ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0137.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: mycoses; epidemiology; Romania; candidaemia; aspergillosis; chronic pulmonary conditions
Online: 21 February 2018 (16:41:29 CET)
Objective: To estimate for the first time the burden of serious fungal infections in Romania; Methods: Data derived from the World Health Organization (WHO), National Institute of Statistics, Romanian public health agencies and non-profit health organizations and published annual reports on local epidemiology were used in the present study. When no data was available, specific at-risk populations were used to calculate frequencies of serious fungal diseases, using previously published epidemiological parameters. All data refer to the year 2016; 3) Results: The estimated number of serious fungal infections in Romanian population was 435,930 in 2016. Recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis accounts for up to 80% of total cases (more than 350,000 women annually). Concerning the HIV related infections, among 14349 infected persons, Pneumocystis pneumonia occurred in about 10% of late presenters (30 cases in 2016), while cryptococcal meningitis is rarely diagnosed (less than 20 cases). Annually, the total number of oesophageal candidiasis and oral thrush cases in HIV-positive patients may be as high as 1229 and 3066, respectively. In immunocompromised and cancer patient population, the annual incidence of candidaemia is 295, and at least 158 invasive aspergillosis cases and 4 mucormycosis cases occur yearly. With 4,966 critical care beds and approximately 200,000 abdominal surgeries performed, the estimated annual incidence of candidaemia and Candida peritonitis is 689 and 344, respectively. The annual incidence of pulmonary tuberculosis is still high in Romania (12,747 cases). Thus, the prevalence of post-TB chronic pulmonary aspergillosis is estimated to be 8.98/100,000 (1768 cases). The prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma in adults is 6% and 6.5%, respectively. Therefore, allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis prevalence is estimated at 29,387 and severe asthma with fungal sensitisation at 38,731 cases annually. 4) Conclusions: Not being on the list of reportable diseases, the number of patients presenting with severe mycoses in Romania can only be roughly estimated. Based on local reports and prevalence estimation, we consider that at least 2.2% of Romanians suffer a serious form of fungal disease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0009.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biotechnology Keywords: Bacteria; Fungus; Boar semen; Progresivity; Fluconazole; Biosecurity of AI
Online: 1 September 2021 (11:52:42 CEST)
The aim of the study is to establish the complete microbiological profile of boar semen and to choose the most effective antiseptic measures in order to control and optimize AI reproduction in pigs. More than one hundred semen samples were collected and analyzed from several pig farms. The microbiological profile of ejaculates was determined by determining the degree of con-tamination of fresh semen and after dilution with specific extenders. The bacterial and fungal load of fresh boar semen recorded an average value of 82.41/0.149x103CFU/mL, while after diluting the ejaculates the contamination value was 0.354/0.140 x103CFU/mL. 23 bacterial and fungal species were isolated, the most common being Candida parapsilosis/sake (92%), Escherichia coli (81.2%). Modification of the sperm collection protocol (HPBC) reduced contamination in raw sperm (by 49.85% in bacteria and by 9.67% in fungi). The load in bacteria and filamentous fungi can be con-trollable, but not in levuras fungi. In some Fluconazole-added extenders (12.5mg%), ensures the solution of this problem, and even increase in sperm progressivity (8.39%) for at least a 12-hour shelf life after dilution. The validation of the experiment was done by obtaining the sow fertility rate after AI.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0561.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Pseudomonas; antibiotic resistance; dog; infection; skin, otitis externa, perianal abscess.
Online: 21 April 2021 (09:02:48 CEST)
Treating infections caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa is increasingly difficult due to high antimicrobial resistance, materialized through the presence of multiple resistance strains, as well as due to rapid development of resistance throughout treatment. The present survey was conducted to investigate the antibiotic susceptibility profile of Pseudomonas aeruginosa pathogens, in two University Veterinary hospitals from different geographical regions of Romania (i.e., south-west - Timisoara county and north-east – Iasi county) involved in canine superficial infections. A total of 142 swab specimens were collected from dogs with superficial infections (superficial skin infections, otitis externa, perianal abscess), with the aim of assessing the presence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, based on phenotypic and molecular characterization. Fifty-eight samples (40.84%; 58/142) were positive for Pseudomonas aeruginosa (according to their confirmed morphological and molecular features). Susceptibility to usual antibiotics used in the treatment of canine skin conditions was tested for all Pseudomonas strains that were isolated from canine superficial infections, using the Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method. Drug resistance was observed in the case of all tested antibiotics. The susceptibility rate of P. aeruginosa strains that were tested in this study was in the following order: ampicillin sulbactam (55.17%; 32/58), followed by ceftazidime (53.44%; 31/58), aztreonam (51.72%; 30/58), amikacin (44.82%; 26/58), azithromycin (41.37%; 24/58), gentamycin (37.93%; 22/58), cefepime (36.20%; 21/58) meropenem (25.86%; 13/58), piperacillin-tazobactam (25.86%; 13/58) imipenem (22.41%; 13/158), ciprofloxacin (17.24%; 10/58) tobramycin (8.62; 5/58), and polymyxin B (1.72; 1/58) respectively. The results highlight the importance of antibiotic susceptibility testing in Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from dogs with superficial infections, in order to use an adequate treatment plan for the management of the skin condition, and other pathology (otitis externa and perianal abscesses).