ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1256.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: Opiates, Opium smoking, Neck pain, Neck disability, Forward head posture, Hyperkyphosis, Drug use disorder, Iran
Online: 18 July 2023 (15:56:47 CEST)
Opium smoking for long hours and over many years is common in Iran, and the Covid-19 pan-demic and false beliefs about the protective effects of that opium against COVID-19 infection has caused the increasing of opium smoking during the pandemic. The aim of this study was to in-vestigate the relationship between non-ergonomic positions of traditional opium smoking in Iran with the occurrence of neck pain and disability, forward head posture and hyperkyphosis. In this cross-sectional and correlation study 120 people who smoke opium were selected based on the inclusion criteria and were interviewed about their addiction profile and evaluated for the pres-ence of pain and disability in the neck by Maudsley Addiction Profile, Leeds Dependence Ques-tionnaire, the Visual Analog Scale and Neck Disability Index. Also, they were evaluated about forward head posture (FHP) through side view photography and hyperkyphosis (HK) through flexible ruler. Data were analyzed by correlation coefficient tests and stepwise linear regression. There was a significant relation between homelessness, the duration of lifetime opium smoking (months), the duration of daily opium smoking (minutes) and drug dependence severity with the severity of neck pain, neck disability, forward head posture and hyperkyphosis. Homelessness is the strongest predictive variable of the possibility of neck pain and disability, FHP and HK, fol-lowed by ‘‘the number of months of opium smoking’’ and ‘‘the number of minutes of opium smoking in one day’’ respectively. Increasing the duration of sitting in non-ergonomic positions can lead to neck pain and disability, FHP and HK due to their non-neutral posture in opium smokers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0482.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: screen time; sleep duration; body mass index (BMI); time use
Online: 31 May 2018 (16:34:38 CEST)
Today, due to recent developments in technology, children devote plenty of time for screen viewing. However, its harmful effects are not yet clear. The purpose of present study was to examine the associations among screen viewing and sleep duration, and body mass index (BMI) in under-five years old children. This cross-sectional study was conducted with 322 under-five healthy children that were selected using multistage stratified cluster sampling method in 2017. The data that were gathered by time-use diary method were analyzed using Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, Spearman correlation tests, multiple linear regression analysis, one-way ANCOVA, two-way ANCOVA. There was a negative correlation between screen time and sleep duration (rs = -0.42, p = 0.00), positive correlation between screen time and BMI (rs = 0.38, p = 0.00) and sleep duration negatively correlated with BMI (rs = -0.22, p = 0.00). screen viewing was a predictive factor for both sleep duration (β = -0.26, p = 0.00) and BMI (β = -0.26, p = 0.00). screen viewing had a significant impact on sleep duration (4, 314) = 5.02, P = 0.001) and BMI (F (4, 314) = 1.16, P=0.298). Results of this study indicated that screen viewing is related to sleep duration and BMI in under-five children. furthermore, screen time has an impact on sleep duration and BMI scores of children. findings of our study suggest that sleep duration negatively is associated with BMI in under-five-year-old children.