ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0044.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: Agricultural information, smart-mobile, stakeholder farmers, Sudan
Online: 3 September 2018 (15:12:49 CEST)
The access to agricultural information in Sudan continues to be challenging to farmers due to use of inadequate sources and traditional extension approaches. The rapid growth of smart-mobile phones usage in developing countries resulted in several advantages compared to other alternatives in term of costs, geographic coverage and ease of use. This research was conducted in North Kordofan Sate to explore the role of smart-mobile phone in accessing agricultural information. Primary data were obtained by structured questionnaires and focus group discussion through participatory rural appraisal and observation while secondary data were collected from scientific journals, books and authenticated web sources. A number of 230 respondents (10% from total farmers) were interviewed and five focus group discussions were done. Statistical Packages for Social Science (SPSS) version 22 was used to analyze the data with aid of descriptive statistics and Chi-squire Test. The result indicated that most of the respondents fall in age group between 21-40 years, and they depend on farm activity. There was 90% of farmers processed mobile phone since more than three years ago, 90.8%continuedto use smart mobile phone to access agricultural information and showed positive contribution towards income generation. The results also revealed that there was positive perception towards using mobile phones which showed more efficient in use than radio and TVs. The results showed great advantages of using smart mobile phone where 75.2 % of respondents preferred to get agricultural information, logistics and other needs through successful communication in the mid of agricultural season. Results of Chi-squire test showed significant differences between the parameters tested. The study recommended that farmers should be connected with mobile phones to admit ease communication with agricultural extension offices and quick access to their needs and logistics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0603.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: CCHFV, CD24, nucleocapsid, genetic adjuvant, immunogenicity, IFNAR-/- mice
Online: 27 November 2018 (12:15:59 CET)
Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) is the causative agent of a globally-spread tick-borne zoonotic infection with an eminent risk of fatal human disease. Imminent public health threat posed by disseminated virus activity and lack of an approved therapeutic make CCHFV an urgent target for vaccine development. We described the construction of a DNA vector expressing nucleocapsid protein (N) of CCHFV (pV-N13) and investigated its potential to stimulate cytokine and total/specific antibody responses in BALB/c and challenge experiment in IFNAR-/- mice. Due to lack of sufficient antibody stimulation towards N protein, we have selected CD24 protein as a potential adjuvant which has proliferative effect on B and T cells. Overall, our N expressing construct when administered solely or in combination with pCD24 vector elicited significant cellular and humoral responses in BALB/c, despite variations in particular cytokines and total antibodies. However, the stimulated antibodies produced due to expression of N protein have shown no neutralizing ability in VNA. Furthermore, challenge experiments were revealed protection potential of N expressing construct in IFNAR -/- mice model. In conclusion, we have shown that CD24 has prominent effect as a genetic adjuvant when co-delivers with a synergic foreign gene expressing vector. Besides, targeting of S segment of CCHFV can be considered as a practical way in developing vaccine against this virus due to its ability to induce immune response which leads to protection in challenge assays in IFN-gamma defective mice models.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0324.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Immunology Keywords: T cytotoxic cells; Leukocyte-associated Immunoglobulin-like Receptor-1; LAIR-1; Hepatitis C virus genotype 4; HCV G4; hepatocellular carcinoma; cirrhosis; immune inhibitory checkpoints; inflammation; prognosis; insulin resistance
Online: 17 August 2022 (11:38:10 CEST)
Background and Aim. Since virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) pathogenesis involves liver inflammation, therefore, post-hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection would be a cause for liver cirrhosis that would progress to HCC. Cytotoxic T cells (Tc) are known to be involved in post-HCV complications and HCC pathogenesis. The inhibitory checkpoint Leukocyte-Associated Immunoglobulin-like Receptor-1 (LAIR-1) is expressed on Tc. Therefore, we aimed to determine whether the Tc expression level of LAIR-1 is associated with HCC progression post-HCV and moreover, to evaluate LAIR-1 expression as a non-invasive biomarker for HCC progression in the context of liver cirrhosis post-HCV genotype 4 (G4) in Egyptian patients’ peripheral venous blood liquid biopsy. We studied LAIR-1 expression on Tc related to the progression of liver cirrhosis in a case-controlled study enrolled 64 patients with post-HCV G4-HCC and 37 patients with post-HCV G4-liver cirrhosis. Methods: LAIR-1 expression was analyzed by flow cytometry. Results: LAIR-1 expression on Tc and the percentage of Tc positive for LAIR-1 (LAIR-1+Tc %) were significantly higher in the post-HCV G4-HCC group compared to the post-HCV G4-liver cirrhosis