ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0145.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: emotion and will; music therapy; five phases, five phases music therapy; psychology
Online: 29 November 2017 (09:54:48 CET)
Music therapy has served as complementary and alternative medicine for various neurological disorders. Five Phases Music Therapy (FPMT) employs the theory of five phases and five music scales or tones (宫Gong (do), 商Shang (ri), 角Jue (mi), 徵Zhi (so) and 羽Yu (la)) to analyze and treat mind-body illness. In Chinese Medicine (CM), the five music scales are used to connect the human body and the universe, interpret personalities and constitution and analyze the influences of climatic changes on health. FPMT has a self-contained theory and routine of practice application. Large amounts of clinical and fundamental reports have been available and clinical benefits have been obtained. However more systemic clinic research esp. evidence-based and random controlled trials must be performed to validate and optimize its routines and biological and neurological mechanism must be further explored. It’s reasonable to believe that the effective music therapy will attract more attention from the world outside China with the introduction of FPMT.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0392.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Anthropology & Ethnography Keywords: Music; Metaphisics; Theology; Philosophy; clasical music; religious music; mystic extasis; Archetype
Online: 19 July 2021 (08:34:14 CEST)
This article aims to analyze music from a philosophical and theological perspective, using the principles of multi- and transdisciplinary methodology. After a brief introduction, which presents the main moments in the history of the musical phenomenon, a first chapter addresses the metaphysical dimension of music in classical composers. The second chapter shows the position of philosophers towards music, starting with Pythagoras and ending with Schopenhauer. The third chapter focuses on music theology in general, but also on the theology and metaphysics of music to the French philosopher of Romanian origin, Emil Cioran, who, after Augustin and Schopenhauer, wrote probably the deepest pages on the ontology of music. The last chapter refers to to the archetypal character of music.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0494.v1
Subject: Engineering, General Engineering Keywords: computational music expressive performance; popular music; music production; Digital Audio Workstation; virtual instruments
Online: 26 December 2022 (15:52:01 CET)
In music, the role of the interpreter is to play her/his part manipulating the performance parameters in order to offer a sonic rendition of the piece capable of conveying specific expressive intentions. Since the 1980s there has been a growing interest in computational expressive music performance (EMP). This research field has two fundamental objectives: the understanding of the phenomenon of human musical interpretation and the automatic generation of expressive performances. Rule based, statistical, machine and deep learning approaches have been proposed, most of them devoted to the classical repertoire, in particular to piano pieces. On the contrary, we present an introduction to the role of expressive performance within popular music and to the contemporary ecology of pop music production, based on the use of Digital Audio Workstations (DAWs) and virtual instruments. After an analysis of the tools related to expressiveness commonly available to modern producers we propose a detailed survey of research into the computational EMP field, highlighting the potential and limits of what is present in literature with respect to the context of popular music, which by its nature cannot be completely superimposed on the classical one. In the concluding discussion we suggest possible lines of future research in the field of computational expressiveness applied to pop music.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0301.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: Emotion prediction; music; music emotion dataset; affective computing
Online: 20 October 2022 (08:33:49 CEST)
Music is capable of conveying many emotions. The level and type of emotion of the music perceived by a listener, however, is highly subjective. In this study, we present the Music Emotion Recognition with Profile information dataset (MERP). This database was collected through Amazon Mechanical Turk (MTurk) and features dynamical valence and arousal ratings of 54 selected full-length songs. The dataset contains music features, as well as user profile information of the annotators. The songs were selected from the Free Music Archive using an innovative method (a Triple Neural Network with the OpenSmile toolkit) to identify 50 songs with the most distinctive emotions. Specifically, the songs were chosen to fully cover the four quadrants of the valence arousal space. Four additional songs were selected from DEAM to act as a benchmark in this study and filter out low quality ratings. A total of 277 participants participated in annotating the dataset, and their demographic information, listening preferences, and musical background were recorded. We offer an extensive analysis of the resulting dataset, together with a baseline emotion prediction model based on a fully connected model and an LSTM model, for our newly proposed MERP dataset.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0499.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: music acoustics, melody discovery, pitch tracking, Indian classical music
Online: 20 November 2018 (11:31:10 CET)
Music acoustics is an interdisciplinary field and mathematics is the basis in the music art form. Music and mathematics correlation exist since the inception of music. Various philosophers, scientists, mathematicians and musicians have expressed their views about this relationship. This paper attempts to explore this association with focus on melodic pattern identification. Mathematics in Indian Classical music with raga as the basis and just intonation tuning system is discussed. Indian vocal music clips are used for different pitch estimation algorithms in the experimentation. Harmonic product spectrum and auto-correlation algorithms are tested for accurate pitch estimation. Enhanced auto-correlation function using audio segmentation is compared with other approaches for effective pitch extraction. Results indicate pitch extraction with enhanced auto-correlation function provides accurate results as compared with other approaches tested.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0433.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: music therapy; preterm infants; family-centered care; parents; self-care; wellbeing; Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU)
Online: 19 November 2018 (08:49:11 CET)
Background: Parents of preterm infants face major mental health challenges in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU). Family-centered music therapy actively integrates and empowers parents in their infant’s care. With the aim to better understand and address parental needs separately from their babies’, a music therapy (MT) self-care group was implemented as part of clinical practice at the hospital Clínica de la Mujer in Bogotá, Colombia. Methods: The group is provided for both parents twice a week in the NICU. Music guided relaxations, breathing techniques, and self-expression are at the center of the MT group sessions. Parents complete a pre/post self-administered Numeric Rating Scale (NRS) including anxiety levels, stress levels, mood and motivation. Results: Parents highly value the MT self-care group at the NICU. On average there is a 37% improvement in anxiety levels, 28% in stress levels, and 12% in mood, restfulness and motivation. Being able to relax, to distract themselves from their worries and having time for themselves are amongst the most frequently mentioned benefits. Conclusions: Addressing parents’ needs separately form their babies’ treatment with culturally sensitive interventions aimed to improve parental mental health, is essential for continuing the development of family-centered music therapy interventions in the NICU.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0387.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Anthropology & Ethnography Keywords: genetic music; genetic code; music composition; steam disciplines; notch1 gene
Online: 13 November 2020 (15:34:47 CET)
In the present work we present a methodology for teaching the basis of the genetic code through music composition, with the aim to combine science and arts learning. The project was carried out by 155 students, the so-called MARGA Consortium, with ages comprised between 10 and 17 years from different public schools located in the Principality of Asturias, Spain. The different groups generated 8 different music works using a short genetic sequence obtained from the human notch1 gene, receptor of mutations leading to chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0122.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Music Studies Keywords: music therapy; stroke rehabilitation; moments of interest; process research; therapeutic relationship; mixed methods; EEG hyperscanning; social neuroscience; medical anthropology
Online: 8 March 2022 (10:41:32 CET)
Interdisciplinary research into the underlying neural processes of music therapy (MT) and subjective experiences of patients and therapists are largely lacking. The aim of the current study was to assess the feasibility of newly developed procedures (including EEG/ECG hyperscanning, synchronous audio-video monitoring, and qualitative interviews) to study the personal experiences and neuronal dynamics of moments of interest during MT with stroke survivors. The feasibility of our mobile set-up and procedures as well as their clinical implementation in a rehabilitation centre and an acute hospital ward were tested with four phase C patients. Protocols and interviews were used for the documentation and analysis of the feasibility. Recruiting patients for MT sessions was feasible, although data collection on three consecutive weeks was not always possible due to organisational constraints, especially in the hospital with acute ward routines. Research procedures were successfully implemented, and according to interviews, none of the patients reported any burden, tiredness or increased stress due to the research procedures, which lasted approx. 3 hours (ranging from 135min to 209min) for each patient. Implementing the research procedures in a rehabilitation unit with stroke patients was feasible and only small adaptations were made for further research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0124.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Anesthesia; Anxiety; Regional anaesthesia; Music Therapy
Online: 6 July 2021 (08:15:16 CEST)
In this study, the effects of music therapy on anxiety for patients undergoing regional anaesthesia in an operating room was succinctly investigated. This investigation was largely based on the adapted Hospital Anxiety and Depression Score (HADS) and Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-S), of patients undergoing regional anaesthesia in an operating room. A randomized control trial was performed on 90 patients due for surgery. The selected patients for regional anaesthesia were allocated to either the music therapy group who listened to music using headphones for the entire surgery or the no-treatment control group. Based on the findings, it has been conclusively demonstrated that music can decrease the patient's anxiety level. According to the socio-demographic evaluation, elderly patients have the highest stress hormones levels when compared to young patients. Although elderly patients are more likely to choose religious songs to help them relax, cortisol analysis revealed an increase in cortisol levels among the elderly compared with younger patients. As a result, music is especially important to be delivered to elderly patients. Nonetheless, there is no restriction against administering music to elderly patients because evidence from the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Score (HADS) and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-S) has shown that music helps to shift their attention away from pain and complications and makes them feel tranquil. Similarly, the HADS and modified Spielberger STAI (STAI-S) analyses demonstrate a substantial outcome for both groups, with respondents responding positively. The study found that listening to music during regional anaesthesia might help people feel less worried.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0359.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Music Studies Keywords: Scambi; Bio-Art; Bio-Music; music; counterpoint; process composition; dynamic programming; Needleman-Wunsch algorithm; global alignment
Online: 30 June 2020 (08:17:20 CEST)
The Needleman-Wunsch process is a classic tool in bioinformatics, being a dynamic programming algorithm that performs a pairwise alignment of two input biological sequences, either protein or nucleic acid. A distance matrix between the tokens used in the sequences is also required as input. The distance matrix is used to generate a positional pairwise similarity matrix between the input sequences, which is in turn used to generate a dynamic programming matrix. The best path through the dynamic programming matrix is navigated using a traceback procedure that maximises similarity, inserting gaps as necessary. Needleman-Wunsch can align both nucleic acids or proteins, which use alphabets of size 4 and 20 tokens respectively. It can also be applied to any other kind of sequence where distance matrices can be specified. Here, we apply it to chains of Pousseur’s Scambi electronic music fragments, of which there are 32, and which Pousseur categorised by their sonic properties, thus permitting the consecutive construction of distance, similarity and dynamic programming matrices. Traceback through the dynamic programming matrix thus produces contrapuntal duet compositions in which two Scambi chains are played in the maximally euphonious manner, providing also an illustration of the principles of biological sequence alignment in sound.
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Music Studies Keywords: artificial intelligence; popular music; posthuman; creativity; uncanny valley
Online: 24 July 2019 (10:49:29 CEST)
This article presents an overview of the first AI-human collaborated album, Hello World, by SKYGGE, which utilizes Sony’s Flow Machines technologies. This case study is situated within an overview of current and emerging uses of AI in popular music production, and connects those uses with myths and fears that have circulated in discourses concerning the use of AI in general, but also in music specifically. By proposing the concept of an audio uncanny valley in relation to AIPM (artificial intelligence popular music), this article offers a lens through which to examine the more novel and unusual melodies and harmonisations made possible through AI music generation, and questions how this content relates to wider speculations about posthumanism, sincerity, and authenticity in both popular music, and more wider assumptions of anthropocentric creativity. In its documentation of the emergence of a new era of popular music, the AI era, this article surveys: (1) the current landscape of artificial intelligence popular music focusing on the use of Markov models for generative purposes; (2) posthumanist creativity and the potential for an audio uncanny valley; and (3) issues of perceived authenticity in the technologically mediated “voice”.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0133.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Music Studies Keywords: quantitative musicology, biodiversity, ecology, interdisciplinary research, music analysis
Online: 20 April 2017 (10:43:40 CEST)
This paper introduces an ecological approach to quantifying diversity in musical compositions. The approach considers notations with distinct pitches and duration as equivalents of species in ecosystems, measures within a composition as equivalents of ecosystems, and the sum of measures (i.e., the entire composition) as a landscape in which ecosystems are embedded. Structural diversity can be calculated at the level of measures (“alpha diversity”) and the entire composition (“gamma diversity”). An additional metric can be derived that quantifies the structural differentiation between measures in a composition (“beta diversity”). We demonstrate the suitability of the approach in music using specifically composed examples and real songs that vary in complexity. We discuss the potential of the approach with selected examples from a potentially ample spectrum of applications within musicology research. The method seems particularly suitability for hypothesis testing to objectively identify many of the intricate phenomena in music. Because the approach extracts information present in the compositions – it lets the songs tell their structure – it can complement more complex modeling approaches used by music scholars. Combined such approaches provide opportunities for interdisciplinary research. They can help to fill knowledge gaps, stimulate further research and increase our understanding of music.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0026.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Music Studies Keywords: Scambi; fushi tarazu; Drosophila; BioArt; BioMusic; music; process composition
Online: 4 January 2020 (04:47:51 CET)
The term Bio-Art has entered common usage to describe the interaction between the arts and the biological sciences. Although Bio-Art implies that Bio-Music would be one of its obvious sub-disciplines, the latter term has been much less frequently used. Nevertheless, there has been no shortage of projects that have brought together music and the biological sciences. Most of these projects have allowed the biological data to dictate to a large extent the sound produced, for instance the translation of genome or protein sequences into musical phrases, and therefore may be regarded as process compositions. Here I describe a Bio-Music process composition that derives its biological input from a visual representation of the expression pattern of the gene fushi tarazu in the Drosophila embryo. An equivalent pattern is constructed from the Scambi portfolio of short electronic music fragments created by Henri Pousseur in the 1950s. This general form of the resulting electronic composition follows that of the fushi tarazu pattern, while satisfying the rules of the Scambi compositional framework devised by Pousseur. The range and flexibility of Scambi make it ideally suited to other Bio-Music projects wherever there is a requirement, or desire, to build larger sonic structures from small units.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0122.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Cognitive & Experimental Psychology Keywords: music; language; syntax; attention; comprehension; electroencephalography; event-related potentials
Online: 13 June 2019 (13:13:57 CEST)
Music and language are hypothesized to share neural resources, particularly at the level of syntax processing. Recent reports suggest that attention modulates this sharing of neural resources, but the time-course of the effects of attention, and the degree to which attention operates similarly on music and language, are yet unclear. In this EEG study we manipulate the syntactic structure of simultaneously presented musical chord progressions and garden-path sentences in a modified rapid serial visual presentation paradigm, while varying top-down attentional demands to the two modalities. The Early Right Anterior Negativity (ERAN) was observed in response to both attended and unattended musical syntax violations. In contrast, an N400 was only observed in response to attended linguistic syntax violations, and a P3 only in response to attended musical syntax violations. Results show that top-down allocation of attention indeed affects the processing of syntax in both music and language, with different neural resources acting upon the two modalities particularly at later stages of cognitive processing. However, the processing of musical syntax at an earlier stage of the perceptual-cognitive pathway, as indexed by the ERAN, is partially automatic, and is strongly indicative of separate neural resources for music and language.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0157.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Music Studies Keywords: Guru-Shishya parampara; gharana; Indian Classical Music; MFDFA; MFDXA
Online: 15 April 2019 (10:46:10 CEST)
Indian classical music is entirely based on the “Raga” structures. In Indian classical music, a “Gharana” or school refers to the adherence of a group of musicians to a particular musical style of performing a raga. The objective of this work was to find out if any characteristic acoustic cues exist which discriminates a particular gharana from the other. Another intriguing fact is if the artists of the same gharana keep their singing style unchanged over generations or evolution of music takes place like everything else in nature. In this work, we chose to study the similarities and differences in singing style of some artists from at least four consecutive generations representing four different gharanas using robust non-linear methods. For this, alap parts of a particular raga sung by all the artists were analyzed with the help of non linear multifractal analysis (MFDFA and MFDXA) technique. The spectral width obtained from the MFDFA method gives an estimate of the complexity of the signal whereas the cross correlation coefficient obtained from the MFDXA technique gives the degree of correlation between two nonlinear time series. The observations give a cue in the direction to the scientific recognition of “Guru-Shisya Parampara” (teacher-student tradition)—a hitherto much-heard philosophical term. Moreover the variation in the complexity patterns among various gharanas will give a hint of the characteristic feature of that particular gharana as well as the effect of globalization in the field of classical music happening through past few decades.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0120.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Music Studies Keywords: overture; opera; oratorio; Romantic Era; 19th century musicology; music theory
Online: 7 December 2022 (08:46:22 CET)
Opera and oratorio overtures exist in an indeterminate state between purely symphonic and dramatic music. While they can be and often are extracted for symphonic programs, they are ultimately tied to the story to which they grant the audience a preview of the story and music yet to come. Those that are easily extracted are so independent due to their structure, one well known to the symphony: the sonata form. In studying overtures from the 19th century, however, one can trace a decline of the sonata form overture for one that is more subservient to the dramatic story soon to follow it. In this paper, three representatives of the early, mid and late period of the highlight this steady shift away from sonata form. Using Hepokoski and Darcy’s Elements of Sonata Theory: Norms, Types, and Deformations in the Late-Eighteenth-Century Sonata, I will categorize these overtures into one of the five sonata types listed therein. The increasing number of deformations as one moves through the overtures chronologically will illustrate the deliberate decline of use of the sonata form for the overture in favor of a clearer reflection of the upcoming story.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0014.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Clinical Neurology Keywords: EEG; music therapy; acoustic features; machine learning; emotional-response predictions
Online: 1 July 2021 (11:12:19 CEST)
Music has the ability to evoke a wide variety of emotions in human listeners. Research has shown that treatment for depression and mental health disorders is significantly more effective when it is complemented by music therapy. However, because each human experiences music-induced emotions differently, there is no systematic way to accurately predict how people will respond to different types of music at an individual level. In this experiment, a model is created to predict humans’ emotional responses to music from both their electroencephalographic data (EEG) and the acoustic features of the music. By using recursive feature elimination (RFE) to extract the most relevant and performing features from the EEG and music, a regression model is fit and accurately correlates the patient’s actual music-induced emotional responses and model’s predicted responses. By reaching a mean correlation of r = 0.788, this model is significantly more accurate than previous works attempting to predict music-induced emotions (e.g. a 370% increase in accuracy as compared to Daly et al. (2015)). The results of this regression fit suggest that accurately predicting how people respond to music from brain activity is possible. Furthermore, by testing this model on specific features extracted from any musical clip, music that is most likely to evoke a happier and pleasant emotional state in an individual can be determined. This may allow music therapy practitioners, as well as music-listeners more broadly, to select music that will improve mood and mental health.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: music therapy; telemedicine; telehealth; remote therapy; COVID-19; adaptation; scoping review
Online: 24 March 2021 (17:10:58 CET)
Background: In the midst of a worldwide COVID-19 pandemic music therapists previously not involved in telehealth had to develop effective remote forms of music therapy. The objective of this review was to systematically explore how music therapists previously working in-person adapted to the transfer to remote forms of therapy in the context of the coronavirus outbreak. Methods: We searched Scopus, Web of Science Core Collection, CINAHL, Medline, ProQuest Central, PubMed, EMBASE, PsycINFO and PsyARTICLES, grey literature (October 2020), and websites of professional organizations. We followed the JBI methodology for scoping reviews. Results: Out of the 194 screened texts, we included ten very heterogenous articles with an overall very low quality. Most texts described remote therapy in the form of synchronous video calls using the Internet, one paper described a concert in a patio of a residential home. We report the authors´ experience with the adaptation and activities, challenges and benefits of remote forms of therapy, recommendations of organizations, and examples and tips for online therapies. Conclusions: Music therapists have adapted the musical instruments, the hours, the technology used, the therapeutic goals, the way they prepared their clients for sessions, and other aspects. They needed to be more flexible, consult with colleagues more, and mind the client-therapist relationship's boundaries. It seems, when taken as a necessary short-term measure, online music therapy works sufficiently well. The majority of papers stated that benefits outweighed the challenges, although many benefits were directly linked with the pandemic context.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0284.v4
Subject: Life Sciences, Genetics Keywords: hyperbolic numbers; matrix; eigenvectors; genetics; Punnett squares; Fibonacci numbers; phyllotaxis; music harmony; literary texts; doubly stochastic matrices
Online: 13 April 2020 (11:04:05 CEST)
The article is devoted to applications of 2-dimensional hyperbolic numbers and their algebraic 2n-dimensional extensions in modeling some genetic and cultural phenomena. Mathematical properties of hyperbolic numbers and their bisymmetric matrix representations are described in a connection with their application to analyze the following structures: alphabets of DNA nucleobases; inherited phyllotaxis phenomena; Punnett squares in Mendelian genetics; the psychophysical Weber-Fechner law; long literary Russian texts (in their special binary representations). New methods of algebraic analysis of the harmony of musical works are proposed, taking into account the innate predisposition of people to music. The hypothesis is put forward that sets of eigenvectors of matrix representations of basis units of 2n-dimensional hyperbolic numbers play an important role in transmitting biological information. A general hyperbolic rule regarding the oligomer cooperative organization of different genomes is described jointly with its quantum-information model. Besides, the hypothesis about some analog of the Weber-Fechner law for sequences of spikes in single nerve fibers is formulated. The proposed algebraic approach is connected with the theme of the grammar of biology and applications of bisymmetric doubly stochastic matrices. Applications of hyperbolic numbers reveal hidden interrelations between structures of different biological and physical phenomena. They lead to new approaches in mathematical modeling genetic phenomena and innate biological structures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0199.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Music Studies Keywords: auditory arts; psychiatry; heavy metal music; mental disorder; bipolar; education; awareness
Online: 27 March 2017 (10:45:03 CEST)
1) Background: Bipolar or manic-depressive disorder is a malign mental disease that frequently faces social stigma. Educational and thinking models are needed to increase people’s awareness and understanding of the disorder. The arts have potential to achieve this goal. 2) Methods: This paper builds on the recent use of heavy metal music as a thinking and education model. It emphasizes the artistic component of heavy metal and its potential to characterize the symptomatology during the episodes of (hypo)mania and depression and the recurrence of these episodes. Heavy metal music has diversified into subgenres that become allegorical to both the symptoms of episodes and the recurrence of bipolar cycles. 3) Results: Examples of songs are given that mirror distinct facets of the disorder. 4) Conclusion: Although the links drawn between art (music) and science (psychiatry) are inherently subjective, such connections might be used to trigger a learning process, facilitate judgment and decision-making, and induce affective reactions and memory formation in the listener. The approach may facilitate collaborative efforts and serve healthcare professionals and educators as a communication tool to aid the public’s comprehension of the disease and an associated social paradox: On one hand, bipolar disorder incurs substantial costs to society. On the other hand, it benefits from the creative artistic and scientific endeavors of bipolar individuals from which cultural and political gains may ensue.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0421.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Music Studies Keywords: Music, Power laws, Zipf’s law, Noise profiles, Timescape, Wavelet, Schumann, Chopin, Mendelssohn
Online: 27 January 2022 (12:34:26 CET)
Power law relationships, which describe scaling relationships of data, are powerful information theoretic descriptive tools in many empirical contexts, including that of music. Zipf’s law (pink noise) describes the optimum case of a power law relation where observations are exactly inversely proportional to their rank. Descriptions that approximate a pink noise signature can be said to maximize the amount of information in a signal, and is thus suggestive of a richness of an understanding. This information density of pink noise signatures is not, however, necessarily a desirable quality for explanations in general, which, by definition, “flattens out” some data while highlighting others, ideally those most relevant to an interpretation. The privileging of data most relevant to comprehension corresponds to a red noise relationship, as opposed to the pink noise of Zipf’s law or the white noise of a description that highlights nothing in particular. Here, I explore and evaluate this concept of red noise explanations in the form of analyses of three comparable short piano works: Robert Schumann’s “Von fremden Ländern und Menschen” (no.1 from Kinderszenen op. 15, 1838), Frédéric Chopin’s Prelude op. 28 no. 20 (1838-9), and Felix Mendelssohn’s “Venetianisches Gondellied” (no. 6 from Lieder ohne Worte op. 19b, 1829-30).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0360.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: music production, latent space, live system, recurrent autoencoder, dynamic time warping, compression
Online: 15 March 2021 (08:04:00 CET)
The onset of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), an infectious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has sparked unprecedented change. Due to the public health guidelines imposed during the COVID-19 pandemic, there is no longer sufficient street traffic for remaining buskers to generate sufficient revenue, leading a majority of street musicians to pursue remote music production. However, real-time music production is notoriously difficult due to the excessively high latencies that current video call platforms such as Zoom and Google Meet harbor. In this paper, we propose an architecture for a platform with end-to-end, near-lossless audio transmission tailored specifically to online joint music production, called Latent Space. We discuss the usage of a recurrent autoencoder with sequence-aware encoding (RAES) and a 1D convolutional layer for audio compression, which we dub ClefNet, as well as propose a new evaluation metric for naive autoencoders (AEs), MSE-DTW loss, which combines the traditional mean square error (MSE) loss function with dynamic time warping (DTW) to prevent an increase in loss when the target sequence predicted by the AE is strictly a temporal variation of the source sequence. Moreover, we detail the logistics of a live system implementation which uses the Web Audio API to extract raw audio samples in real-time to feed into our client-side model before relaying the traffic using peer-to-peer WebRTC technology. The Latent Space platform can be accessed at https://latent-space.tech, and the code and data can be found under the MIT License at https://github.com/rvignav/ClefNet.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0195.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: Executive functions; music education; cognitive development; planning; inhibition; decision making; working memory
Online: 8 February 2021 (11:44:19 CET)
In recent years, music education in Ibero-America has been losing ground within the school environment in favor of the development of curricular systems that benefit academic results in standardized tests. Despite this, several studies in the field of cognitive neurosciences have found evidence of great relevance and in which it can be observed how music education can favor cognitive development and performance in practically all stages of human development, with important results in language tasks, attention, and executive functions such as planning, inhibition, cognitive flexibility and working memory.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0148.v1
Subject: Keywords: Music-making; Cerebrospinal fluid; Myodural bridge; Somatic rhythmic motion; CSF-static compartment
Online: 7 December 2020 (12:34:58 CET)
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)-contacting neurons (CSF-N) located in the surface of both brain ventricles and the central canal (cc) in the spinal cord. The cc and CSF maintain a proliferative niche for neural progenitor cells and play a vital role in development of the brain. The CSF circulates in the ventricles and the subarachnoid spaces with the CSF rhythmic flow: cardiac pulsation and respiratory fluctuation. A new concept of CSF motion may be contrary to the classical one that the direction of CSF motion may vary in direction and may be dynamic in its location. The CSF pressure may also depend on the body position. Moderate music-making has been considered a potential approach for rehabilitative and restorative therapy of brain dysfunctions. Recently, we find that the CSF-Ns are present in both the interior CFS in the cc and also exterior CSF around the surface of the spinal cord. We hypothesize that CSF-N as mechanical sensors in the spinal cord could sense motion of the spinal cord. The myodural bridge is a ligament connecting a pair of deep, upper-neck muscles to the dura mater, which envelops the arachnoid mater and contains the CSF surrounding the brain and the spinal cord. We figure out the term “CSF-static compartment” and classify CSF storage location as rostral pool and caudal pool to demonstrate our hypothesis. We presume that the somatic body movement with music-making and rehabilitation-based interventions would orchestrate the CSF motion with head movement, myodural bridge stretching and puling as well as spinal bending.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0388.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: social noise; auditory, non-auditory noise effects; personal music players; university students
Online: 30 November 2019 (10:07:18 CET)
Purpose: The study is aimed to quantify the effects of social noise (personal music players (PMP), high-intensity noise exposure events) and road traffic noise exposures in the sample of Slovak university students living and studying in Bratislava. Methods: There were 1,003 university students (306 males and 697 females, average age 23.13±2) enrolled in the study; 347 lived in the student housing facility exposed to road traffic noise (LAeq =67.6 dB) and 656 in the control one (LAeq =53.4 dB). Respondents completed a validated ICBEN 5-grade scale “Noise annoyance questionnaire”. The exposure to PMP was objectified by the conversion of the subjective evaluation of the volume setting and duration. With the cooperation of the ENT specialist, we arranged audiometric examinations on the pilot sample of 41 volunteers. Results: From the total sample of 1,003 students, 794 (79.16 %) of them reported the use of PMP in the course of the last week; average time of 285 minutes. There was a significant difference in PMP use between the exposed (85.59 %) and the control group (75.76 %) (p=0.01). Among PMP users 30.7 % exceeded the LAV (lower action value for industry LAeq,8h = 80 dB). On a pilot sample of volunteers (n=41) audiometry testing was performed indicating a hearing threshold shift at higher frequencies in 22% of subjects. Conclusions: The results of the study on a sample of young healthy individuals showed the importance of exposure to environmental noise from different sources (transportation, neighborhood, construction, entertainment facilities, etc.) as well as social noise and the need for prevention and intervention.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0126.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Speech/Music Classification; Enhanced Voice Service, Long Short-Term Memory, Big Data
Online: 5 November 2018 (17:02:36 CET)
Speech/music classification that facilitates optimized signal processing from classification results has been extensively adapted as an essential part of various electronics applications, such as multi-rate audio codecs, automatic speech recognition, and multimedia document indexing. In this paper, a new technique to improve the robustness of speech/music classifier for 3GPP enhanced voice service (EVS) using long short-term memory (LSTM) is proposed. For effective speech/music classification, feature vectors implemented with the LSTM are chosen from the features of the EVS. Experiments show that LSTM-based speech/music classification produces better results than conventional EVS under a variety of conditions and types of speech/music data.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0345.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Developmental Psychology Keywords: foetus; music perception; tempo; heart rate variability; ultrasound exam; APIB scale; habituation; sensitization
Online: 16 July 2020 (07:49:50 CEST)
Music perception in foetuses has been explored under different theoretical paradigms such as habituation, categorical perception, sound preferences and recall. This study investigated the temporal dimension of music perception through the habituation and sensitization paradigm. Foetuses of 41 pregnant women, mean gestational age of 34.7 weeks (±2.4), were observed during ultrasound exams. Foetuses’ reaction to two different tempos (Allegro vs Adagio) and sources (internal vs external) of music stimuli was registered by heart rate variability (HR) and motor response according to the Assessment of Preterm Infants Behaviour scale (APIB) by its factors of movement (MOV) and organization (ORG). A folkloric lullaby, sung and played live with a stringed instrument by a musician, was presented in three stages that were compared to baseline: 1) slow tempo (Adagio), 2) fast tempo (Allegro); and 3) now sung by mother at slow tempo (Adagio). Exploratory analyses showed that all factors increased from baseline to first stage. HR and ORG varied significantly among stages, with HR being the strongest factor. MOV merely detected change from baseline to first stage. ORG decreased for Allegro but increased for maternal Adagio, while HR decreased to near baseline values. ANOVA-repeated measures with gestational age as covariate showed that all measures were sensitive to first music presentation (Adagio), although only HR and ORG differed among stages. Considering estimated marginal means, adjusted for gestational age, HR presented a sensitization pattern throughout stages, but ORG kept habituating to external source and increased to maternal Adagio, suggesting foetal discrimination by sound source. We conclude that foetuses showed different behavioural and physiological responses to external versus internal sound source and musical tempo. The combined use of a behavioural scale (APIB) and HR in foetuses proved to be a valid multidimensional instrument.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0149.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: Optical Music Recognition; Historical Document Analysis; Medieval manuscripts; neume notation; CNN; LSTM; CTC
Online: 15 January 2020 (12:11:25 CET)
The automatic recognition of scanned Medieval manuscripts still represents a challenge due to degradation, non standard layouts, or notations. This paper focuses on the Medieval square notation developed around the 11th century which is composed of staff lines, clefs, accidentals, and neumes which are basically connected single notes. We present a novel approach to tackle the automatic transcription by applying CNN/LSTM networks that are trained using the segmentation-free CTC-loss-function which considerably facilitates the GT-production. For evaluation, we use three different manuscripts and achieve a dSAR of 86.0% on the most difficult book and 92.2% on the cleanest one. To further improve the results, we apply a neume dictionary during decoding which yields a relative improvement of about 5%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0147.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Music Studies Keywords: Opera and Politics; McCarthyism; Aaron Copland; Red Scare; Music and Society; 20th Century Musicology
Online: 8 December 2022 (07:37:38 CET)
Aaron Copland’s only full-length opera, The Tender Land has had a difficult production history. Critics of the 1954 New York City Opera Premiere bemoaned the atypical storyline, the music declared too dry, and the singing too sparse. The opera’s failure to dazzle initial audiences is likely because it was originally written for television. Copland was commissioned to write this opera for television in 1952, but was rejected by NBC in 1953, with no official explanation given as to why. The New York City Opera premiere, therefore, was not an accurate representation of Aaron Copland's vision. The opera eventually did find receptive audiences, each success marked by a smaller, more intimate venue, not unlike the intimacy afforded on a sound stage. Perhaps most notable of these was the touring 1993 University of Minnesota production that performed in barns and farmhouses throughout the Midwest. Through this tour, the opera reached a rural community mirrored in the story, providing much more opportunity for the audience to connect to the characters. However, the question remains what caused NBC to initially reject the opera. This paper exposes the likely political obstacles that prevented Copland’s opera from premiering in its intended medium, and the subsequent consequences of displacing The Tender Land from its television premiere.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0320.v1
Subject: Biology, Physiology Keywords: music; blood-brain barrier; lymphatic system; amyloid-β protein; detrended fluctuation analysis; electroencephalographic patterns.
Online: 20 September 2021 (09:02:40 CEST)
The lymphatic system of the brain meninges and head plays a crucial role in the clearance of amyloid-β protein (Aβ), a peptide thought to be pathogenic in Alzheimer’s disease (AD), from the brain. The development of methods to modulate lymphatic clearance of Aβ from the brain coild be a revolutionary step in the therapy of AD. The opening of the blood-brain barrier (OBBB) by focused ultrasound is considered as a possible tool for stimulation of clearance of Aβ from the brain of humans and animals. Here, we propose an alternative method of non-invasive music-induced OBBB that is accompanied by the activation of clearance of fluorescent Aβ (Fαβ) from the mouse brain. Using confocal imaging, fluorescence microscopy and magnetic resonance tomography, we clearly demonstrate that OBBB by music stimulates the movement of Fαβ and Omniscan in the cerebrospinal fluid and lymphatic clearance of Fαβ from the brain. We propose the extended detrended fluctuation analysis (EDFA) as a promising method for the identification of OBBB markers in the electroencephalographic (EEG) patterns. These pilot results suggest that music-induced OBBB and the EDFA analysis of EEG can be a non-invasive, low cost, labelling free, clinical perspective and completely new approach for the treatment and monitoring of AD.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0231.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: Optical Music Recognition; historical document analysis; Medieval manuscripts; neume notation; fully convolutional neural networks
Online: 20 May 2019 (08:45:34 CEST)
Even today, the automatic digitisation of scanned documents in general but especially the automatic optical music recognition (OMR) of historical manuscripts still remain an enormous challenge, since both handwritten musical symbols and text have to be identified. This paper focuses on the Medieval so-called square notation developed in the 11th-12th century, which is already composed of staff lines, staves, clefs, accidentals, and neumes, that are roughly spoken connected single notes. The aim is to develop an algorithm that captures both the neume and pitch, that is melody information that can be used to reconstruct the original writing. Our pipeline is similar to the standard OMR approach and comprises a novel staff line and symbol detection algorithm, based on deep Fully Convolutional Networks (FCN), which perform pixel-based predictions for either staff lines or symbols and their respective types. Then, the staff line detection combines the extracted lines to staves and yields an F1-score of over 99% for both detecting lines and complete staves. For the music symbol detection we choose a novel approach that skips the step to identify neumes and instead directly predicts note components (NCs) and their respective affiliation to a neume. Furthermore, the algorithm detects clefs and accidentals. Our algorithm recognises these symbols with an F1-score of over 96% if the type is ignored and predicts the true symbol sequence of a staff with a diplomatic symbol accuracy rate (dSAR) of about 87%. If only the NCs without their respective connection to a neume, all clefs, and accidentals are of interest the algorithm reaches an harmonic symbol accuracy rate (hSAR) of approximately 90%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0209.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Religious Studies Keywords: megachurches; church growth; Pentecostalization; prosperity theology; dominion theology; cell groups; contemporary worship music; spiritual warfare
Online: 14 July 2022 (10:33:45 CEST)
Several review articles about megachurch studies have been published recently concentrating their work on USA, Europe, and other parts of the world, with just a few references about Latin American megachurches. For that reason, this article aims to identify some of the characteristics of Latin American Evangelical megachurches by looking at relevant literature, especially that produced in the region, in Spanish and Portuguese, which is usually overlooked by researchers in Global North. Since this research field is still limited in Latin America, areas, where further work is necessary, are identified. Three general catalysts for the emergence of megachurches in the region, church growth methodologies, Pentecostalization, and theologies of growth, serve as guides to organize the review process. The discussion shows several potential areas of research in a variety of fields such as theology, ecclesiology, organizational theory, leadership, gender studies, and ethics, are proposed from the review.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0202.v1
Subject: Biology, Physiology Keywords: relaxation response; meditation; music; serum; pH; electric conductivity; delayed luminescence; fractals; coherent states; self-similarity
Online: 12 April 2020 (17:12:29 CEST)
In our recent works we reported that physical and chemical characteristics of serum can vary in relation to the psychic activity of an individual depending on whether it is oriented to stress or relaxation. We wandered if these observations could be accompanied by an appreciable modification of the Ph, electric conductivity and Delayed Luminescence of the same serum samples. Our preliminary data may suggest that the serum pH could significantly increase during a Relaxation Response intervention while electric conductivity seems to decrease. Moreover, Delayed Luminescense could vary in the same subject according to the Relaxation Response practice. According to our proof of concept study, we postulate the appearance of a coherent system within the blood samples analyzed after the Relaxation Response. Further researches and some technical development are needed to support our preliminary findings.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0109.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Developmental Psychology Keywords: dyslexia; reading; magnocellular neurons; vision; hearing; phonology; sequencing; timing; temporal processing; transient; coloured filters; rhythm; music; omega 3s
Online: 12 January 2018 (07:15:33 CET)
Until the 1950s, developmental dyslexia was defined as a hereditary visual disability, selectively affecting reading without compromising oral or non-verbal reasoning skills. This changed radically after the development of the phonological theory of dyslexia; this not only ruled out any role for visual processing in its aetiology, but also cast doubt on the use of discrepancy between reading and reasoning skills as a criterion for diagnosing it. Here I argue that this theory is set at too high a cognitive level to be explanatory; we need to understand the pathophysiological visual and auditory mechanisms that cause children’s phonological problems. I discuss how the ‘magnocellular theory’ attempts to do this in terms of slowed and error prone temporal processing which leads to dyslexics’ defective visual and auditory sequencing when attempting to read. I attempt to deal with the criticisms of this theory and show how it leads to a number of successful ways of helping dyslexic children to overcome their reading difficulties.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0022.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: Pervasive developmental disorder; Autism spectrum disorder (ASD); brain network; Theory of Mind (ToM); Music Therapy (MT); therapeutic effect
Online: 6 September 2016 (11:53:58 CEST)
Music has the innate potential to reach all parts of the brain, stimulates certain brain areas which are not achievable through other modalities. Music Therapy (MT) is being used for more than a century to treat individuals who needs personalized care. MT optimizes motor, speech and language responsibilities of the brain and improves cognitive performance. Pervasive developmentdisorder (PDD) is a multifaceted, neuro developmental disorder and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) comes under PDD, which is defined by deficiencies in three principal spheres: social connection with others, communicative and normal movement skills. The conventional imaging studies illustrate reduced brain area connectivity in people with ASD, involving selected parts of the brain cortex. People with ASD express much interest in musical activities which engages the brain network areas and improves communication and social skills.The main objective of this review is to analyze the potential role of MT in treating the neurological conditions, particularly ASD. Evidence based studies have reported the extensive therapeutic application of music on various part of the brain in a nonverbal child with autism through hearing or making music.Hence we hypothesized that MT intervention can improve the communication capacity in people with ASD, than customary neurorestoration therapy alone.