HOIP, the catalytic E3 ubiquitin ligase in the LUBAC, to the EGFR complex. The recruitment activated the LUBAC complex and the linear ubiquitination of NEMO, leading to IkB phosphorylation and subsequent NF-kB activation. Furthermore, EGF-induced linear ubiquitination was critical for tumor cell proliferation and tumor development. Knockout of HOIP impaired EGF-induced NF-kB activity and reduced cell proliferation. HOIP knockout also abrogated the growth of A431 epidermal xenograft tumors in nude mice by more than 70%. More importantly, the HOIP inhibitor, HOIPIN-8, inhibited EGFR-mediated NF-kB activation and cell proliferation of A431, MCF-7, and MDA-MB-231 cancer cells. Overall, our study reveals a novel linear ubiquitination signaling axis of EGFR, and perturbation of HOIP E3 ubiquitin ligase activity is potential targeted cancer therapy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0130.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Geniposide; NF-ĸB; IEC-6; Signaling pathway; Cell migration
Online: 8 January 2021 (08:35:25 CET)
The nuclear factor-ĸB (NF-ĸB) transcriptional system is a major effector pathway involved in inflammatory responses. Previous studies found that a Gardenia decoction (GD) inhibited the expression of NF-κB in a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated mouse intestinal injury model. Herein, we hypothesized that geniposide (GE), a component of Gardenia jasminoides Ellis, also exerts anti-inflammatory effects and inhibits NF-ĸB activity in LPS-induced intestinal epithelial cells (IEC-6). IEC-6 cells were stimulated with LPS, following which the effects of GE on NF-ĸB signaling in the IEC-6 cells were examined by western blotting to detect IĸB phosphorylation/degradation. The expression of NF-κB was determined by immunofluorescence assay (IFA). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to detect the inhibitory effect of GE on the release of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) activated by LPS in IEC-6 cells. In addition, the migration ability of IEC-6 cells was observed by the scratch method. These results showed that GE dose-dependently downregulated levels of the proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β that had been upregulated by LPS and suppressed the phosphorylation of IĸB and NF-ĸB induced by LPS. Our findings indicated that GE could reduce LPS-induced NF-ĸB signaling and proinﬂammatory expression in IEC-6 cells and significantly enhance the migration of IEC-6 cells. Moreover, GE inhibited the expression of NF-κB, nuclear transfer, and transcriptional activity in IEC-6 cells. GE could block the synthesis of inflammatory factors of IEC-6 cells by inhibiting activation of the IĸB/NF-κB signaling pathway induced by LPS.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0007.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: HIF; NF-kappaB; EPAS1; LIGHT; TNFSF14; p52; NIK; ChIP
Online: 2 July 2018 (09:53:29 CEST)
Non-canonical NF-kB signalling plays important roles in development and function of the immune system but also is deregulated in a number of inflammatory diseases. Although, NF-kB and HIF crosstalk has been documented, this has only been described following canonical NF-kB stimulation, involving RelA/p50 and the HIF-1 dimer. Here we report that the non-canonical inducer TNFSF14/LIGHT leads to HIF induction and activation in cancer cells. We demonstrate that only HIF-2a is induced at the transcriptional level following non-canonical NF-kB activation, via a mechanism dependent on the p52 subunit. Furthermore, we demonstrate that p52 can bind to the HIF-2a gene in cells. These results indicate that non-canonical NF-kB can lead to HIF signalling implicating HIF-2a as one of the downstream effectors of this pathway in cells.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0240.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: NF-кB, Hypoxia, Inflammation, IKK, PHDs, Cancer, TAK1, FIH
Online: 31 March 2017 (17:21:52 CEST)
Cancer is often characterised by the presence of hypoxia and inflammation. Paramount to the mechanisms controlling cellular responses under such stress stimuli, are the transcription factor families of Hypoxia Inducible Factor (HIF) and Nuclear Factor of kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-кB). Although, a detailed understating of how these transcription factors respond to their cognate stimulus is well established, it is now appreciated that HIF and NF-кB undergo extensive crosstalk, in particular in pathological situations such as cancer. Here, we focus on the current knowledge on how HIF is activated by inflammation and how NF-кB is modulated by hypoxia. We summarise the evidence for the possible mechanism behind this activation and how HIF and NF-кB function impacts cancer, focusing on colorectal, breast and lung cancer. We discuss possible new points of therapeutic intervention aiming to harness the current understanding of the HIF-NF-кB crosstalk.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0354.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Wound healing; metastasis; oxidative stress; macrophage; HIF; NF-kB; Nrf2
Online: 23 September 2022 (03:28:28 CEST)
Many signaling pathways, molecular and cellular actors which are critical for wound healing have been implicated in cancer metastasis. These two conditions are a complex succession of cellular biological events and accurate regulation of these events is essential. Apart from inflammation, macrophages-released ROS arise as major regulators of these processes. But, whatever the pathology concerned, oxidative stress is a complicated phenomenon to control and requires a finely tuned balance over the different stages and responding cells. This review provides an overview of the pivotal role of oxidative stress in both wound healing and metastasis, encompassing the contribution of macrophages. Indeed, macrophages are major ROS producers but also appear as their targets since ROS interfere with their differentiation and function. Elucidating ROS functions in wound healing and metastatic spread may allow the development of innovative therapeutic strategies involving redox modulators.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0028.v1
Subject: Keywords: Differentiation, germinal center, antibody-secreting cells, phosphorylated STATs, NF-κB1
Online: 2 December 2020 (14:17:41 CET)
Flow cytometric detection of intracellular (IC) signaling proteins and transcription factors (TFs) will help elucidate the regulation of B cell survival, proliferation and differentiation. However, simultaneous detection of signaling proteins or TFs, with membrane markers (MM) can be challenging as required fixation and permeabilization procedures can affect functionality of conjugated antibodies. Here, a phosphoflow method is presented for detection of activated NF-κB p65 and phosphorylated STAT1, STAT3, STAT5 and STAT6 together with B cell differentiation MM CD19, CD27 and CD38. Additionally, a TF-flow method is presented that allows detection of B cell TFs; PAX5, c-MYC, BCL6, AID and antibody-secreting cell (ASC) TFs BLIMP1 and XBP-1s together with MM. Applying these methods on in vitro induced human B cell differentiation cultures showed significantly different steady-state levels, and responses to stimulation, of phosphorylated signaling proteins in CD27-expressing B cell and ASC populations. The TF-flow protocol and UMAP analysis revealed heterogeneity in TF-expression within stimulated CD27 or CD38-expressing B cell subsets. The methods presented here allow for sensitive analysis of STAT and NF-κB p65 signaling and TFs together with B cell differentiation MM at single-cell resolution. This will aid further investigation of B cell responses in both health and disease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0087.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Immunology Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; CMap; Cytokine Storm; NF-kB; Glucocorticoids; MEK; Estrogens
Online: 7 June 2020 (12:04:46 CEST)
The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic is one of the biggest health and societal challenges of the recent decades. Among the causes of mortality triggered by SARS-CoV-2 infection, the presence of an inflammatory "cytokine storm" (CS) at later stages of the disease has been found to play a determinant role. Here, we used available transcriptomic data from the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of COVID-19 patients suffering from a CS to obtain gene-signatures associated to this pathological process. Using these signatures, we interrogated the Connectivity MAP (CMap) dataset that contains the effects of over 5,000 small molecules on the transcriptome of human cancer cell lines, and looked for molecules which effects on transcription mimic or oppose those associated to the CS. Consistent with their medical use, this analysis found a significant enrichment of glucocorticoids or inhibitors of the Janus Kinases (JAK) as drugs that could revert the CS. On the other hand, molecules that potentiate the immune response such as PKC activators are predicted to worsen the CS. Besides these expected findings, our analysis also reveals a potential effect of the antibiotic doxycycline or MAPK/RAF/MEK inhibitors in reverting the CS, or of topoisomerase inhibitors and the anti-alcohol abuse drug disulfiram in potentiating its effects. Finally, our analyses support that the gender-related differences in the severity of COVID-19 are related to the anti-inflammatory properties of female hormones. While acknowledging that this is an analysis based on limited available data, we decided to share it as a resource that might help others in the selection of drugs that could be tested in the context of experimental models of CS triggered by viral infections.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0242.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Non-small cell lung cancer; Lambertianic acid; Apoptosis; TRAIL; XIAP; NF-B
Online: 18 April 2018 (15:25:10 CEST)
Lambertianic acid (LA) is a biologically active compound from the leaves of Pinus koraiensis. In the present study, apoptotic mechanisms of LA plus TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) were elucidated in non-small cell lung cancer cells (NSCLCs). Cytotoxicity assay, flow cytometry, immunoprecipitation and Western blotting were performed. Here, combined treatment of LA and TRAIL increased cytotoxicity, sub-G1 population and cleaved poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) and caspase3/8/9 in A549 and H1299 cells compared to LA or TRAIL alone. Furthermore, combined treatment of LA and TRAIL significantly decreased anti-apoptotic proteins such as B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), Fas-like inhibitor protein (FLIP) and X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) and enhanced the activation of pro-apoptotic proteins Bid compared to LA or TRAIL alone. In addition, combined treatment of LA and TRAIL upregulated the expression of Death receptor 4 (DR4) and downregulated phosphorylation of nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (p-NF-B), inhibitory protein of kB family (p-IB) and FLIP in A549 and H1299 cells along with disrupted binding of XIAP with caspase3 or NF-B. Overall, these findings suggest that lambertianic acid enhances TRAIL-induced apoptosis via inhibition of XIAP/NF-B in TRAIL resistant NSCLCs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0083.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: Cognitive decline, Epigenetics, Epigenetic inheritance, Methylation, Nrf2, NF-kβ, Oxidative stress, Inflammation, resveratrol, SAMP8
Online: 11 February 2019 (08:56:08 CET)
A variety of environmental factors contribute significantly to age-related cognitive decline and Alzheimer’s Disease (AD). Nutrition can alter epigenetics, improving health outcomes, which transmitted across generations; this process is called epigenetic inheritance. We investigate the beneficial effects of maternal resveratrol supplementation in offspring. We feed females SAMP8 with resveratrol-enriched diet during two months prior to mating. Direct exposed F1 generation and the transgenerational F2 generation were investigated. Object novel recognition and Morris water maze demonstrated improvements in cognition in the 6-month-old F1 and F2 generations from resveratrol fed mothers. A significant increase in global DNA methylation with a decrease in hydroxymethylation in F1 and F2 were found. Accordingly, Dnmt3a/b and Tet2 gene expression changed. Methylation levels of Nrf2 and NF-kβ genes promoters raised in offspring, inducing changes in target genes expression, as well as hydrogen peroxide levels. Offspring resulted from resveratrol fed mother showed increase AMPKα activation, mTOR inhibition and an increase in Pgc-1α gene expression and Beclin-1 protein levels. Endoplasmic reticulum stress sensors were found changed both in F1 and F2 generations. Overall, our results demonstrated that maternal resveratrol supplementation could prevent cognitive impairment in the SAMP8 mice offspring through epigenetic changes and cell signaling pathways.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0339.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Sallen-Key filters; LPF; HPF; BPF; NF; voltage followers; buffer amplifiers; CJFET; neutron flux; cryogenic temperatures
Online: 21 December 2021 (13:49:14 CET)
In this paper consider the circuitry of voltage followers (VF) with unity-gain, intended for practical use in active Sallen-Key RC-filters (LPF, HPF, BPF, RF). The results of research and computer modeling of radiation-resistant and low-temperature VF in the LTSpice environment on models of CJFET transistors operating under the influence of neutron flux up to 10e14 n/cm2 and cryogenic temperatures up to -197°C are presented.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0376.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Diffuse large B cell lymphoma; non-Hodgkin lymphoma; apoptosis; genetics; BCL2; NF-kB; TP53; mutations; translocations; amplifications
Online: 14 April 2021 (12:32:31 CEST)
Diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is curable with chemoimmunotherapy in ~65% of patients. One of the hallmarks of the pathogenesis and resistance to therapy in DLBCL is inhibition of apoptosis, which allows malignant cells to survive and acquire further alterations. Inhibition of apoptosis can be the result of genetic events inhibiting the intrinsic or extrinsic apoptotic pathways, as well as their modulators, such as the inhibitor of apoptosis proteins, P53, and components of the NF-kB pathway. Mechanisms of dysregulation include upregulation of anti-apoptotic proteins and downregulation of pro-apoptotic proteins via point mutations, amplifications, deletions, translocations, and influences of other proteins. Understanding the factors contributing to resistance to apoptosis in DLBCL is crucial in order to be able to develop targeted therapies that could improve outcomes by restoring apoptosis in malignant cells. This review describes the genetic events inhibiting apoptosis in DLBCL, provides a perspective of their interactions in lymphomagenesis, and discuss their implication for the future of DLBCL therapy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0749.v2
Subject: Keywords: SARS-CoV-2 infection; Interleukin 6; NFB; Nsp5; Cox2; SARS-CoV-2 interactome; Nonlinear dynamics of inflammation
Online: 15 March 2021 (12:18:02 CET)
In the present work we propose a dynamical mathematical model of the lung cells inflammation process in response to SARS-CoV-2 infection. In this scenario the main protease Nsp5 enhances the inflammatory process, increasing the levels of NF kB, IL-6, Cox2, and PGE2 with respect to a reference state without the virus. In presence of the virus the translation rates of NF kB and IkB arise to a high constant value, and when the translation rate of IL-6 also increases above the threshold value of 7 pg mL-1 s-1 the model predicts a persistent over stimulated immune state with high levels of the cytokine IL-6. Our model shows how such over stimulated immune state becomes autonomous of the signals from other immune cells such as macrophages and lymphocytes, and does not shut down by itself. We also show that in the context of the dynamical model presented here, Dexamethasone or Nimesulide have little effect on such inflammation state of the infected lung cell, and the only form to suppress it is with the inhibition of the activity of the viral protein Nsp5.To that end, our model suggest that drugs like Saquinavir may be useful. In this form, our model suggests that Nsp5 is effectively a central node underlying the severe acute lung inflammation during SARS-CoV-2 infection. The persistent production of IL-6 by lung cells can be one of the causes of the cytokine storm observed in critical patients with COVID19. Nsp5 seems to be the switch to start inflammation, the consequent overproduction of the ACE2 receptor, and an important underlying cause of the most severe cases of COVID19.