REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0229.v3
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Anti-aging therapy; lipofuscin; SENS; TFEB; intracellular microbe; and synthetic chemotaxis
Online: 27 September 2022 (04:20:31 CEST)
Lipofuscin is indigestible garbage that accumulates in the autophagic vesicles and cytosol of post-mitotic cells with age. Drs. Brunk and Terman postulated that lipofuscin accumulation is the main or at least a major driving factor in aging. They even posited that the evolution of memory is the reason why we get lipofuscin at all, as stable synaptic connections must be maintained over time, meaning that the somas of neurons must also remain in the same locale. In other words, they cannot dilute out their garbage over time through cell division. Mechanistically, their position certainly makes sense given that rendering a large percentage of a post-mitotic cell’s lysosomes useless must almost certainly negatively affect that cell and the surrounding microenvironment. Here, I explore the possibility that the accumulation of lipofuscin to some extent underlies all other categories of age-related damage as defined by Dr. Aubrey de Grey. I do not think that lipofuscin removal will reverse/prevent all forms of aging, just the major component facing us currently. In this piece, I will review what is known about lipofuscin accumulation from evolutionary and mechanistic standpoints and discuss ways of removing it from non-dividing (or slowly-dividing) cells.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0220.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: Molecular switches; oncolytic vectors; patient-specific ubiquitous mutations; targeted therapy; multi-region sequencing; molecular biology
Online: 11 August 2022 (11:50:12 CEST)
Most existing cancer therapies negatively affect normal tissue as well as cancerous tissue. A potentially effective strategy for treating cancer that precludes off-target damage and could be an option for most patients would involve targeting one or more mutations that are ubiquitous in the given patient’s tumor(s). To effect this strategy, one would employ multi-region sequencing of a patient’s primary tumor and metastases to seek out mutations that are shared between all or at least most regions. Once the target or targets are known, one would ideally rapidly generate a molecular switch for at least one of said ubiquitous mutations that can distinguish the mutated DNA, RNA, or protein from the wild-type version and subsequently trigger a therapeutic response. I propose that the therapeutic response involve the replication of an oncolytic virus or intracellular bacterium, as any mutation can theoretically be detected by a vector that enters the cell - and automatic propagation could be very helpful. Moreover, the mutation “signal” can be easily enhanced through transcriptional and translational (if the target is an intracellular protein) enhancement. Importantly, RNA may make the best target for the molecular switches in terms of amplification of the signal and ease of targeting.