REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0181.v2
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: Miscanthus x giganteus; Miscanthus sinensis; Miscanthus robustus; Miscanthus nagara; lignin; monolignol ratio; low-input crops
Online: 25 January 2021 (14:51:06 CET)
Abstract: As a low-input crop, Miscanthus offers numerous advantages that, in addition to agricultural applications, permits its exploitation for energy, fuel, and material production. Depending on the Miscanthus genotype, season, and harvest time as well as plant component (leaf versus stem), correlations between structure and properties of the corresponding isolated lignins differ. Here, a comparative study is presented between lignins isolated from M. x giganteus, M. sinensis, M. robustus and M. nagara using a catalyst-free organosolv pulping process. The lignins from different plant constituents are also compared regarding their similarities and differences regarding monolignol ratio and important linkages. Results showed that the plant genotype has the weakest influence on monolignol content and interunit linkages. In contrast, structural differences are more significant among lignins of different harvest time and/or season. Analyses were performed using fast and simple methods such as nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Data was assigned to four different linkages (A: b-O-4 linkage, B: phenylcoumaran, C: resinol, D: b-unsaturated ester). In conclusion, A content is particularly high in leaf-derived lignins at just under 70 % and significantly lower in stem and mixture lignins at around 60 % and almost 65 %. The second most common linkage pattern is D in all isolated lignins, the proportion of which is also strongly dependent on the crop portion. Both stem and mixture lignins, have a relatively high share of approximately 20 % or more (maximum is M. sinensis Sin2 with over 30 %). In the leaf-derived lignins, the proportions are significantly lower on average. Stem samples should be chosen if the highest possible lignin content is desired, specifically from the M. x giganteus genotype, which revealed lignin contents up to 27 %. Due to the better frost resistance and higher stem stability, M. nagara offers some advantages compared to M. x giganteus. Miscanthus crops are shown to be very attractive lignocellulose feedstock (LCF) for second generation biorefineries and lignin generation in Europe.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0038.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Other Keywords: biomass; chemometrics, genotype; HSQC NMR; lignin; Miscanthus X giganteus; monolignol ratio; principal component analysis
Online: 4 March 2019 (10:30:04 CET)
As a renewable industrial crop, Miscanthus offers numerous advantages, namely high photosynthesis activity (as a C4 plant) and exceptional CO2 fixation rate. These properties make Miscanthus very attractive for industrial exploitation, such as lignin generation. Here, we present a systematic study analyzing the correlation of the lignin structure with Miscanthus genotype and plant portion (stem versus leaf). Specifically, the ratio of the three monolignols and corresponding building blocks as well as the linkages formed between the units have been studied. Depending on the Miscanthus genotype and plant component (leaf versus stem), correlations between chemical structure and properties of the lignins have been determined, i.e. correlations in molecular weight, polydispersity and decomposition temperature. Lignin isolation was performed using non-catalyzed organosolv pulping and the structure analysis includes NREL, FTIR, UV-Vis, HSQC-NMR, TGA, pyrolysis GC/MS. Structural differences were found for stem and leaf-derived lignins. Compared to beech wood lignins, Miscanthus lignins possess lower molecular weight and narrow polydispersities (< 1.5 Miscanthus vs. > 2.5 beech) corresponding to improved homogeneity. In addition to conventional univariate analysis of FTIR spectra, multivariate chemometrics revealed distinct differences for aromatic in-plane deformations of stem versus leaf-derived lignins. These results emphasize the potential of Miscanthus as low-input resource and Miscanthus-derived lignin as promising agricultural feedstock.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0241.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: biomaterial; bone regeneration; drug release; hydrogel; lignin; multivariate data processing; osteogenesis; scaffolds; stem cells; tissue engineering
Online: 13 July 2018 (15:07:37 CEST)
Renewable resources gain increasing interest as source for environmentally benign biomaterials, such as drug encapsulation/release compounds, and scaffolds for tissue engineering in regenerative medicine. Being the second largest naturally abundant polymer, the interest in lignin valorization for biomedical utilization is rapidly growing. Depending on resource and isolation procedure, lignin shows specific antioxidant and antimicrobial activity. Today, efforts in research and industry are directed toward lignin utilization as renewable macromolecular building block for the preparation of polymeric drug encapsulation and scaffold materials. Within the last five years, remarkable progress has been made in isolation, functionalization and modification of lignin and lignin-derived compounds. However, literature so far mainly focuses lignin-derived fuels, lubricants and resins. The purpose of this review is to summarize the current state of the art and to highlight the most important results in the field of lignin-based materials for potential use in biomedicine (reported in 2014–2018). Special focus is drawn on lignin-derived nanomaterials for drug encapsulation and release as well as lignin hybrid materials used as scaffolds for guided bone regeneration in stem cell-based therapies.
Subject: Chemistry, Food Chemistry Keywords: antimicrobial activity; antiradical activity; chitosan; hydroxypropylmethylcellulose; lignin; pathogenic microorganisms; organosolv
Online: 25 March 2019 (11:40:11 CET)
The antiradical and antimicrobial activity of lignin and lignin-based films are both of great interest for applications such as food packaging additives. The polyphenol structure of lignin in addition to the presence of O-containing functional groups is potentially responsible for these activities. This study used DPPH assays to discuss the antiradical activity of HPMC/lignin and HPMC/lignin/chitosan films. The scavenging activity (SA) of both binary (HPMC/lignin) and ternary (HPMC/lignin/chitosan) systems was affected by the percentage of the added lignin: the 5% addition showed the highest activity and the 30% addition had the lowest. Both, scavenging activity and antimicrobial activity are depending on the biomass source showing the following trend: organosolv of softwood > Kraft of softwood > organosolv of grass. Testing the antimicrobial activities of lignins and lignin-containing films showed high antimicrobial activities against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria at 35 °C and at low temperatures (0-7 °C). Purification of kraft lignin has a negative effect on the antimicrobial activity while storage has positive effect. The lignin release in the produced films affected the activity positively and the chitosan addition enhances the activity even more for both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Testing the films against spoilage bacteria that grow at low temperatures revealed the activity of the 30% addition on HPMC/L1 film against both B. thermosphacta and P. fluorescens while L5 was active only against B. thermosphacta. In HPMC/lignin/chitosan films the 5% addition exhibited activity against both B. thermosphacta and P. fluorescens.