ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0347.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geophysics Keywords: Moon; Earth; tidal locking; dipole magnetic field; solar wind; moonfall
Online: 29 May 2019 (10:30:43 CEST)
The moon always use the same side to face toward the earth, but there is a dead angle in the mainstream theory of explaining this phenomenon. That is, it cannot explain why the moon doesn't rotate around the axis which is a straight line to connect the mass centers of the earth and moon. Because the numerous meteorite impact craters on the lunar surface indicate that the moon is completely possible to obtain external momentums and rotate around this axis. This paper proposes a plain explanation, that is, the universal gravitation between the earth and moon as well as the earth's magnetic field have formed a trinity restraint mechanism on the moon. According to this explanation, the moon's rotation can be locked, and the mechanism of lunar libration has been revealed out, which can also confirm mutually with the natural phenomenon that the moon has sought a balance in the swing. In addition, with the help of all kinds of detection data from the Apollo moon landings and other circumlunar spacecraft, as well as the studies and analysis of lunar soil samples, the conclusion is that as far as a whole for the moon, it belongs to paramagnetic substances, and its relative permeability is between 1.008 and 1.03. Although the magnetic flux density of the earth on the lunar orbit has been dropped below 0.0008125 nT or lower due to the impact of the solar wind, but it can be used as a reason to lock the moon without rotating around the axis which is a straight line to connect the mass centers of the earth and moon. If another main reason to cause the existence of this fact cannot be found, even if the magnetic flux density of the geomagnetism in lunar orbit is very small, it also should not be artificially ignored. In this regard, we can artificially change the intensity of the earth's magnetic field, and carefully observe the lunar libration and in the distance between the earth and the moon, to verify the arguments in this paper.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0305.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Astronomy & Astrophysics Keywords: cosmology; dark energy; Earth-Moon system; PACS: 98.80.-k; 96.25.De; 96.90.+c
Online: 29 April 2022 (13:11:42 CEST)
Scale invariance is expected in empty Universe models, while the presence of matter tends to suppress it. As shown recently, scale invariance is certainly absent in cosmological models with densities equal to or above the critical value ρc = 3(H0)2/(8πG). For models with densities below ρc, the possibility of limited effects remains open. If present, scale invariance would be a global cosmological property. Some traces could be observable locally. For the Earth-Moon two-body system, the predicted additional lunar recession would be increased by 0.92 cm/yr, while the tidal interaction would also be slightly increased. The Earth-Moon distance is the most systematically measured distance in the Solar System, thanks to the Lunar Laser Ranging (LLR) experiment active since 1970. The observed lunar recession from LLR amounts to 3.83 (±0.009) cm/yr; implying a tidal change of the length-of-the-day (LOD) by 2.395 ms/cy. However, the observed change of the LOD since the Babylonian Antiquity is only 1.78 ms/cy, a result supported by paleontological data, and implying a lunar recession of 2.85 cm/yr. The significant difference of (3.83-2.85) cm/yr = 0.98 cm/yr, already pointed out by several authors over the last two decades, corresponds well to the predictions of the scale-invariant theory, which is also supported by several other astrophysical tests.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0121.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Astronomy & Astrophysics Keywords: pioneer anomaly; AU anomaly; astronomical unit; varying physical constant; VSL; LLR; moon eccentricity
Online: 10 April 2019 (08:38:46 CEST)
We have shown that three astrometric solar-system anomalies can be explained satisfactorily by using evolutionary gravitational constant G and speed of light c in the Einstein’s field equation. These are: a) the Pioneer acceleration anomaly; b) the anomalous secular increase of Moon-orbit eccentricity; and c) the anomalous secular change in the astronomical unit AU. The gravitational constant G and the speed of light c both increase as dG/dt = 5.4GH0 and dc/dt = 1.8cH0 with H0 as the Hubble constant. We also show that the Planck’s constant ħ increases as dħ/dt = 1.8ħH0. Additionally, the new approach fits the supernovae Ia redshift vs distance modulus data as well as the standard ΛCDM model with just one adjustable parameter H0.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0663.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Astronomy & Astrophysics Keywords: Solar System, Planetary System, Planet, Satellite, Sun, Earth, Moon, Topology, Circle, Ellipse, Orbit, Trajectory, Orbital Mechanics
Online: 26 April 2021 (12:14:51 CEST)
Based on measured astronomical position data of heavenly objects in the Solar System and other planetary systems, all bodies in space seem to move in some kind of elliptical motion with respect to each other. According to Kepler’s 1st Law, “orbit of a planet with respect to the Sun is an ellipse, with the Sun at one of the two foci.” Orbit of the Moon with respect to Earth is also distinctly elliptical, but this ellipse has a varying eccentricity as the Moon comes closer to and goes farther away from the Earth in a harmonic style along a full cycle of this ellipse. In this paper, our research results are summarized, where it is first mathematically shown that the “distance between points around any two different circles in three dimensional space” is equivalent to the “distance of points around a vector ellipse to another fixed or moving point, as in two dimensional space”. What is done is equivalent to showing that bodies moving on two different circular orbits in space vector wise behave as if moving on an elliptical path with respect to each other, and virtually seeing each other as positioned at an instantaneously stationary point in space on their relative ecliptic plane, whether they are moving with the same angular velocity, or different but fixed angular velocities, or even with different and changing angular velocities with respect to their own centers of revolution. This mathematical revelation has the potential to lead to far reaching discoveries in physics, enabling more insight into forces of nature, with a formulation of a new fundamental model regarding the motions of bodies in the Universe, including the Sun, Planets, and Satellites in the Solar System and elsewhere, as well as at particle and subatomic level. Based on the demonstrated mathematical analysis, as they exhibit almost fixed elliptic orbits relative to one another over time, the assertion is made that the Sun, the Earth, and the Moon must each be revolving in their individual circular orbits of revolution in space. With this expectation, individual orbital parameters of the Sun, the Earth, and the Moon are calculated based on observed Earth to Sun and Earth to Moon distance data, also using analytical methods developed as part of this research to an approximation. This calculation and analysis process have revealed additional results aligned with observation, and this also supports our assertion that the Sun, the Earth, and the Moon must actually be revolving in individual circular orbits.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0632.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Mathematical Physics Keywords: Conic Sections, Topology, Circle, Ellipse, Hyperbola, Parabola, Orbit, Trajectory, Orbital Mechanics, Solar System, Planetary System, Planet, Satellite, Comet, Sun, Earth, Moon
Online: 23 April 2021 (11:36:05 CEST)
Based on measured astronomical position data of heavenly objects in the Solar System and other planetary systems, all bodies in space seem to move in some kind of elliptical motion with respect to each other, whereas objects follow parabolic escape orbits while moving away from Earth and bodies asserting a gravitational pull, and some comets move in near-hyperbolic orbits when they approach the Sun. In this article, it is first mathematically proven that the “distance between points on any two different circles in three-dimensional space” is equivalent to the “distance of points on a vector ellipse from another fixed or moving point, as in two-dimensional space.” Then, it is further mathematically demonstrated that “distance between points on any two different circles in any number of multiple dimensions” is equivalent to “distance of points on a vector ellipse from another fixed or moving point”. Finally, two special cases when the “distance between points on two different circles in multi-dimensional space” become mathematically equivalent to distances in “parabolic” or “near-hyperbolic” trajectories are investigated. Concepts of “vector ellipse”, “vector hyperbola”, and “vector parabola” are also mathematically defined. The mathematical basis derived in this Article is utilized in the book “Everyhing Is A Circle: A New Model For Orbits Of Bodies In The Universe” in asserting a new Circular Orbital Model for moving bodies in the Universe, leading to further insights in Astrophysics.