ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0492.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: long sunshine; Medicago truncatula; developmental period; transcriptome analysis; functional annotation
Online: 7 August 2023 (11:54:19 CEST)
To explore the expression characteristics and biological functions of related genes of medicago terrestris under long day conditions, and to lay a foundation for revealing the molecular mechanism of medicago terrestris under long day conditions. The leaves of 'R108' tribulus Medicago sativa at branch stage (A), bud stage (B), initial flowering stage (C) and full flowering stage (D) were sequenced by RNA-Seq technology. The genome of Medicago sativa, a related species of Tribulus tribulus, was used as a reference genome for sequence comparison. The transcriptomes of three adjacent periods (A vs B, B vs C, C vs D) were analyzed for differentially expressed genes and photoperiod related differentially expressed genes were screened. A total of 6875 differentially expressed genes were detected. GO functional analysis showed that differentially expressed genes were mainly involved in biological processes, cell components and molecular functions, among which the most differentially expressed genes were involved in cell components. KEGG enrichment analysis showed that differentially expressed genes were mainly involved in circadian rhythm, photosynthesis - antenna protein, ribosome metabolism and other pathways. The number of single nucleotide variants detected by cSNP analysis was 312875, and the frequency of A/G and C/T were the highest. The function of eggNOG was divided into 23 categories, with a total of 26745 genes having similarities, 9008 genes were classified as function unknown, 2669 genes were classified as signal transduction mechanism, 2194 genes were classified as transcription, etc. In different developmental stages (A vs B, B vs C, C vs D), 3463 up-regulated and 3412 down-regulated differentially expressed genes were found. The difference between up-regulated and down-regulated genes was the most obvious between bud stage and initial flowering stage. In addition, a total of 79 flowering genes were found, of which 51 differential genes were screened out to participate in photoperiodic regulation pathway, 23 differential genes were up-regulated, and 28 differential genes were down-regulated. The ratio of gene-LOC11410562(GI), gene-LOC11435974(CO), gene-LOC11422615(TOC1) and gene-LOC11432385(LHY) was higher than that of gene-LOC25500742(PHYA) and gene-LOC11 431402(ELF3), gene-LOC11434778(Col13), gene-LOC25498015(Col6), and gene-LOC11415514(Col9) were preexpressed. The above differentially expressed genes were significantly expressed in different development stages of Terrestris alfalfa, which laid a foundation for further study of the molecular mechanism of Terrestris alfalfa.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0048.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: oligopeptide transporters (OPTs); Medicago truncatula; phylogenetic analysis; gene express
Online: 15 September 2016 (08:39:23 CEST)
Oligopeptide transporters (OPTs) are a group of membrane localized proteins that have a broad range of substrate transport capabilities and contribute to numerous biological processes. However, limited information has been reported on OPTs in higher plants. In this study, a comprehensive analysis of the OPT gene family in Medicago truncatula was performed. A total of 26 OPT genes (MtOPT01-MtOPT26) have been identified in the Medicago truncatula genome. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that MtOPTs consisted of two distinct subgroups, 12 MtOPTs belonged to the peptide transport subgroup (PT-OPT) based on their predicted amino acid sequences containing the two highly conserved motifs (NPG and KIPPR) and 14 MtOPTs belonged to yellow stripe subgroup (YS-OPT). The MtOPTs distributed on each of 8 chromosomes in Medicago truncatula. Sequence analysis verified that MtOPTs significant similar to those in other plants. The copy number of MtOPTs was low and the multiply of MtOPTs was simple relatively. Gene structure analysis showed that most of the MtOPTs have various numbers of introns. The multiple of MtOPTs might play different biological roles which were supported by the fact that MtOPTs have a distinct tissue-specific expression pattern. The data obtained in this study will help to better understand the complexity of the MtOPTs gene family and provide new evidence for the function and evolution of the OPT gene family in higher plants.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1622.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: Lotus japonicus; Medicago truncatula; Nitrate transporter; nodules; NPF; NRT2; Pisum sativum
Online: 27 November 2023 (11:19:43 CET)
In addition to absorbing nitrogen from the soil, legumes have the ability to use atmospheric N2 through symbiotic nitrogen fixation. Therefore, legumes have developed mechanisms regulating nodulation in response to the amount of nitrate in the soil; in the presence of high nitrate concentrations, nodulation is inhibited while low nitrate concentrations stimulate nodulation and nitrogen fixation. This allows the legumes to switch from soil nitrogen acquisition to symbiotic nitrogen fixation. Recently, a particular interest has been given to the nitrate transporters, such as NPF or NRT2, having a role in the functioning of nodules. Nitrate transporters of the two model plants, Lotus japonicus and Medicago truncatula, shown to have a positive and/or a negative role in nodule functioning, depending on nitrate concentration, are presented in this review. Also, by exploiting available genomic and transcriptomic data in the literature we have identified the complete PsNPF family in Pisum sativum (69 sequences previously described and 21 new that we have annotated) and putative nitrate transporters candidate for playing a role in nodule functioning in P. sativum.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0662.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: legume-rhizobial symbiosis; Medicago truncatula; Sinorhizobium meliloti; NAD1; defense; Dual RNA-seq
Online: 11 September 2023 (10:57:43 CEST)
Legume-rhizobial symbiosis leads to to the formation of root nodules, where rhizobia reside and develop into bacteroids to reduce nitrogen into ammonium for plant growth, which leaves an opening question as how plant immunity is attenuated in nodules in the presence of large number of foreign bacteria. In Medicago truncatula, mutation in NAD1 (Nodules with Activated Defense 1) only produces necrotic nodules with overactivated immunity, indicating NAD1 is an indispensable component required for suppressing immunity in nodules. In this study, a dual RNA-seq transcriptomic technology was performed to extensively analyze gene expressions in nad1-1 mutant nodules. We indenifited 89 DEGs in symbiotic nitrogen fixation and 89 DEGs in immunity in Medicago truncatula at 10 dpi. Simultaneously, we indenifited 27 DEGs in fix and nif genes in Sinorhizobium meliloti. Then we identified 56 DEGs related to stress, including ROS, NO, and NCR, most of which were upregulated in Sinorhizobium meliloti. Our analyses of nitrogen fixation-defective plant nad1-1 mutants with overactivated defense indicate that host use plant immunity to control massive bacterial colonization during early and late symbiotic stages. Our findings provide insight into the function of NAD1 in improvement or inhibition of plant immune response to maintain symbiosis during rhizobial endosymbiosis.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0305.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: Genomic selection; WGBLUP; Medicago sativa
Online: 21 October 2021 (12:35:16 CEST)
Agronomic traits such as biomass yield and abiotic stress tolerance are genetically complex and challenging to improve by conventional breeding strategies. Genomic selection (GS) is an alternative approach in which genome-wide markers are used to determine the genomic estimated breeding value (GEBV) of individuals in a population. In alfalfa, previous results indicated that low to moderate prediction accuracy values (<70%) were obtained in complex traits such as yield and abiotic stress resistance. There is a need to increase the prediction value in order to employ GS in breeding programs. In this paper we reviewed different statistic models and their applications in polyploid crops including alfalfa. Specifically, we used empirical data affiliated with alfalfa yield under salt stress to investigate approaches which use DNA marker importance values derived from machine learning models, and genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of marker-trait association scores based on different GWASpoly models, in weighted GBLUP analyses. This approach increased prediction accuracies from 50% to more than 80% for alfalfa yield under salt stress. This is the first report in alfalfa to use variable importance and GWAS-assisted approaches to increase the prediction accuracy of GS, thus helping to select superior alfalfa lines based on their GEBVs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0837.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Insect Science Keywords: New taxon; morphological characteristics; ITS2; Medicago sativa
Online: 12 June 2023 (13:16:07 CEST)
Three new species of the Sequester group of Pteromalus (Habrocytus) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae: Pteromalinae), Pteromalus (Habrocytus) boleensis Yan et Li sp. nov., Pteromalus (Habrocytus) longepedicelus Yan et Li sp. nov., and Pteromalus (Habrocytus) robustus Yan et Li sp. nov. are described and illustrated based on adult morphology and molecular data from Xinjiang, China. The DNA barcodes (ITS2) of Pteromalus (Habrocytus) boleensis sp. nov. and Pteromalus (Habrocytus) robustus sp. nov. have been generated and compared with all existing sequences of the Sequester species group. The results of morphological taxonomy and molecular identification are consistent. A key to all known species of the Sequester group in the world is provided.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1208.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Complementary And Alternative Medicine Keywords: Medicago orbicularis; Lung cancer; Herbal medicine; Antioxidants; hemolytic; cisplatin; A549 cells
Online: 19 September 2023 (03:23:46 CEST)
Cancer is second leading cause of death, worldwide. Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality. Plant-based therapeutics and herbal medicine have played a vital role in the development of several anti-cancerous agents, and has been used to reduce the severe side effects of chemotherapy as well. Since the anti-lung cancer properties of the plant Medicago. orbicularis are not explored yet, we identified its phytochemical composition and investigated the anti-oxidant, anti-hemolytic, and anti-cancerous properties of extracts of this plant in A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cells. Results show that all parts of M. orbicularis (stems, leaves, and fruits) exhibit remarkable anti-oxidant and hemolytic activities. In addition, all extracts showed a dose-dependent anti-cancerous cytotoxic activity against A549 cells; with fruit extracts being the most potent. This cytotoxic effect could be related, at least partly, to the induction of apoptosis, where M. orbicularis fruit extracts activated Caspase-3 and PARPP-1, and reduced the ratio of anti-apoptotic BCL-2/ pro-apoptotic BAX, thereby promoting cellular death. Furthermore, the use of M. orbicularis, in combination with a conventional chemotherapeutic agent, cisplatin, was assessed. Indeed, combination of cisplatin and M. orbicularis fruit extracts was more cytotoxic and induced more aggregation of A549 cells than either treatment alone. GC-MS analysis and total polyphenol and flavonoid content determination indicated that M. orbicularis is rich in compounds that have anti-cancerous effects. M. orbicularis may be a potential source of anti-cancerous agents to manage progression of lung cancer and its resistance to therapy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1307.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Complementary And Alternative Medicine Keywords: green extraction; antioxidant; antidiabetic; Medicago sativa; Solidago virgaurea; flavonoidrich extract; isoflavonoid-rich extract
Online: 20 October 2023 (08:29:54 CEST)
The present study evaluated the antioxidant, antidiabetic properties, and biocompatibility of Medicago sativa and Solidago virgaurea extracts enriched in flavonoid and isoflavonoid compounds. The extracts were obtained by accelerated solvent extraction and laser irradiation. Then, nanofiltration was used for the concentration of flavonoid and isoflavonoid compounds from extracts. The extracts were analyzed for antioxidant capacity using DPPH radical scavenging and reducing power methods, while the antidiabetic property was tested by α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibition and in vitro on a murine insulinoma cell line (β-TC-6). M. sativa obtained by laser irradiation and concentrated by nanofiltration had the highest DPPH• scavenging (IC50 = 105.2±1.1 and reducing power activities (IC50 = 40.98±0.2 µg/mL). M. sativa extracts had higher inhibition on α-amylase (IC50 = 23.9±1.2, respectively 26.8±1.1), while S. virgaurea had the highest α-glucosidase inhibition (9.3±0.9 ?g/mL respectively 8.6±0.7 ?g/mL). The results obtained after evaluating the antidiabetic in vitro activity showed that the treatment with M. sativa and S. virgaurea flavonoid- and isoflavonoid-rich extracts stimulated the insulin secretion of β-TC-6 cells, both under normal conditions as well as in hyperglycemic conditions. This paper argued that M. sativa and S. virgaurea flavonoid-rich and isoflavonoid-rich extracts could be an excellent natural source with promising antidiabetic potential.
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: sub-surface flow constructed wetland; nutrient removal; wastewater treatment; Lactuca sativa; Medicago sativa; Phragmites australis
Online: 28 November 2016 (10:34:49 CET)
The main objective of this study was to compare the removal efficiency of nutrients using Lactuca sativa, Medicago sativa and Phragmites australis in subsurface flow constructed wetlands with horizontal flow. In order to test water quality, fabricated reactors designed and the plants cultivated in the soil while their root were inside the wastewater. A long time study carried out from spring till end of autumn (9 months) in order to evaluate the difference in removal rate based on the seasonal changes. The highest removal rate was during summer which followed by spring and autumn. Thus, the effect of plants on the removal efficiency of organic matter (COD, BOD), TSS and nutrient (P and TN) appeared to be dependent on the seasonal growth. Phragmites australis the most sensitive species in order the removal of nutrient from wastewater.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0699.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Conventional alfalfa; dormant variety; glyphosate resistant alfalfa; Medicago sativa; non-dormant variety; reduced lignin alfalfa; salinity; seed germination; seedling growth; temperature
Online: 21 April 2023 (08:59:50 CEST)
Seed germination and seedling growth represent two vulnerable stages in a plant life cycle and it is important to determine how they will be affected by environmental changes associated with climate change. This study examines the impact of salinity levels (0, 50, 100, and 150 mM) at each of three temperatures (15, 25, and 35˚C) on seed germination and radicle growth for three dormant and three non-dormant varieties of conventional, glyphosate resistant, or reduced lignin alfalfa. The genetic basis and phenotypic plasticity for seed germination and seedling growth in response to salinity and temperature were determined. Both traits were phenotypically plastic with respect to temperature and salinity. Seed germination was 87.0% ± 1.7 at 25˚C, 0mM (no salinity), but decreased to 33.9% ± 3.9 germination at 35˚C and 150mM. Radicle length went from 36.7 ± 1.5 mm after four days at 25˚C, 0mM, to 10.5 ± 0.7 mm at 35˚C, 150mM. The phenotypic response brought seed germination and radicle length away from their optimum, but we detected standing genetic variation for both seed germination and radicle length. Selection to increase both traits at high temperature and salinity would facilitate alfalfa establishment under climate change.