ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0247.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: educational quality; agglomeration; segregation; spatial autocorrelation; Moran’s Index; geo-visualization
Online: 17 June 2022 (04:51:58 CEST)
This study seeks to measure the degree of agglomeration of educational quality in Colombia, based on the non-socialization of the population that exhibits low educational quality, with the population that exhibits high educational quality, and thus determine how such agglomeration affects the phenomenon of academic segregation. To this end, we perform a spatial analysis of the educational quality in Colombia and of variables that may influence to the phenomenon of educational agglomeration. The level of agglomeration in educational quality in Colombia is demonstrated by the calculation of the Moran’s Index, in which a result of 0.62 was obtained. High educational quality is concentrated in the Andean region, while low educational quality is agglomerated in the periphery of the country, in areas such as the Pacific region. A spatial regression model was carried out to measure the dependence of municipalities on their neighbors, and to determine the main socio-economic factors affecting the phenomenon of educational agglomeration in Colombia, finding that living conditions, unsatisfied basic needs and fiscal transparency have all an impact on the educational quality of the municipalities. It is also found that the number of homicides in the municipalities does not seem to have a significant relationship with education.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0012.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Climate change; Mann-Kendall test; Moran’s I statistic; Nonparametric copula; Spatial homogeneity; Trend analysis.
Online: 1 February 2021 (11:28:38 CET)
There is high confidence that climate change has increased the probability of concurrent temperature-precipitation extremes, changed their spatial-temporal variations, and affected the relationships between drivers of such natural hazards. However, the extent of such changes has been less investigated in Australia. Daily weather data (131 years, 1889-2019) at 700 grid cells (1◦ × 1◦) across Australia was obtained to calculate annual and seasonal mean daily maximum temperature (MMT) and total precipitation (TPR). A nonparametric multivariate copula framework was adopted to estimate the return period of compound hot-dry (CHD) events based on an ‘And’ hazard scenario (hotter than a threshold ‘And’ drier than a threshold). CHD extremes were defined as years with joint return periods of larger than 25 years. Mann-Kendall nonparametric tests was used to analyse trends in MMT and TPR as well as in the frequency of univariate and CHD extremes. A general cooling-wetting trend was observed over 1889-1989. Significant increasing trends were detected over 1990-2019 in the frequency and severity of hot extremes across the country while trends in dry extremes were mostly insignificant (and decreasing). Results showed a significant increase in the association between temperature and precipitation at various temporal scales. The frequency of CHD extremes was mostly stable over 1889-1989, but significantly increased between 1990 and 2019 at 44% of studied grid cells, mostly located in the north, south-east and south-west. Spatial homogeneity (i.e. connectedness) and propagation of extreme events from one grid cell to its neighbouring cells was investigated across Australia. It can be concluded that this connectedness has not significantly changed since 1889.