ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0048.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: Artificial intelligence; Machine Learning; Reinforced Learning; Optimisation; Metaheuristic; Metaheuristic Generation
Online: 4 January 2021 (13:31:05 CET)
Machine learning research has been able to solve problems in multiple aspects. An open area of research is machine learning for solving optimisation problems. An optimisation problem can be solved using a metaheuristic algorithm, which is able to find a solution in a reasonable amount of time. However, there is a problem, the time required to find an appropriate metaheuristic algorithm, that would have the convenient configurations to solve a set of optimisation problems properly. A solution approach is shown here, using a proposal that automatically creates metaheuristic algorithms aided by a reinforced learning approach. Based on the experiments performed, the approach succeeded in creating a metaheuristic algorithm that managed to solve a large number of different continuous domain optimisation problems. This work's implications are immediate because they describe a basis for the generation of metaheuristic algorithms in real-time.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0534.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: EMA; prognostics; PHM; model-based; metaheuristic; MEA
Online: 30 January 2023 (02:39:27 CET)
The deployment of Electro-Mechanical Actuators plays an important role towards the adoption of the More Electric Aircraft (MEA) philosophy. On the other hand, a seamless substitution of EMAs in place of more traditional hydraulic solutions is still set back due to the shortage of real-life and reliability data regarding their failure modes. One way to work around this problem is providing a capillary EMA Prognostics and Health Management (PHM) system, capable of recognizing failures before they actually undermine the ability of the safety-critical system to perform its functions. The authors have developed a model-based prognostic framework for PMSM based EMAs leveraging a metaheuristic algorithm: Evolutionary (Differential Evolution (DE)) and swarm intelligence (particle swarm (PSO), grey wolf (GWO)) methods are considered. Several failures (dry friction, backlash, short circuit, eccentricity and proportional gain) are simulated thanks to a Reference Model, acting as a Numerical Test Bench, then detected and identified thanks to the envisioned prognostic method, which leverages a low fidelity Monitoring Model. The employed algorithms showed good results and prove that this strategy could be executed in pre-flight checks or during the flight at specific time intervals, with positive impacts on system safety and availability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0464.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Water quality; dissolved oxygen; Neural network; Metaheuristic schemes
Online: 25 January 2021 (09:50:43 CET)
The great importance of estimating dissolved oxygen (DO) dictates utilizing proper evaluative models. In this work, a multi-layer perceptron (MLP) network is trained by three capable metaheuristic algorithms, namely multi-verse optimizer (MVO), black hole algorithm (BHA), and shuffled complex evolution (SCE) for predicting the DO using the data of the Klamath River Station, Oregon, US. The records (DO, water temperature, pH, and specific conductance) belonging to the water years 2015 - 2018 (USGS) are used for pattern analysis. The results of this process showed that all three hybrid models could properly infer the DO behavior. However, the BHA and SCE accomplished this task by simpler configurations. Next, the generalization ability of the developed patterns is tested using the data of the 2019 water year. Referring to the calculated mean absolute errors of 1.0161, 1.1997, and 1.0122, as well as Pearson correlation coefficients of 0.8741, 0.8453, and 0.8775, the MLPs trained by the MVO and SCE perform better than the BHA. Therefore, these two hybrids (i.e., the MLP-MVO and MLP-SCE) can be satisfactorily used for future applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0205.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: electricity distribution; microgrids; prosumers; phase generation management; metaheuristic optimization.
Online: 13 October 2021 (14:54:49 CEST)
Four-wire low voltage microgrids supply one-phase consumers with continuously changing electricity demand. For addressing climate change concerns, governments implemented incentive schemes for residential consumers, encouraging the installation of home PV panels for covering self-consumption needs. In the absence of sufficient storage capacities, the surplus is sold back by these entities, called prosumers, to the grid operator or in local markets, to other consumers. While these initiatives encourage the proliferation of green energy resources, and ample research is dedicated to local market designs for prosumer-consumer trading, the main concern of distribution network operators is the influence of power flows generated by prosumer surplus injection on the operating states of microgrids. The change in power flow amount and direction can greatly influence the economic and technical operating conditions of radial grids. This paper proposes a metaheuristic algorithm for prosumer surplus management that optimizes the power surplus injections using the automated control of three-phase inverters, with the aim of improving the active power losses and balancing the phase voltage profiles. A case study is performed on two real distribution networks with distinct layouts and load profiles and the algorithm shows its efficiency in both scenarios.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0411.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Energy performance; Cooling load prediction; Neural network, Metaheuristic optimization.
Online: 21 January 2021 (09:23:04 CET)
Regarding the high efficiency of metaheuristic techniques in energy performance analysis, this paper scrutinizes and compares five novel optimizers, namely biogeography-based optimization (BBO), invasive weed optimization (IWO), social spider algorithm (SOSA), shuffled frog leaping algorithm (SFLA), and harmony search algorithm (HSA) for the early prediction of cooling load in residential buildings. The algorithms are coupled with a multi-layer perceptron (MLP) to adjust the neural parameters that connect the CL with the influential factors. The complexity of the models is optimized by means of a trial-and-error effort, and it was shown that the BBO and IWO need more crowded spaces for fulfilling the optimization. The results revealed that the internal parameters (i.e., biases and weights) suggested by the BBO generate the most reliable MLP for both analyzing and generalizing the CL pattern (with nearly 93 and 92% correlations, respectively). Followed by this, the IWO emerged as the second powerful optimizer with mean absolute errors of 1.8632 and 1.9110 in the training and testing phases. Therefore, the BBO-MLP and IWO-MLP can be reliably used for accurate analysis of the CL in future projects.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0358.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: Metaheuristic algorithms; Health data analytics; Multi-object simulated annealing; optimization
Online: 15 July 2021 (12:03:44 CEST)
Metaheuristic algorithms have been frequently using to tackle optimization problems, however such algorithms in the analysis of health-related data is not commonly used as developing metaheuristic algorithms that work well on health-related data is a difficult task due to complexity of the health data in particular genomics and epigenetics data. One of the important tasks in genomics is to predict genomic elements that are incorporating together to regulate a disease-related genes. Predicting such elements are important as they can be used to develop a personalized cure. In this study, we present for the first time, a multi-object simulated annealing algorithm to identify enhancer-promoter like interactions from Hi-C (chromosome conformation capture) data. These regulatory elements can potentially play vital roles as promoters and/or enhancers in appearance and exacerbation of the regulation of gene.s To evaluate the efficiency of the proposed method, we applied our proposed method and traditional methods on the Hi-C data from mice and compared together. Our results show that the interacting elements identified by our new method are more likely to be functional. The source code of the method is publicly available.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0133.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Energy-efficiency; HVAC system; Neural network; Cooling load; Metaheuristic search.
Online: 8 January 2021 (10:20:07 CET)
Early prediction of thermal loads plays an essential role in analyzing energy-efficient buildings' energy performance. On the other hand, stochastic algorithms have recently shown high proficiency in dealing with this issue. These are the reasons that this work is dedicated to evaluating an innovative hybrid method for predicting the cooling load (CL) in buildings with residential usage. The proposed model is a combination of artificial neural networks and stochastic fractal search (SFS-ANN). Two benchmark algorithms, namely the grasshopper optimization algorithm (GOA) and firefly algorithm (FA), are also considered to be compared with the SFS. The non-linear effect of eight independent factors on the CL is analyzed using each model's optimal structure. Evaluation of the results outlined that all three metaheuristic algorithms (with more than 90 % correlation) can adequately optimize the ANN. In this regard, this tool's prediction error declined by nearly 23, 18, and 36 % by applying the GOA, FA, and SFS techniques. Also, all used accuracy criteria indicated the superiority of the SFS over the benchmark schemes. Therefore, it is inferred that utilizing the SFS along with ANN provides a reliable hybrid model for the early prediction of CL.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0075.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Power plant; Electrical power modeling; Metaheuristic strategy; Water cycle algorithm
Online: 5 January 2021 (10:45:10 CET)
Proper management of solar energy, as an effective renewable source, is of high importance toward sustainable energy harvesting. This paper offers a novel sophisticated method for predicting solar irradiance (SIr) from environmental conditions. To this end, an efficient metaheuristic technique, namely electromagnetic field optimization (EFO) is employed for optimizing a neural network. This algorithm quickly mines a publicly available dataset for non-linearly tuning the network parameters. To suggest an optimal configuration, five influential parameters of the EFO (i.e., NPop, R_rate, Ps_rate, P_field, and N_field) are optimized by an extensive trial and error practice. Analyzing the results showed that the proposed model can learn the SIr pattern and predict it for unseen conditions with high accuracy. Furthermore, it provided about 10% and 16% higher accuracy compared to two benchmark optimizers, namely shuffled complex evolution and shuffled frog leaping algorithm. Hence, the EFO-supervised neural network can be a promising tool for the early prediction of SIr in practice. The findings of this research may shed light on the use of advanced intelligent models for efficient energy development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0317.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, General & Theoretical Computer Science Keywords: multi agent systems; high-dimensional; optimization; email spam; metaheuristic algorithms
Online: 26 January 2020 (08:25:07 CET)
There exist numerous high-dimensional problems in the real world which cannot be solved through the common traditional methods. The metaheuristic algorithms have been developed as successful techniques for solving a variety of complex and difficult optimization problems. Notwithstanding their advantages, these algorithms may turn out to have weak points such as lower population diversity and lower convergence rate when facing complex high-dimensional problems. An appropriate approach to solve such problems is to apply multi-agent systems along with the metaheuristic algorithms. The present paper proposes a new approach based on the multi-agent systems and the concept of agent, which is named Multi-Agent Metaheuristic (MAMH) method. In the proposed approach, several basic and powerful metaheuristic algorithms, including Genetic Algorithm (GA), Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), Artificial Bee Colony (ABC), Firefly Algorithm (FA), Bat Algorithm (BA), Flower Pollination Algorithm (FPA), Gray Wolf Optimizer (GWO), Whale Optimization Algorithm (WOA), Crow Search Algorithm (CSA), Farmland Fertility Algorithm (FFA), are considered as separate agents each of which sought to achieve its own goals while competing and cooperating with others to achieve the common goals. In overall, the proposed method was tested on 32 complex benchmark functions, the results of which indicated effectiveness and powerfulness of the proposed method for solving the high-dimensional optimization problems. In addition, in this paper, the binary version of the proposed approach, called Binary MAMH (BMAMH), was executed on the spam email dataset. According to the results, the proposed method exhibited a higher precision in detection of the spam emails compared to other metaheuristic algorithms and methods.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0524.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: genetic algorithms; reactive power dispatch; metaheuristic optimization; penalty functions; constraint handling
Online: 27 July 2018 (02:56:22 CEST)
This paper presents an alternative constraint handling approach within a specialized genetic algorithm (SGA) for the optimal reactive power dispatch (ORPD) problem. The ORPD is formulated as a nonlinear single-objective optimization problem aiming to minimize power losses while keeping network constraints. The proposed constraint handling approach is based on a product of sub-functions that represents permissible limits on system variables and that includes a specific goal on power loss reduction. The main advantage of this approach is the fact that it allows a straightforward verification of both feasibility and optimality. The SGA is examined and tested with the proposed constraint handling approach and the traditional penalization of deviations from feasible solutions. Several tests are run in the IEEE 30, 57, 118 and 300 bus test power systems. The results obtained with the proposed approach are compared to those offered by other metaheuristic techniques reported in the specialized literature. Simulation results indicate that the proposed genetic algorithm with the alternative constraint handling approach yields superior solutions when compared to other recently reported techniques.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0432.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: supply chain management; phosphorus fertilizers; environmental issues; sustainability; recycling policy; metaheuristic algorithm
Online: 23 December 2022 (01:39:06 CET)
Phosphorus (P) is the most important substance in inorganic fertilizers used in agriculture industry. In this study, a multi-product and multi-objective model is presented considering economic and environmental concerns to design a renewable and sustainable P-fertilizer supply chain management (PFSCM). To handle complexities of the proposed model, an ensemble knowledge-based three-stage heuristic-metaheuristic algorithm utilizing heuristic information available in the model, whale optimization algorithm, and variable neighborhood search (named H-WOA-VNS) is proposed. At first, a problem-dependent heuristic is designed to generate a set of near-optimal feasible solutions. These solutions are fed into a population-based whale optimization algorithm which benefits from both exploration and exploitation strategies. Finally, a single-solution metaheuristic based on variable neighborhood search is applied to further improve the quality of the solution using local search operators. The objective function of the algorithm is formulated as a weighted average function to minimize total economic cost, while increasing crop yield and P use efficiency. Experimental results over five synthetic datasets and a real case study of the P-fertilizer supply chain confirm the superiority of the proposed method against the state-of-the-art techniques. The results demonstrate that the proposed method performs well in optimizing both the economic cost and environmental issues.
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Energy efficiency; Heating loads; heating ventilation and air conditioning; metaheuristic; optimization algorithms.
Online: 6 January 2021 (11:00:33 CET)
Reliable prediction of sustainable energy consumption is the key to designing environmental friend buildings. In this study, two novel hybrid intelligent methods, namely grasshopper optimization algorithm (GOA), wind-driven optimization (WDO), and biogeography-based optimization (BBO) is employed to optimize the multitarget prediction of heating loads (HLs) and cooling loads (CLs) in heating ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. Concerning the optimization of applied hybrid algorithms, a series of swarm-based iteration is performed, and the best structure for the abovementioned methods are proposed. Besides, through sensitivity analyzing the relationship between the HLs and CLs and influential factors are highlighted. In other words, the GOA, WDO, and BBO algorithm are mixed with a class of feedforward artificial neural networks (ANN), which called MLP (multi-layer perceptron) to predict the HLs and CLs. According to the provided sensitivity analysis, the WDO with swarm size = 500 proposes the most proper-fitted terms after it has been combined with optimized MLP. The proposed WDO-MLP (training (R2 correlation=0.977 and RMSE error=0.183) and testing (R2 correlation=0.973 and RMSE error=0.190)) provided accurate prediction in the heating load and (training (R2 correlation=0.99 and RMSE error=0.147) and testing (R2 correlation=0.99 and RMSE error=0.148)) presents the most-fit prediction in the cooling load.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0303.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Fire Hawk Optimizer; optimization; metaheuristic algorithms; Building Information Modelling (BIM); resource management; project resource management
Online: 17 August 2022 (05:34:30 CEST)
Project managers should balance a variety of resource elements in building projects while taking into account many major concerns, including time, cost, quality, risk, and the environment. This study presents a framework for resource trade-offs in project scheduling based on the Building Information Modeling (BIM) methodology and metaheuristic algorithms. First, a new metaheuristic algorithm called Fire Hawk Optimizer (FHO) is used. Using project management software and the BIM process, a 3D model of the construction is created. In order to maximize quality while minimizing time, cost, risk, and CO2 in the project under consideration, an optimization problem is created, and the FHO's capability for solving it is assessed. A predefined stopping condition is taken into account while doing 30 independent optimization runs to obtain the statistical metrics, such as the mean, standard deviation, and the required number of objective function evaluations. The results show that the FHO algorithm is capable of producing competitive and exceptional outcomes when it comes to trade-off various resource options in projects.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0182.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Numerical Analysis & Optimization Keywords: optimization; metaheuristic; earthquake algorithm; bat algorithm; particle swarm optimization; PID controller; DC motor; fuzzy logic; mamdani; geo-inspired computing
Online: 11 September 2018 (04:57:11 CEST)
A novel metaheuristic optimization method is proposed based on an earthquake that is a geology phenomenon. The novel Earthquake Algorithm (EA) proposed, adapts the principle of propagation of geology waves P and S through the earth material composed by random density to ensure the dynamic balance between exploration and exploitation, in order to reach the best solution to optimization complex problems by searching for the optimum into the search space. The performance and validation of the EA are compared against the Bat Algorithm (BA) and the Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) by using 10 diverse benchmark functions. In addition, an experimental engineering application is implemented to evaluate the proposed algorithm. Early results show a feasibility of the proposed method with a clearly constancy and stability. It is important highlight the fact that the main purpose of this paper is to present a new line of research, which is opened from the novel EA.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0381.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Numerical Analysis & Optimization Keywords: algorithmic design; metaheuristic optimisation; evolutionary computation; swarm intelligence; memetic computing; parameter tuning; fitness trend; Wilcoxon Rank-Sum; Holm-Bonferroni; benchmark suite
Online: 26 March 2020 (04:03:41 CET)
The Stochastic Optimisation Software (SOS) is a Java platform facilitating the algorithmic design process and the evaluation of metaheuristic optimisation algorithms. It reduces the burden of coding miscellaneous methods for dealing with several bothersome and time-demanding tasks such as parameter tuning, implementation of comparison algorithms and testbed problems, collecting and processing data to display results, measuring algorithmic overhead, etc. SOS provides numerous off-the-shelf methods including 1) customised implementations of statistical tests, such as the Wilcoxon Rank-Sum test and the Holm-Bonferroni procedure, for comparing performances of optimisation algorithms and automatically generate result tables in PDF and LaTeX formats; 2) the implementation of an original advanced statistical routine for accurately comparing couples of stochastic optimisation algorithms; 3) the implementation of a novel testbed suite for continuous optimisation, derived from the IEEE CEC 2014 benchmark, allowing for controlled activation of the rotation operator. each testbed function. Moreover, this article comments on the current state of the literature in stochastic optimisation and highlights similarities shared by modern metaheuristics inspired by nature. It is argued that the vast majority of these algorithms are simply a reformulation of the same methods and that metaheuristics for optimisation should be simply treated as stochastic processes with less emphasis on the inspiring metaphor behind them.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0481.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Applied Mathematics Keywords: Controlled Elitism Non-Dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm; CENSGA; NSGA-II; Variable-length chromosome (VLC); metaheuristic; multi-objective optimization; Pulse vaccination; allocation; scheduling; planning
Online: 31 October 2022 (10:16:41 CET)
: Seasonal influenza (a.k.a flu) is responsible for considerable morbidity and mortality across the globe. The three recognized pathogens that cause epidemics during the winter season are influenza A, B and C. The influenza virus is particularly dangerous due to its mutability. Vaccines are an effective tool in preventing seasonal influenza, and their formulas are updated yearly according to WHO recommendations. However, in order to facilitate decision-making in the planning of the intervention, policymakers need information on the projected costs and quantities related to introducing the influenza vaccine, in order to help governments obtain an optimal allocation of the vaccine each year. In this paper, an approach based on a Controlled Elitism Non-Dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm (CENSGA) model is introduced to optimize the allocation of influenza vaccination. A bi-objective model is formulated to control the infection volume, and reduce the unit cost of the vaccination campaign. An SIR (Susceptible–Infected–Recovered) model is employed for representing a potential epidemic. The model constraints are based on the epidemiological model, time management, and vaccine quantity. A two-phase optimization process is proposed: guardian control followed by contingent controls. The proposed approach is an evolutionary metaheuristic multi-objective optimization algorithm with a local search procedure based on a hash table. Moreover, in order to optimize the scheduling of a set of policies over a predetermined time to form a complete campaign, an extended CENSGA is introduced with a variable-length chromosome (VLC) along with mutation and crossover operations. To validate the applicability of the proposed CENSGA, it is compared with the classical Non-Dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm (NSGA-II). The results are analyzed using graphical and statistical comparisons in terms of cardinality, convergence, distribution and spread quality metrics, illustrating that the proposed CENSGA is effective and useful for determining the optimal vaccination allocation campaigns.