ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0047.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: Data augmentation; Deep Learning; Convolutional Neural Networks; Ensemble.
Online: 2 November 2021 (11:18:23 CET)
Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) have gained prominence in the research literature on image classification over the last decade. One shortcoming of CNNs, however, is their lack of generalizability and tendency to overfit when presented with small training sets. Augmentation directly confronts this problem by generating new data points providing additional information. In this paper, we investigate the performance of more than ten different sets of data augmentation methods, with two novel approaches proposed here: one based on the Discrete Wavelet Transform and the other on the Constant-Q Gabor transform. Pretrained ResNet50 networks are finetuned on each augmentation method. Combinations of these networks are evaluated and compared across three benchmark data sets of images representing diverse problems and collected by instruments that capture information at different scales: a virus data set, a bark data set, and a LIGO glitches data set. Experiments demonstrate the superiority of this approach. The best ensemble proposed in this work achieves state-of-the-art performance across all three data sets. This result shows that varying data augmentation is a feasible way for building an ensemble of classifiers for image classification (code available at https://github.com/LorisNanni).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0180.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: convolutional neural networks; activation functions; biomedical classification; ensembles; MeLU variants
Online: 5 March 2021 (10:05:38 CET)
Recently, much attention has been devoted to finding highly efficient and powerful activation functions for CNN layers. Because activation functions inject different nonlinearities between layers that affect performance, varying them is one method for building robust ensembles of CNNs. The objective of this study is to examine the performance of CNN ensembles made with different activation functions, including six new ones presented here: 2D Mexican ReLU, TanELU, MeLU+GaLU, Symmetric MeLU, Symmetric GaLU, and Flexible MeLU. The highest performing ensemble was built with CNNs having different activation layers that randomly replaced the standard ReLU. A comprehensive evaluation of the proposed approach was conducted across fifteen biomedical data sets representing various classification tasks. The proposed method was tested on two basic CNN architectures: Vgg16 and ResNet50. Results demonstrate the superiority in performance of this approach. The MATLAB source code for this study will be available at https://github.com/LorisNanni.