ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0511.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: Antioxidant enzymes; hemibiotroph; reactive oxygen species; host-pathogen interaction; sporulation
Online: 21 December 2020 (11:23:57 CET)
Wheat blast caused by the hemibiotroph fungal pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae Triticum (MoT) pathotype, is a destructive disease of wheat in South America and Bangladesh. Generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is one of the defense responses in plants during the infection process by a pathogen. However, empirical evidence on regulation of ROS in wheat and other host and non-host plants towards MoT is limited. This study aimed to determine the susceptibility of some major cereals and weeds of Bangladesh and compare the antioxidant enzyme activities in host and non-host plants in response to artificial inoculation by MoT. Seedlings of wheat, maize, barley and swamp rice grass were susceptible to MoT and produced considerable number of conidia on infected leaves (host). Rice seedlings showed a resistant response in our laboratory conditions (non-host). The activities of ROS-detoxifying enzymes; catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), Glutathione peroxidase (GPX), Glutathione S-transferase (GST), Peroxidase (POX) increased in all plants after inoculation by MoT with a few exceptions. Interestingly, an early and very high accumulation of CAT was observed within 24 hours of inoculation (hai) in wheat, barley, maize and swamp rice grass while H2O2 concentration was low during that time and immediately after that (24-48 hai). In contrast, an early and high accumulation of H2O2 was observed in rice at 48 hai with little CAT activity only at a late stage. The APX, GST and POD activity was also increased due to the inoculation of MoT at the early stage of infection in rice but were very high at the disease progression stage in wheat, barley, maize and swamp rice grass. GPX activity gradually decreased with the increase of time in rice. Taken together, our results suggest that a robust and late induction of most of the antioxidant enzyme activities occurs in susceptible/host plants whereas an early induction of antioxidant enzyme activities occurs in resistant/ non-host plant but with slow kinetics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0382.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biotechnology Keywords: Bacillus; bacterial antagonist; genome sequence; antimicrobial peptide; biologicals
Online: 21 November 2022 (07:43:01 CET)
Plant diseases are among the major factors affecting plant productivity. Biological control of plant diseases is preferred over chemical control as it is environment-friendly, cost-effective, and sustainable. Among many microbes capable of providing biological control of plant diseases, probiotic Bacillus species are most promising as they can survive in adverse conditions, provide plants with a wide range of benefits including protection from phytopathogens. Wheat blast caused by Magnaporthe oryzae Triticum pathotype (MoT) has emerged as a potential threat to global wheat production. Due to unreliability of fungicides and limited cultivar resistance, we aimed to screen and identify potential antagonist bacteria collected from internal tissues of rice and wheat seeds to determine their in vitro and in vivo inhibitory effects against MoT. Dual culture and seedling assays were performed to evaluate the efficacy of probiotic bacteria. Out of 170 bacterial isolates, three bacteria (BTS-3, BTS-4, and BTLK6A) were screened as potential antagonists against MoT in vitro. Artificial inoculation at the seedling stage showed that the isolates BTS-4, BTS–3, and BTLK6A reduced 89, 88, and 85% of wheat blast disease severity, respectively, compared to mock-inoculated control. The bacterial isolates were identified as Bacillus subtilis (BTS-3) and B. velezensis (BTS-4 and BTLK6A) through genome phylogeny. The whole genome sequence of these three bacterial strains decoded a number of orthologs to intrinsic genes of antimicrobial peptides, antioxidant defense enzymes, cell wall degrading enzymes, compounds involved in the induction of systemic resistance (ISR) in host plants, and volatile compounds to make them promising biologicals to control MoT in wheat. Combined data of in vitro and in vivo along with genome analysis suggest that Bacillus spp. suppress the destructive wheat blast disease likely through antibiosis and ISR in the host plants. Further field evaluation and characterization of antimicrobial compounds are needed for a better understanding of the mode of action and practical recommendation of these bacteria for wheat blast control in the farmers’ fields.