ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1060.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: Pakistan; Hepatitis B; Hepatitis C; Elimination; Prevalence; Screening; Refugees
Online: 15 August 2023 (09:31:50 CEST)
Hepatitis B and C are major health issues in developing countries such as Pakistan and Afghan-istan. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and effectiveness of a screening program for hepatitis B and C in a region with no existing programs, and to estimate their prev-alence in the general population in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province, Pakistan, as well as in Afghan refugees or migrants. A retrospective cohort study was done in the general population of Peshawar and its adjacent districts, as well as migrants from neighboring provinces of Afghani-stan, who presented to our tertiary-care health facility. A Microsoft Excel registry was created for data collection, which were analyzed using IBM SPSS via descriptive analysis, normal distribution curve histograms, and chi-squared tests. A total of 9563 individuals were screened for hepatitis (5894 males and 3669 females), including Afghan migrants in Peshawar and surrounding districts. 876 individuals tested positive for hepatitis, with 538 positive for hepatitis B (383 males and 155 females) and 330 positive for hepatitis C (198 males and 134 females). Eight individuals had a hepatitis B and C co-infection. Among the study population, the prevalence rates were 2.2% for hepatitis B and 2.3% for hepatitis C, of which the Afghan migrants accounted for 2.7% and 0.5%, respectively. According to the gender-based distribution, hepatitis B was more prevalent in males, whereas there was no significant gender-based difference for hepatitis C. Our results highlight the need for a comprehensive approach to control hepatitis B and C in Pakistan and Afghanistan. Increased awareness, improved healthcare, and preventive measures such as screening and elimination programs to prevent severe liver diseases and eradicate hepatitis are necessary.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0087.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Japanese encephalitis virus; Population dynamic; Genetic diversity
Online: 2 May 2023 (11:02:54 CEST)
Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) causes acute viral encephalitis in humans and reproductive disorders in pigs. JEV emerged during the 1870s in Japan and since that time, JEV has been transmitted exclusively throughout Asia, according to known reporting and sequencing records. A recent JEV outbreak occurred in Australia which affected commercial piggeries across different temperate southern Australian states and caused confirmed infections in humans. A total of 47 human cases and seven deaths were reported. The recent evolving situation of JEV needs to be reported due to its continuous circulation in endemic regions and spread to non-endemics areas. Here, we reconstructed the phylogeny and population dynamics of JEV using recent JEV isolates for the future perception of disease spread. Phylogenetic analysis shows the most recent common ancestor occurred about 3120 years ago (YA) (95% Highest posterior density [HPD], 2680 to 3715). Our results of the Bayesian skyline plot (BSP) demonstrates that JEV demography lacks fluctuations for the last two decades, but it shows that JEV genetic diversity has increased during the last ten years. This indicates the potential JEV replication in the reservoir host, which is helping it to maintain its genetic diversity, and to continue its dispersal into non-endemic areas. The continuous spread in Asia and recent detection from Australia further support these findings. Therefore, an enhanced surveillance system is needed along with precautionary measures such as regular vaccination and mosquito control to avoid future JEV outbreaks.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0618.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Newcastle disease virus; chicken; pancreas; hormone; enzymes; histopathology
Online: 29 January 2021 (12:38:05 CET)
Newcastle disease virus (NDV) causes a highly contagious and devastating disease in poultry, Newcastle disease (ND). ND causes heavy economic losses to the global poultry industry by decreasing the growth rate, decrease egg productions, mortality, and morbidity. Although, significant advances have been made in the vaccine development, but outbreaks are reported in vaccinated birds leading to overall decreased growth rate. In this study, we report the damage caused by the NDV infection in the pancreatic tissues of vaccinated as well as specific pathogen free chickens. The histopathological examination of the pancreas showed sever damage in the form of partial depletion of zymogen granules, acinar cell vacuolization, necrosis, and apoptosis, congestion in the large and small vessels, sloughing of epithelial cells of pancreatic duct, and mild perivascular edema. Increased plasma levels of corticosterone, somatostatin, were observed in NDV infected chicks at 3 and 5-day post infection (DPI). Slight decrease in the plasma concentrations of the insulin were noticed at 5 DPI. Significant changes were not observed in the plasma levels of glucagon. Furthermore, NDV infection has decreases the activity and mRNA expression of amylase, lipase, and trypsin from the pancreas. Taken together, our findings highlight that NDV induces extensive tissue damage in pancreas, decrease the activity and expression of pancreatic enzymes and increase plasma corticosterone and somatostatin.