ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0217.v2
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Bio inspired robot; legged Robot; locomotion; position control; walk gait; wooden robot
Online: 20 July 2020 (04:13:18 CEST)
We present the design and overall development of an eight degrees of freedom (DOF) based Bioinspired Quadruped Robot (BiQR). The robot is designed with a skeleton made of cedar wood. The wooden skeleton is based on exploring the potential of cedar wood to be a choice for legged robots’ design. With a total weight of 1.19 kg, the robot uses eight servo motors that run the position control. Relying on the inverse kinematics, the control design enables the robot to perform the walk gait-based locomotion in a controlled environment. The robot has two main aspects: 1) the initial wooden skeleton development of the robot showing it to be an acceptable choice for robot design, 2) the robot’s applicability as a low-cost legged platform to test the locomotion in a laboratory or a classroom setting.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0198.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Support vector machine, Local binary pattern, crowd analysis, crowd density estimation
Online: 16 May 2019 (08:33:07 CEST)
Crowd density estimation is an important task for crowd monitoring. Many efforts have been done to automate the process of estimating crowd density from images and videos. Despite series of efforts, it remains a challenging task. In this paper, we proposes a new texture feature-based approach for the estimation of crowd density based on Completed Local Binary Pattern (CLBP). We first divide the image into blocks and then re-divide the blocks into cells. For each cell, we compute CLBP and then concatenate them to describe the texture of the corresponding block. We then train a multi-class Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier, which classifies each block of image into one of four categories, i.e. Very Low, Low, Medium, and High. We evaluate our technique on the PETS 2009 dataset, and from the experiments, we show to achieve 95% accuracy for the proposed descriptor. We also compare other state-of-the-art texture descriptors and from the experimental results, we show that our proposed method outperforms other state-of-the-art methods.
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Data Structures, Algorithms And Complexity Keywords: Chemometric data,sparse autoencoder, gaussian process regressor, pareto optimization.
Online: 9 May 2019 (11:31:46 CEST)
We proposed a deep learning based chemometric data analysis technique. We trained L2 regularized sparse autoencoder end-to-end for reducing the size of the feature vector to handle the classic problem of curse of dimensionality in chemometric data analysis. We introduce a novel technique of automatic selection of nodes inside hidden layer of an autoencoder through pareto optimization. Moreover, linear regression, ϵ-SVR , and Gaussian process regressor are applied on the reduced size feature vector for the regression. We evaluated our technique on orange juice and wine dataset and results are compared against state-of-the-art methods. Quantitative results are shown on Normalized Mean Square Error (NMSE) and the results show considerable improvement in the state-of- the-art.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0210.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Food safety; Fresh-cut produce; salads; Food borne pathogens; Microbiological safety
Online: 29 June 2022 (09:47:27 CEST)
The consumption and sale of fresh-cut products and salads have been growing tremendously in the present era. Therefore, the microbial safety of such products is of great concern. In the current study, a survey of general microbiological safety of fresh-cut produce and salads at quick-service restaurants (QSR) was undertaken across the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. These findings were compared with microbiological criteria for foodstuffs by Saudi standards, metrology, and quality organization SASO-GSO-1016. Of the 82 samples of fresh-cut produce, 7% of samples were found to be unsatisfactory or beyond the acceptable limits. TPC count was unsatisfactory at 22%, coliform at 48%, and Staphylococcus aureus at 4%. For 108 samples for fresh salads, 11% of samples were found to be unsatisfactory or beyond the acceptable limits,13%, 27%, 4%, and 27% of samples showed an unsatisfactory range of TPC, coliforms, S. aureus, and Escherichia coli, respectively. The fresh-cut produce and salads were microbiologically safe in the central region compared to the eastern region followed by the western region. The relatively higher count was found in green pepper, mixed vegetables, and lettuce followed by fresh-cut onions and coleslaw salads. No Salmonella was detected in both fresh-cut produce and salads. The restaurants should be more stringent in their processing to ensure the consumer safety. Washing and sanitization of produce is the only way to reduce the diffusion of food borne pathogens.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0369.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Action Recognition; Deep Learning; Data Fusion
Online: 19 January 2021 (09:14:30 CET)
Classification of human actions from uni-modal and multi-modal datasets is an ongoing research problem in computer vision. This review is aimed to scope current literature on data-fusion and action-recognition techniques and to identify gaps and future research direction. Success in producing cost-effective and portable vision-based sensors has dramatically increased the number and size of datasets. The rise in number of action recognition datasets intersects with advances in deep-learning architectures and computational support, both of which offer significant research opportunities. Naturally, each action-data modality - such as RGB, depth, skeleton, and infrared - has distinct characteristics; therefore, it is important to exploit the value of each modality for better action recognition. In this article we will focus solely on areas such as data fusion and recognition techniques in the context of vision with a uni-modal and multi-modal perspective. We conclude by discussing research challenges, emerging trends, and possible future research directions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0293.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: double framed T-soft fuzzy set; double framed T-soft fuzzy algebra; double framed B-soft fuzzy algebra
Online: 23 April 2018 (12:15:40 CEST)
The aim of this article is introduced the concept of double framed T-soft fuzzy set (DFT-soft fuzzy set) which is the combination of soft set and fuzzy set. We also defined the notions and apply this concept in BCK/BCI-algebras. By using example, we also discussed the concept of double framed T-soft fuzzy algebra (DFT-soft fuzzy algebra) and double framed B-soft fuzzy algebra (DFB-soft fuzzy algebra) and also investigated their properties. Each double framed T-soft fuzzy algebra is double framed B-soft fuzzy algebra but by using example, we proved that converse may or may not be possible.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0084.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Hyperspectral Imagery (HSI); Hyperspectral Document Imagery (HSDI); k-means clustering; Principal component analysis (PCA)
Online: 5 July 2020 (15:28:52 CEST)
Hyperspectral imaging provides vital information about the objects and elements present inside the image. That’s why they are very useful in satellite imagery as well as image forensics. Hyperspectral document analysis (HSDI) can be used for document authentication using ink analysis which can provide sufficient information about the composition and type of ink. In this project, we have implemented HSDI based ink classification technique using Principle Component Analysis for dimensionality reduction and K-means clustering for ink classification. This is unsupervised learning approach and it is very simple and efficient in order to classify limited number of bands. We have used this technique to classify 33 different bands of ink.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0382.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Atomic And Molecular Physics Keywords: weak gravitational lensing; black hole; deflection angle; Gauss-Bonnet theorem
Online: 26 March 2020 (06:39:35 CET)
In this article, we demonstrate the weak gravitational lensing in the context of Bocharova-Bronnikove-Melnikov-Bekenstein (BBMB) black hole. To this desire, we derive the deflection angle of light in a plasma medium by BBMB black hole using the Gibbons and Werner method. First, we obtain the Gaussian optical curvature and implement the Gauss-Bonnet theorem to investigate the deflection angle for spherically symmetric spacetime of BBMB black hole. Moreover, we also analyze the graphical behavior of deflection angle by BBMB black hole in the presence of plasma medium.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0136.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Atomic And Molecular Physics Keywords: Weak gravitational lensing; Einstein-non-linear Maxwell-Yukawa black holes; Deflection angle; Gauss-Bonnet theorem
Online: 12 January 2020 (17:40:26 CET)
In this article, we analyze the weak gravitational lensing in the context of Einstein-non-linear Maxwell-Yukawa black hole. To this desire, we derive the deflection angle of light by Einstein-non-linear Maxwell-Yukawa black hole using the Gibbons and Werner method. For this purpose, we obtain the Gaussian optical curvature and implement the Gauss-Bonnet theorem to investigate the deflection angle of Einstein-non-linear Maxwell-Yukawa black hole. Moreover, we derive the deflection angle of light in the presence of plasma medium. We also analyze the graphical behavior of deflection angle by Einstein-non-linear Maxwell-Yukawa black hole in the presence of plasma as well as non-plasma medium.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0301.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: Internet of Things (IoTs); Artificial Intelligence (AI); Digital Twin; Building Information Modeling (BIM); Industry 4.0
Online: 6 October 2023 (06:03:40 CEST)
The fourth industrial revolution has resulted in the digitalization of projects and operations across all sectors. Accordingly, efforts are being made to utilize advanced technologies to improve the energy efficiency of the building sector. This study has reviewed the current application and limitations of cutting-edge technologies in this regard. An overview of the use of the Internet of Things (IoT), artificial intelligence (AI), digital twin (DT), and building information modeling (BIM) for energy efficiency of buildings has been provided. It has been found that the use of Industry 4.0 technologies, during the construction and operational phase of buildings, has a great potential to reduce energy consumption and emissions of the sector. This study may help stakeholders of the built environment to understand the role of industry 4.0 tools for energy efficiency of the sector.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0027.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: circular economy; building information modeling; built environment; building sector; digitalization
Online: 2 October 2023 (04:05:45 CEST)
With the advent of digitization, the integration of advanced technologies in operations and projects across all sectors is in progress. Accordingly, efforts are being made to utilize cutting-edge technologies to improve the circularity of the built environment. This study aimed to review the existing applications and limitations of building information modeling (BIM) tools for circular economy (CE) implementation from this perspective. A literature review was conducted to provide an overview of the use of BIM tools for conducting life cycle assessments, energy analysis, waste management, and formulation of material passports for buildings. It was found that BIM tools, which are available across all life cycle phases of building, have a great potential to improve the circularity of the sector. The overview provided on the use of various BIM tools may help stakeholders of the built environment understand the role of BIM for CE adoption in the sector.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0045.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Atomic And Molecular Physics Keywords: Weak gravitational lensing; Stringy black hole; Deflection angle; Gauss-Bonnet theorem
Online: 4 December 2019 (10:12:06 CET)
In this paper, we discuss the weak gravitational lensing in the context of stringy black holes. Initially, we examine the deflection angle of photon by charged stringy black hole. For this desire, we compute the Gaussian optical curvature and implement the Gauss-Bonnet theorem to investigate the deflection angle for spherically balanced spacetime of stringy black hole. We also analyze the influence of plasma medium in the weak gravitational lensing for stringy black hole. Moreover, the graphical impact of coupling constant $\alpha$, impact parameter $b$ , black hole charge $Q$ on deflection angle by charged stringy black hole has been studied in plasma as well as non-plasma medium.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1591.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Mathematics Keywords: Fuzzy-number valued mappings; generalized fractional integral; coordinated convex mappings; coordinated UD-convexity; Hermite-Hadamard’s inequalities
Online: 25 October 2023 (07:33:52 CEST)
In this study, we first discover some new concept coordinated UD-convex mappings with fuzzy-number values. After that, we look into Hermite-Hadamard type inequalities via fuzzy-number-valued coordinated UD-convex fuzzy-number-valued mapping (coordinated UD-convex FNVM). In the case of coordinated UD-convex FNVM, novel conclusions are derived by making particular decisions in recently proven inequalities. Additionally, it is demonstrated that the recently discovered inequalities are expansions of comparable findings in the literature. It is important to note that the main outcomes are validated by nontrivial examples.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: biofertilizers; PGPR; Auxin; Rhizobium
Online: 31 August 2020 (08:12:19 CEST)
For a considerable length of time synthetic composts are utilized to satisfy the dirt necessity of supplements and yield, however huge measure of these substance manures are hazardous for condition, advantageous microorganisms, creatures, and people also. In this way, natural inviting and savvy biofertilizers are utilized. Biofertilizer are the substances which contain microorganisms those microorganisms might be growths, microscopic organisms, and protozoa which have capacity to build ripeness of soil by Nitrogen obsession, Phosphorous solubilization, and Iron sequestration. These cycles convert insoluble type of supplements into solvent structure and make it accessible to the foundations of plant which effectively take them up and use them. There are assortment of the yields whose profitability can be expanded by applying biofertilizer, for example, rice, oat, and other grain crops. In this audit we experience the method of utilization of biofertilizers, and how the assistance the plants and in which they help.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1680.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: automated structural design; Building Information Modeling (BIM); design automation; generative design; interoperability; Structural Design Optimization (SDO); systematic framework
Online: 25 September 2023 (11:25:42 CEST)
Structural design optimization (SDO) plays a pivotal role in enhancing various aspects of construction projects, including design quality, cost-efficiency, safety, and structural reliability. Recent endeavors in academia and industry have sought to harness the potential of Building Information Modeling (BIM) and optimization algorithms to optimize SDO and improve design outcomes. This review paper aims to synthesize these efforts, shedding light on how SDO contributes to project coordination. Furthermore, the integration of sustainability considerations and the application of innovative technologies and optimization algorithms in SDO necessitate more interactive early-stage collaboration among project stakeholders. This study offers a comprehensive exploration of contemporary research in integrated SDO employing BIM and optimization algorithms. It commences with an exploratory investigation, employing both qualitative and quantitative analysis techniques following the PRISMA systematic review methodology. Subsequently, an open-ended opinion survey was conducted among construction industry professionals in Europe. This survey yields valuable insights into the coordination challenges and potential solutions arising from technological shifts and interoperability concerns associated with widespread SDO implementation. These preliminary steps of systematic review and industry survey furnish a robust knowledge foundation, enabling the proposal of an intelligent framework for automating early-stage sustainable structural design optimization (ESSDO) within the construction sector. The framework ESSDO addresses the challenges of fragmented collaboration between architects and structural engineers. This proposed framework seamlessly integrates with the BIM platform, i.e., Autodesk Revit for architects. It extracts crucial architectural data and transfers it to the structural design and analysis platform, i.e., Autodesk Robot Structural Analysis (RSA), for structural engineers via the visual programming tool Dynamo. Once the optimization occurs, optimal outcomes are visualized within BIM environments. This visualization elevates interactive collaborations between architects and engineers, facilitating automation throughout the workflow and smoother information exchange.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0244.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: Bi-directional Interoperability; Building Information Modelling (BIM); Construction 4.0; Digital Transformation; Digital Twin (DT); DT Advancements; DT Technologies; Holistic Review
Online: 3 November 2023 (11:04:37 CET)
Construction 4.0 is witnessing exponential growth in Digital Twin (DT) technology developments and applications, revolutionizing the adoption of Building Information Modelling (BIM) and other emerging technologies used throughout the lifecycle of the built environment. BIM provides technologies, procedures, and data schemas representing building components and systems. At the same time, DT enhances this with real-time data for cyber-physical integration, enabling live asset monitoring and better decision-making. Despite being in the early stages of development, DT applications have rapidly progressed in the AEC sector, resulting in a diverse literature landscape due to the various technologies and parameters involved in fully developing the DT technology. The intricate complexities inherent in digital twin advancements have confused professionals and researchers. This confusion arises from the nuanced distinctions between the two technologies, i.e., BIM and DT, causing a convergence that hinders realizing their potential. To address this confusion and lead to a swift development of DT technology, this study presents a holistic review of the existing research focusing on the critical components responsible for developing DT applications in the construction industry. The study identifies five crucial elements: technologies, maturity levels, data layers, enablers, and functionalities. Additionally, it identifies research gaps and proposes future avenues for streamlined DT developments and applications in the AEC sector. Future researchers and practitioners can target data integrity, integration and transmission, bi-directional interoperability, nontechnical factors, and data security to achieve mature digital twin applications for AEC practices. This study highlights the growing significance of DTs in construction and provides a foundation for further advancements in this field to harness its potential to transform built environment practices.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0294.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Cytochrome oxidase; NADH dehydrogenase; F. hepatica; F. gigantica; COX; CYTB
Online: 10 November 2020 (09:12:31 CET)
Mitochondria is a cellular source of energy, playing an essential role in cellular stress induced by environmental stimuli. The genetic diversity of mitochondrial genes involved in oxidative phosphorylation affects the production of cellular energy and regional adaptation to various ecological (climatic) pressures influencing amino acid sequences (variants of protein). However, a little is known about the combined effect of protein changes on cell-level metabolic alterations in simultaneous exposure to various environmental conditions, including mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress induction. Present study was designed to address this issue by analyzing the mitochondrial proteins in Fasciola species including Cytochrome C oxidase (COX1, COX2, COX3 and CYTB) and NADH dehydrogenase (ND1, ND2, ND3, ND4, ND5 and ND6). Mitochondrial proteins were used for a detailed computational investigation using available standard bioinformatics tools to explore structural and functional relationships. Our analysis shows that the mitochondrial protein family of Fasciola species are extensively diversified in all species studied, showing an extending role in various biological processes The results showed that the protein of COX1 of F. hepatica, F. gigantica and F. jacksoni consist of 510, 513 and 517 amino acids respectively. The alignment of proteins showed that these proteins are conserved in the same regions at ten positions in COX and CYTB proteins while at twelve locations in NADH. Three dimensional structure of COX, CYTB and NADH proteins were compared and the differences in additional conserved and binding sites in COX and CYTB proteins as compared to NADH were found in three Fasciola species. These results, based on the amino acid diversity pattern, were used to identify sites in the enzyme and the variations in mitochondrial proteins among Fasciola species. This study provides valuable information for future experimental studies including identification of therapeutics, diagnostics and immunoprophylactic interests with novel mitochondrial proteins.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0524.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: COVID-19; chest X-ray images; deep convolutional neural network; COV-MCNet; deep learning
Online: 23 September 2020 (03:31:30 CEST)
The COVID-19 pandemic situation has created even more difficulties in the quick identification and screening of the COVID-19 patients for the medical specialists. Therefore, a significant study is necessary for detecting COVID-19 cases using an automated diagnosis method, which can aid in controlling the spreading of the virus. In this paper, the study suggests a Deep Convolutional Neural Network-based multi-classification approach (COV-MCNet) using eight different pre-trained architectures such as VGG16, VGG19, ResNet50V2, DenseNet201, InceptionV3, MobileNet, InceptionResNetV2, Xception which are trained and tested on the X-ray images of COVID-19, Normal, Viral Pneumonia, and Bacterial Pneumonia. The results from 3-class (Normal vs. COVID-19 vs. Viral Pneumonia) showed that only the ResNet50V2 model provides the highest classification performance (accuracy: 95.83%, precision: 96.12%, recall: 96.11%, F1-score: 96.11%, specificity: 97.84%) compared to rest of the models. The results from 4-class (Normal vs. COVID-19 vs. Viral Pneumonia vs. Bacterial Pneumonia) demonstrated that the pre-trained model DenseNet201 provides the highest classification performance (accuracy: 92.54%, precision: 93.05%, recall: 92.81%, F1-score: 92.83%, specificity: 97.47%). Notably, the ResNet50V2 (3-class) and DenseNet201 (4-class) models in the proposed COV-MCNet framework showed higher accuracy compared to the rest six models. This indicates that the designed system can produce promising results to detect the COVID-19 cases on the availability of more data. The proposed multi-classification network (COV-MCNet) significantly speeds up the existing radiology-based method, which will be helpful to the medical community and clinical specialists for early diagnosis of the COVID-19 cases during this pandemic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1605.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacy Keywords: pH sensitive Polymer; Methacrylate Polymers; Eudragit L100; Polymeric nanoparticles; Apocynin; Rheumatoid arthritis; Carbopol-934 based Hydrogel; Transdermal Drug Delivery System
Online: 23 May 2023 (07:51:12 CEST)
The aim of the current study was to develop and evaluate the therapeutic potential of apocynin (APO) loaded pH-sensitive nanoparticles (NPs) based transdermal hydrogel for management of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Slightly modified nanoprecipitation technique was used for preparation of polymeric nanoparticles. Optimization was done through design expert software. Optimized APO-NPs were loaded into carbopol-934 based hydrogel as final dosage form and further studied for physicochemical properties. Optimized APO-NPs formulation had a minimum particle size 63.44 nm, polydisperibility index 0.161, and zeta potential -15mV with a maximum encapsulation efficiency of 89%. In-vitro and ex-vivo studies of APO-NPs based hydrogel was performed at pH 5.5 (pH of normal skin) and 6.8 (pH of inflammed joint) showed a pH-responsive sustained drug release and increased penetration in comparison to free APO based hydrogel. The stability studies of APO-NPs based hydrogel were done to strengthen the potential use of the prepared formulation through transdermal route. Assessment and therapeutic efficacy of the prepared pH-sensitive nanocarriers system was evaluated in chronic inflammatory RA mice model. Parameters associated with chronic inflammation were investigated including behavioral changes and histopathological, and radiological x-rays images of joints of mice paws. In-vivo study depicts improvement in behavioral parameter, decline in synovial hyperplasia and bone structure restoration. In conclusion, APO loaded pH-sensitive NPs based transdermal is a promising carrier system that can effectively manage RA.