REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0200.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: antioxidant; anti-inflammatory; cardiovascular; Channa striatus; diabetes
Online: 9 August 2021 (14:59:08 CEST)
Diabetes mellitus remains a major risk factor for developing cardiovascular diseases, resulting in increased morbidity and mortality associated with cardiovascular complications. Given the burden of diabetes-related cardiovascular complications, there is a need to identify strategies, safe and effective therapeutic agents that could effectively prevent and control diabetes. Presently, many patients living with diabetes depends on traditional medicines as an alternative cure. Channa striatus (Haruan) is a freshwater fish traditionally used to treat wounds, inflammations, and pains. Several pharmacological investigations have supported the folkloric claims of C. striatus extracts, including hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and pro-platelet aggregation activities. The therapeutic potentials of C. striatus were demonstrated to be associated with the presence of high content essential amino acids and good fatty acids known to improve cell growth and facilitate wound healing. Therefore, C. striatus bioactive compounds have great potentials to serve as lead candidates in developing novel therapeutic agents for the management of diabetes and related cardiovascular diseases. This review aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the pharmacological properties and therapeutic potentials of C. striatus for the management of diabetes and associated cardiovascular complications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0472.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: aspirin; pharmacometabolomic; nuclear magnetic resonance; spectroscopy; gastric toxicity; multivariate analysis
Online: 31 January 2022 (17:26:48 CET)
Background: Low-dose aspirin (LDA) is the backbone for secondary prevention of coronary artery disease, though limited by gastric toxicity. This study was aimed to identify novel metabolites that could predict LDA-induced gastric toxicity using pharmacometabolomics. Methods: Pre-dosed urine samples were collected from male Sprague-Dawley rats. The rats were treated with either LDA (10 mg/kg) or 1% methylcellulose (10 ml/kg) per oral for 28 days. The rats' stomachs were examined for gastric toxicity using a stereomicroscope. The urine samples were analyzed using a proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Metabolites were systematically identified by exploring established databases and multivariate analyses to identify the spectral pattern of metabolites related to LDA-induced gastric toxicity. Results: Treatment with LDA resulted in gastric toxicity in 20/32 rats (62.5%). The orthogonal projections to latent structures discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) model displayed a goodness-of-fit (R2Y) value of 0.947, suggesting a near-perfect reproducibility, a goodness-of-prediction (Q2Y) of -0.185 with perfect sensitivity, specificity and accuracy (100%). Furthermore, the area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) displayed was 1. The final OPLS-DA model had an R2Y value of 0.726 and Q2Y of 0.142 with sensitivity (100%), specificity (95.0%) and accuracy (96.9%). Citrate, hippurate, methylamine, trimethylamine N-oxide and alpha-keto-glutarate were identified as the possible metabolites implicated in the LDA-induced gastric toxicity. Conclusion: The study identiﬁed metabolic signatures that correlated with the development of a low dose Aspirin-induced gastric toxicity in rats. This pharmacometabolomic approach could further be validated to predict LDA-induced gastric toxicity in patients with coronary artery disease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0193.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: bioassay; chromatography; folkloric medicine; methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus; Senna alata; spectroscopy
Online: 13 September 2021 (07:21:28 CEST)
Senna alata (Linn) Roxb. plant is widely used to manage various infections in folkloric medicine. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection continues to be a major global public health problem. This study aims to investigate the bioactive components of S. alata leaves active against MRSA. The leaves of S. alata were sequentially extracted and fractionated using standard methods and screened for activities against MRSA. The diethyl ether active thin layer chromatography (TLC) spot was subjected to infrared (IR) and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopic (GC-MS) studies. The aqueous extract and diethyl ether fraction of S. alata leaves elicited the highest activity against the MRSA. The GC-MS analysis of the fraction produced 15 eluates; only the sub-fraction 13 was effective. The TLC analysis of the sub-fraction 13 revealed three spots; only the second spot produced activity. The GC-MS result of the spot showed six peaks. The spectral results for peak 3 match the data from the IR study suggestive of 9-octadecenoic acid methyl ester. Senna alata leaves possess bioactive compounds closely related to 9-octadecenoic acid methyl ester with potent antibacterial activity against MRSA.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0227.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: endoplasmic reticulum; endoplasmic reticulum stress; apoptosis; homeostasis; unfolded protein response; type II diabetes
Online: 8 June 2021 (13:07:30 CEST)
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) plays a multifunctional role in lipid biosynthesis, calcium storage, protein folding, and processing. Thus, maintaining ER homeostasis in insulin-secreting beta-cells is essential. Several pathophysiological conditions and pharmacological agents disrupt the ER homeostasis, thereby causing ER stress. The cells react to ER stress by initiating an adaptive signaling process called the unfolded protein response (UPR). However, the ER initiates death signaling pathways whenever the ER stress persists. ER stress has been linked to several diseases, such as cancers, obesity, and diabetes. Thus, the regulation of ER stress may provide possible therapeutic targets for many diseases. Current evidence suggests that chronic hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia linked to type II diabetes disrupt ER homeostasis, resulting in irreversible UPR activation and cells death. Despite much progress in understanding the pathophysiology of UPR and ER stress, to date, the mechanisms of ER stress in relation to type II diabetes remain unclear. This review provided up-to-date information regarding the current status of UPR, ER stress mechanisms, insulin dysfunction, oxidative stress, and the therapeutic potential of targeting specific ER stress pathways.