ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0334.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: Nutrition; Hydration; Dementia: Eating; Drinking; Food; Ethnic minorities; Culture
Online: 25 March 2022 (02:47:59 CET)
Eating and drinking difficulties are common in dementia, but little is known about the experiences of ethnic minority groups managing these difficulties at home. We undertook qualitative semi-structured interviews, exploring the meaning of food, the impact of dementia on eating and drinking and carers’ experiences of support. Interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. We interviewed 17 carers and people with dementia from ethnic minority backgrounds, using reflexive thematic analysis to analyse data. Food/drink had strong links to identity, culture and emotions. Providing culturally familiar foods, celebrating traditional festivals and supporting previous food-related roles promoted reminiscence, which encouraged people with dementia to eat and drink, as did social interactions. However, these strategies sometimes led to distress in those with more advanced dementia. Food choices were also influenced by carer strain, generational differences and the impact of health conditions. Despite a strong sense of duty to care for relatives at home, there was low awareness of community support services. Carers expressed a need for culturally tailored support for managing dementia-related eating and drinking difficulties at home. Healthcare professionals must provide contextually relevant advice to carers, being mindful of how cultural backgrounds can affect dietary choices.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0391.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Gender And Sexuality Studies Keywords: sexual rights; physical disabilities; psychical disabilities; sexual minorities; societal attitudes
Online: 2 December 2021 (11:48:55 CET)
The aims of this study were: (1) to analyze the level of agreement of a sample of Italian people with the rights of people with physical and psychical disabilities (PwPHDs and PwPSYDs) to have satisfying sexuality, to marry, to adopt a child; (2) to inquire if PwPSYDs were subject to less recognition than PwPHDs; (3) to verify if socio-demographic characteristics, such as age, sex, education, occupation, geographical origin, relational status, sexual orientation, and religiosity, associated with being against these sexual and parenting rights (SPRs). An online anonymous questionnaire inquired the level of agreement or disagreement with statements regarding the SPRs of PwPHDs and PwPSYDs. 973 participants, aged 18 – 84 years (71.1% females) were considered for analyses; At least 7 out of 10 participants declared in favor of the SPRs of PwPHDs, while the SPRs of PwPSYDs were always subjected to higher underrecognition. Religiosity almost invariably associated to being against the SPRs of PwDs. Being male, of higher age and lower education also associated with lower recognition. A better identification of the less tolerant respondents and of the less recognized categories may allow for specific strategies for promoting the recognition of the SPRs for PwDs.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0622.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: aging; aged; sexual and gender minorities; quality of life; stereotyping; social discrimination
Online: 20 April 2023 (07:49:10 CEST)
There is a general lack of research involving older lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer/questioning (LGBTQ) people. This systematic review aimed to synthesize Japanese and Swedish qualitative research on LGBTQ people aged 60 years or older. PRISMA guidelines were followed. Japanese and Swedish articles, published in English-language journals, were searched across PsychINFO, Medline, CINAHL, and Sociological Abstracts databases. Additional searches were carried out to include studies written in Japanese or Swedish. There were no papers from Japan, and five from Sweden were reviewed. Four articles were included, including 48 participants aged 60–94 years. We summarized the findings using a deductive thematic synthesis. Two major themes emerged: (a) quality of life, minority joy, and resilience (positive aspects), and (b) experiences of discrimination, stigmatization, and minority stress (negative aspects). The participants described a wish to be acknowledged for their own assets and unique life histories, and to be treated as everyone else. They emphasized the importance of knowledge of LGBTQ issues among nursing staff, so that older LGBTQ people are treated in a competent and affirmative way. The study revealed several important topics for understanding older LGBTQ people’s life circumstances and the severe lack of qualitative studies in Japan and Sweden.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0072.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Political Science Keywords: racial discrimination; employment; United Kingdom; The Netherlands; black and ethnic minorities; women; Islam; alienation
Online: 14 December 2016 (07:54:52 CET)
The measurement of discrimination in employment is a key variable in understanding dynamics in the nature of and change in ‘race relations’. Measuring such discrimination using ‘situation’ and ‘correspondence’ tests was influenced by John Rex’s sociological analyses, begun in in England in the 1960s, and replicated in Europe and America in later decades. This literature is reviewed, and the methodologies of testing for employment discrimination are discussed. Recent work in Britain and The Netherlands is considered in detail in the light of changing social structures, and the rise of Islamophobia. Manchester, apparently the city manifesting the most discrimination in Britain, is considered for a special case study, with a focus on one individual, a Muslim woman seeking intermediate level accountancy employment. Her vita was matched with that of a manifestly indigenous, white Briton. Submitted vitas (to 1,043 potential employers) indicated significant discrimination against the Muslim woman candidate. Results are discussed within the context of Manchester’s micro-sociology, and Muslim women’s employment progress in broader contexts, drawing on our work in Jordan and Palestine. We conclude with the critical realist comment that the “hidden racism” of employment discrimination shows that capitalist societies continue to be institutionally racist, and the failure to reward legitimate aspirations of minorities pushes ethnic minorities into a permanent precariat, with implications for social justice and social control, which denies minority efforts to “integrate” in society’s employment systems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0095.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Ethnic and Racial Minorities; Ethnicity; Covid-19; Covid-19 Vaccines; Vaccination Hesitancy; Health Inequities; Primary Health Care; Public Health; Health Promotion; Systemic Racism
Online: 3 July 2023 (13:55:22 CEST)
People from Black and Asian backgrounds are more likely to die from Covid-19 but less likely to be vaccinated, threatening to exacerbate health inequalities already experienced by ethnic minority groups. Literature suggests that mistrust rooted in structural inequality may be a key barrier to Covid-19 vaccine uptake. We need to better understand how structural inequalities influence vaccine confidence. Understanding and addressing these processes is likely to lead to longer-term impacts than information alone. We draw on health and sociological theories of structure and agency to inform our understanding of structural factors. We conducted qualitative interviews and focus groups with 22 people from London and surrounding areas in December 2021 to March 2022. Fifteen participants were members of the public from ethnic minority backgrounds and 7 were professionals working with the public to address concerns and encourage vaccine uptake. Our findings suggest that people from ethnic minority backgrounds make decisions regarding Covid-19 vaccination based on a combination of how they experience external social structures (including political authority, social positioning and racial inequality) and internal processes (what they believe and understand about Covid-19 vaccines). We may be able to support knowledge accumulation through the provision of reliable and accessible information, particularly through primary and community care. But we recommend a number of changes to research, policy and practice which address structural inequalities. These include working with communities to improve ethnicity data collection, increasing funding allocation to health conditions where ethnic minority communities experience poorer outcomes, greater transparency and public engagement in the vaccine development process, and culturally adapted research recruitment processes.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0409.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Professional development for scientists; tenure-track faculty; tenure; professoriate; professional development practicum; professional development experiential learning; Accomplishing Career Transitions; American Society for Cell Biology; Minorities Affairs Committee
Online: 18 February 2021 (10:43:19 CET)
Experiential learning can facilitate the development of transferrable skills necessary for success in attaining tenure and promotion in academia. In this article, we discuss the benefits of designing and implementing an individualized professional development experience or practicum. By doing this, we describe the experiential learning component of the Accomplishing Career Transitions (ACT) Program of the American Society for Cell Biology. The ACT program aims to assist postdoctoral trainees and junior faculty from backgrounds underrepresented in STEM as they strive to transition into tenure-track positions and ultimately attain tenure at research-intensive or teaching-intensive academic institutions.