ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0408.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Astronomy & Astrophysics Keywords: tidal forces, numeric simulation, acceleration vectors, multi-planetary system, extrasolar planets/planet systems
Online: 19 July 2021 (11:50:17 CEST)
Volcanism powered by tidal forces inside celestial bodies can provide enough energy to keep important solvents for living systems in the liquid phase. Moreover, tidal forces and their environmental consequences may strongly influence habitability of planets and other celestial bodies and may result in special forms of live and living conditions. A prerequisite to calculate such tidal interactions and consequences is depending on simulations for tidal accelerations in a multi-body system. Unfortunately, from measurements in many extrasolar planetary systems only few physical and orbital parameters are well enough known for investigated celestial bodies. For calculating tidal acceleration vectors under missing most orbital parameter exactly, a simulation method is developed that is only based on a few basic parameters, easily measurable even in extrasolar planetary systems. Such a method as being presented here, allows finding a relation between the tidal acceleration vectors and potential heating inside celestial objects. Using values and results of our model approach to our solar system as a “gold standard” for feasibility allowed us to classify this heating in relation to different forms of volcanism. This “gold standard” approach gave us a classification measure for the relevance of tidal heating in other extrasolar systems with a reduced availability of exact physical parameters. We would help to estimate conditions for the identification of potential candidates for further sophisticated investigations by more complex established methods like viscoelastic multi-body theories. As a first example, we applied the procedures developed here to the extrasolar planetary system TRAPPIST-1 as an example to check our working hypothesis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0248.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: cancer; differentiation commitment; acridine-orange-DNA test; pericentromere-associated domains (PADs); power law of PAD number vs. size; critical self-organisation; unravelling of PADs; silencing threshold
Online: 15 May 2020 (08:01:08 CEST)
Finding out how cells with the same genome change fates in differentiation commitment is a challenge of biology. We used MCF-7 breast cancer cells treated with the ErbB2 ligand heregulin (HRG), which induces differentiation, to address if and how the constitutive pericentromere-associated domains (PADs) may be involved in this process. PAD-specific repressive heterochromatin (H3K9me3) and active euchromatin (H3K4me3) marking, centromere (CENPA) labelling, qPCR, acridine-orange-DNA structural test, and microscopic image analysis were applied. We found a two-step DNA unfolding, at 15-20 min and 60 min after HRG treatment, coinciding with bi-phasic activation of the early response genes (c-FOS family) and two steps of critical phase transition which were revealed in transcriptome studies. In control, the distribution of PAD number and size displays a power-law scaling with a boundary at the nucleolus. PADs’ clustering correlates with centromere numbers. 15 min after HRG treatment, the unravelling of PADs occurs, coinciding with the first step of euchromatin unfolding. The second step is associated with transcription of long-non-coding-RNA from satellite III DNA. We hypothesize that splitting of the PAD clusters under the critical size threshold of the silencing domain abrupts position effect variegation. It allows the first genome transcription avalanche to occur, starting differentiation commitment.