ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0632.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Society; Economy; Environment; Development; Maturity Model
Online: 9 May 2023 (10:03:22 CEST)
The Societal Patterns Evolution Model (SPEM) (Gakh, 2023a) has been developed to apply to socio-technical systems. It contains patterns representing stages of societal development. Mapping of these patterns to the development of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) and Information Systems was presented at FedCSIS 2022 conference (Gakh, 2022c). This paper discusses the application of SPEM to model the development of three pillars of sustainability: economic, social, and environmental (Purvis, et al., 2019; United Nations, 2023).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0473.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: team development; society development; maturity models
Online: 7 November 2022 (03:45:56 CET)
There are different Maturity, Motivation, and Development models. The models can be applied to the development of organizations, businesses, information technology infrastructure, human resources, and so on. This paper discusses society patterns that can be used in modeling society and team development. The model discussed has many advantages over existing ones. It assumes the Age of Creativity and the Creative Society Pattern as the upmost level of development. The patterns are juxtaposed with the 16 levels Simple Learning Motivation Hierarchy Model that allow modeling of dynamic processes with Expansion and Totality as the upmost levels. This approach eliminates the limitations of existing models and allows detailed modeling and planning. Explanation of the future development of humanity (up to the Age of Creativity) is one of the advantages of the model. The paper contains the description of the main peculiarities of society patterns and creates a basis for practical implementation of the model for society and team development. Organizations and teams can benefit from this model through its implementation in consulting and coaching processes. The model can be used in regional/organizational development and investment planning.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0147.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Health Policy And Services Keywords: clinical trial; informativeness; design review; trial methods maturity model
Online: 10 April 2023 (04:56:37 CEST)
Many clinical trials end uninformatively. Informativeness, in the context of clinical trials, defines whether a study’s results definitively answer its research questions with meaningful next steps. One subset of these trials are those focused on global health set in low-resource settings. Global health clinical trials benefitting people in low-resource settings are funded primarily by a limited number of large foundations, pharmaceutical firms (“industry”), and national governments. While clinical trial protocols are required to go through reviews in regulatory and ethical domains, outside of industry-funded trials, funders rarely require focused scientific design reviews. There are no documented standards and processes, or even best practices, for funders to perform scientific reviews after the funding commitment. Considering the investment in and standardization of ethical and regulatory reviews, and the prevalence of studies ending without clarity or never finishing, it may be that scientific reviews of trial designs with a focus on informativeness offer the best chance for improved outcomes and return on investments in clinical trials. A maturity model is a helpful tool for knowledge transfer to help grow capabilities in a new area, or for those looking to perform a self-assessment in an existing area. Such a model is offered for scientific design reviews of clinical trial protocols: a valuable and often-neglected governance step for funders or sponsors, among others. This maturity model includes 11 process areas and 5 maturity levels. Each of the 55 process area levels is populated with descriptions on a continuum toward an optimal state to improve trial protocols in the area of risk of failure. This tool allows for prescriptive guidance on next investments to improve attributes of post-funding reviews of trials, with a focus on informativeness.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0149.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: carbon footprint; environmental manufacturing; Industry 4.0; maturity models; Value Stream Mapping (VSM)
Online: 7 May 2021 (15:34:51 CEST)
The primary purpose of this article is to present a maturity model dealing with environmental manufacturing processes in a company. First, a theoretical approach is presented where evolution from the first industrial revolution to the present (Industry 4.0.) is outlined with a need to implement environmental initiatives. Chapter two contains a detailed literature review, which resulted in the creation of our own maturity model presented in the next chapter. According to some authors, Industry 4.0 is based on characteristics that have already been the focus of “lean and green” concepts. The practical part of the article is a case study that shows which areas of the manufacturing process have “environmental” potential. The goal was to move from resource consumption, pollutant emissions and more extensive manufacturing towards environmentally responsible manufacturing (ERM). Using environmental materials and methods reduces energy consumption, which generates cost savings and higher profits. Here, VSM (Value Stream Mapping) was applied to identify core processes with environmental potential. The final part of the article summarizes the work and presents future possibilities. This paper provides an understanding of the role of environmental manufacturing in the era of the 4th industrial revolution.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0132.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Maturity Model; Sustainability assessment; Supply Chain; Intra- and inter-organizational perspec-tive; TBL dimensions
Online: 9 January 2023 (01:27:50 CET)
Nowadays, frameworks and models are critical to enabling organizations to identify their current sustainability integration into business and to follow up on these initiatives over time. In this context, the maturity models offer a structured way of analyzing how a supply chain meets specific sustainability requirements and which areas demand attention to reach maturity levels. This study proposes a five-level maturity model to help supply chains identify their level of engagement with sustainability practices combining three perspectives: intra and inter-organizational sustainability practices, triple-bottom-line approach and critical areas for sustainability. All the steps followed in constructing the maturity model were based on a literature review, and case studies supported its improvement, application, and testing. The proposed model presents many advantages, such as being used as a self-assessment tool, a roadmap for sustainability behaviour improvement, and a benchmarking tool to evaluate and compare standards and best practices among organizations and supply chains.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0175.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: fruit transport; mechanical damage; physiological disorders; fruit maturity; colour; firmness
Online: 7 December 2020 (16:00:33 CET)
The study assessed the changes in the quality and physical and chemical parameters of apples of four cultivars (‘Gala’, ‘Idared’, ‘Topaz’, ‘Red Prince’) subjected to mechanical vibrations during transport under model conditions and after storage (shelf-life). Quality changes in apples were evaluated based on skin and flesh colour, total soluble solids, dry matter, firmness, titratable acidity, pH value, total polyphenol content and antioxidant capacity. The applied vibrations at a frequency of 28 Hz caused changes in the above parameters, which were visible also after storage and depended on cultivar, but did not show any clear trend or direction. Skin colour varied whereas flesh colour remained stable. Vibrations resulted in a decrease in firmness. The greatest stability of quality parameters, the highest content of bioactive compounds and the highest antioxidant capacity were observed for ‘Red Prince’ and ‘Topaz’ apples – this refers to the control and treated samples before and after storage. However, total polyphenol content and antioxidant capacity increased in all studied cultivars as a result of vibrations and storage, which suggests that 28 Hz mechanical vibrations and short-term cold storage did not reduce the health promoting potential of the apples.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0737.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: construction enterprise; digital transformation maturity; AHP-Decision Testing and Evaluation Laboratory (AHP-DEMATEL)
Online: 12 September 2023 (07:21:55 CEST)
With the continuous development of digital transformation and upgrading of Chinese construction enterprises, it is becoming increasingly important to measure their digital level, find the problems in the enterprise transformation process, and identify the key factors of enterprise digital capacity enhancement. This paper constructs a construction enterprise digital transformation maturity evaluation model from six first-level indicators and 20 second-level indicators, including digital strategy, digital business application, digital technology capability, data capability, digital organization capability, and change management. Digital maturity is divided into five levels: business management, process operation, intelligent construction, intelligent scene application, and industrial ecological collaboration. A detailed process of digital maturity evaluation based on the method of Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP)-Decision Testing and Evaluation Laboratory (DEMATEL) is then developed. A questionnaire survey of 25 experts is used to weight the various parameters in the model, which is then demonstrated with an example construction enterprise. The model comprehensively reflects digital levels under the background of the digital economy. Its application will help understand the advantages and disadvantages enterprises face in their digital transformation to enable targeted measures to improve their digital transformation capabilities and efficiency, enhance their core competitiveness of enterprises, and promote the development of digital transformation in the construction industry.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1043.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: business transformation; digital process maturity; business maturity framework (BMF); incremental changes; maturity assessment; disruptive changes; oil and gas industry
Online: 15 September 2023 (05:01:31 CEST)
This paper examines the use of business maturity models as a tool for achieving business maturity and improving organizational performance in a rapidly changing business environment. Specifi-cally, the paper evaluates existing maturity models and methodologies, analyzes their effective-ness, and develops a novel and enhanced model tailored to the oil and gas sector. The authors highlight the importance of considering fundamental factors that underlie the implementation of maturity models and the need to evaluate their fit with organizational goals and values. The pa-per concludes by emphasizing the ongoing nature of business maturity and the effectiveness of theproposed Business Maturity Framework (BMF) model in enhancing operational excellence, competitiveness, and sustainable growth in the oil and gas industry. The paper makes a notable contribution to the specialized literature precisely through the differ-ent approaches to the business maturity process and through the proposed business maturity model itself as a base of strategy formulation, which includes a new dimension. This dimension analyzes whether the market and customers are ready for the level of digitization that the com-pany wants to achieve in a future state.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0002.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: Green ICT; Sustainability; Green ICT maturity model; Sustainable ICT maturity model; SME;
Online: 1 September 2018 (13:45:28 CEST)
Green ICT has received significant attention in organizations to reduce global warming since last decade. Several maturity models have been proposed for tracking green ICT practices in organizations. Current literature shows that SMEs around the world try to follow some common strategies such as virtualization, consolidation of devices, energy efficiency and disposal of ICT equipment for greening ICT. The increasing interest for green ICT practices in organizations is not only due to the desire to attain environment-friendly atmosphere but mainly because of sustaining business goals such as cost reduction, competitive advantages and stakeholders’ pressure. Nevertheless, due to the lack of green ICT knowledge, organizations, specially SMEs, tend to ignore those practices. Therefore, this research proposes a framework that provides combination of existing green and sustainable ICT maturity models by mapping them with the strategies the businesses are already following. Out of this framework, a web application has been developed that provides questionnaire for SMEs to identify their present situation of green ICT practices and guidelines for improvement. The results have been analyzed by testing the application in some SMEs of Finland and Bangladesh. Finally, a survey has been conducted to attain SMEs’ perception about the possibility of sustainable development of businesses through this application.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0342.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Human Resources And Organizations Keywords: Environmental Manager, Maturity, Ecodesign, Environmental Decoupling
Online: 21 June 2018 (15:35:39 CEST)
The research investigates the role the environmental manager plays to ensure a successful (or not) implementation of environmental performance within an organization. It is based on interviews of 5-7 actors per company within a sample of 7 companies (42 interviews). We build upon bias of perception of the various actors interviewed within each company to define 4 paradoxes related to the roles and mission of the environmental manager that hinder proper efficiency of environmental management at company level. Paradox 1 is that no one takes ownership of environmental performance within the organization. Paradox 2 is that the environmental manager is in an awkward situation vis-à-vis his boss. Paradox 3 is that the role of the environmental manager is ambiguous vis-à-vis employees. Paradox 4 is that corporate and product approaches are decoupled. We suggest that these paradoxes interact and form a vicious cycle that may in part be responsible for the environmental decoupling phenomenon – the fact that companies often adopt a sustainability policy symbolically without implementing it substantively. Our research suggests that, by leveraging the leadership of the environmental manager through organizational and motivational measures, the vicious cycle can be transformed into a virtuous cycle and the human motivation can become a driver for green change within corporations. We proposed the SEA (Shaping Environmental Action) model based of 4 pillars: information, motivation, organization and strategy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0013.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Social support; emotional maturity; anxiety; online learning
Online: 4 January 2021 (11:26:27 CET)
The COVID-19 pandemic in Indonesia makes a significant impact both physically and psychologically. One month after the President of the Republic of Indonesia announced about the COVID-19 patient cases, the Indonesian Child Protection Commission data during April 2020, depicted that 76.7% of children were not happy to participate in distance learning because 81.8% were only given assignments by the teacher and 73.2% felt they had a heavy task and had a short period of time to complete. This reaction is an indicator of the children’s anxiety about distance learning. The anxiety that occurs in these students is assumed to depend on their social support and emotional maturity. When students get optimal family support and are able to control their emotions in the face of a pandemic, they can reduce anxiety in facing online learning. The subjects of this study were 202 junior high and high school students. The results showed that social support and emotional maturity simultaneously affect anxiety in online learning (Freg = 45.066, p = 0.00 <0.01). These results can be used as a basis for providing psycho-education to increase family support and emotional maturity to reduce anxiety in online learning.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0020.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Burmeister’s porpoise; reproduction; sexual maturity; testes; ovarian corpora
Online: 1 September 2022 (10:19:45 CEST)
The morphology and maturation process of gonads of 70 Burmeister´s porpoises, with body lengths ranging 135–183 cm (n= 34 females) and 64.5-182 cm (n= 36 males) were described. Samples were collected in six ports of central and northern Peru in 1987-1999. In the field, females were classified as immature, mature (resting, lactating, pregnant) and males as immature, pubescent and mature based on, respectively, the presence of ovarian corpora and the relative quantity of semen in cut epididymides. The ovaries of P. spinipinnis are ovoid or bean-shaped and flattened, with corpora modifying surface appearance. In the laboratory, ovaries were examined macro- and microscopically, measured, weighed and sliced in 1-3 mm sections. The number of corpora ovarica (lutea, albicantia, atretica) found in each ovary as well as their macroscopic and microscopic characteristics were documented in some detail. The follicles, their oocytes and nucleus were measured. Follicular development in P. spinipinnis is predominantly left-sided, but occurs in both ovaries in 16.3% of females, mainly in those with numerous corpora. Macroscopically, several corpora atretica with luteinization had characteristics similar to those of corpora albicantia, making microscopic determination essential. Inconclusive evidence of recent ovulation was found in January. Two of three immature females showed good follicular development in March and April. The body length at 50% sexual maturity in females was estimated at 152.7 cm. There was no evidence of reproductive senescence. The testes of P. spinipinnis are elongated and cylindrical. Of the 36 males examined macroscopically, 7 were immature, 5 pubescent and 24 mature. The histological analysis determining the presence and abundance of Sertoli cells, spermatogonia, spermatocytes, spermatids and spermatozoa, the relative amount of interstitial tissue, the elongation and mean diameter of the seminiferous tubules and the relative size of the lumen allowed to confidently determine sexual maturity status. The field evaluation of maturity based on the presence of sperm in the epididymides is a useful but, in 8.3% of cases, not exact method. For males the body length at 50% sexual maturity was estimated at 157 cm. No histological evidence of male reproductive seasonality was found. Spermatogenesis was perceptible year-round and tubule diameters had non-specific variations for each month.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0456.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: chilling injury; pepper; seed browning; maturity; harvest time
Online: 22 October 2020 (10:04:39 CEST)
Chilling injury (CI), which causes seed browning in pepper, may arise following long-term cold storage, and is a major cause of postharvest losses. To explore potential strategies of minimizing the associated postharvest losses, the present study investigated the optimal pepper harvest time that could reduce levels of seed browning, in addition to the relationship between fruit maturity and seed browning. Fruit harvested 15 days after flowering (DAF) were sensitive to cold storage at 4°C and exhibited 100% seed browning (CI index, 4.0); in contrast, the seed browning rate of fruit harvested 35 DAF was 10% (CI index, 0.4) within 7 d of cold storage. Seed antioxidant activity was higher in seeds harvested at early stages (15 DAF to 20 DAF) than in seeds harvested at later stages (40 DAF to 50 DAF) at the beginning of storage. Pericarps of fruit harvested at 50 DAF exhibited the highest antioxidant activity. Lipoxygenase, catalase, and peroxidase activity, and the expression levels of cell wall-related genes, pectin methylesterase-like protein, and endo-β-1,4-glucanase were higher in seeds of immature fruit harvested 15 DAF than in seeds of mature fruit harvested 35 DAF. The endosperm separated from the seed coat in fruit harvested 35 DAF and the seeds did not brown under low-temperature storage. The lack of seed browning observed in mature fruit under low-temperature storage could be attributed to physical protection provided by the seed coat rather than cold stress resistance conferred by antioxidants.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0682.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Business fluctuations; financial stability; output gap; weighted maturity
Online: 28 July 2020 (12:34:23 CEST)
Many countries have been facing the problem of bank insolvency across the globe. Asset deterioration is one of the main reasons for insolvency of banks. The objective of the paper is to ascertain the determinants of nonperforming loans (NPLs) in the banking sector of Pakistan for the period 2006-16. Other than the bank specific and macro variables proposed by the literature, the roles of weighted maturity and output gap are for the first time examined. We find significant impact of output gap on NPLs however weighted maturity has insignificant role in shaping the future NPLs. Bank specific drivers of NPLs include bank size and capital adequacy ratio.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0308.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: magnetic resonance imaging; cherry tomato; maturity change; internal structure
Online: 14 July 2020 (11:52:59 CEST)
The maturity of tomato fruit is normally characterized by external color and it is often difficult to know when fruit have achieved commercial maturity or become over-mature. The internal structure of tomato fruit change during development and this study investigates the utility of nondestructive measurement of tomato fruit structure as a function of maturity using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The objective of this work is to use analysis of internal tomato fruit structural measurements to characterize maturity. Intact cherry tomato fruit were harvested at six different maturity stages. At each stage of maturity, the internal structure of the fruit was measured using a series of 2D magnetic resonance (MR) images. Qualitative and quantitative image analyses were performed to correlate internal fruit structure with maturity. Internal structural changes observed in the pericarp region of the tomato fruit are highly correlated with fruit maturity. MR image information combined with classical analysis techniques provides a more complete understanding of structure and physicochemical changes in tomato fruit during maturation. This study demonstrates that MRI is a useful analytical tool to characterize internal changes in agricultural produce as the produce matures. This technique can be applied to almost any agricultural produce to monitor internal physical changes due to external impact, maturity stage, variation in climate, storage time and condition or other factor impacting quality.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0335.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: big data; maturity model; temporal analytics; advanced business analytics
Online: 18 August 2018 (11:05:24 CEST)
The main aim of this paper is to explore the issue of big data and to propose a conceptual framework for big data, based on the temporal dimension. The Temporal Big Data Maturity Model (TBDMM) is a means for assessing organization’s readiness to fully profit from big data analysis. It allows the measurement of the current state of the organization’s big data assets and analytical tools, and to plan their future development. The framework explicitly incorporates a time dimension, providing a complete means for assessing also the readiness to process temporal data and/or knowledge that can be found in modern sources, such as big data ones. Temporality in the proposed framework extends and enhances the already existing maturity models for big data. This research paper is based on a critical analysis of literature, as well as creative thinking, and on the case-study approach involving multiple cases. The literature-based research has shown that the existing maturity models for big data do not treat the temporal dimension as the basic one. At the same time, dynamic analytics is crucial for a sustainable competitive advantage. This conceptual framework was well received among practitioners, to whom it has been presented during interviews. The participants in the consultations often expressed their need of temporal big data analytics, and hence the temporal approach of the maturity model was widely welcomed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0616.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy And Rehabilitation Keywords: digital transformation; digital maturity; esports businesses; digital resilience; thematic analysis
Online: 11 July 2023 (03:03:03 CEST)
Digital transformation has become the top priority for 80% of sports companies worldwide, but statistics show that between 70% and 95% of all digital transformation projects fail due to signif-icant and varied challenges that sports companies face during the process of digital transfor-mation. This is because strategy, not digital technology, drives digital transformation, and suc-cess is unlikely without a mature digital transformation model. Moreover, the digital transfor-mation model of developing and emerging markets is not the same and cannot be adopted as a blueprint. Therefore, the aim of this research was to propose a framework for the digital trans-formation maturity of esports businesses in developing and emerging markets. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with a sample of 15 stakeholders of esports businesses in Iran. Thematic analysis was used to analyze the interviews, and three main perspectives were identified: (1) enablers, (2) digital resilience and capabilities, and (3) digital transformation ma-turity stages. The enablers were formed by six sub-themes, including governance and leader-ship, strategy, culture and skills, innovation, technology, and data. Digital resilience and capa-bilities were formed by four sub-themes, including business model and ecosystem, digital cus-tomer experience, digital employee experience, and digital processes. Additionally, it was found that digital transformation maturity stages are based on four stages of digital beginners, digital followers, digital conservatives, and digital leaders. The findings indicate that moving towards digital transformation and achieving digital resilience in esports businesses will be impossible without synergy between enablers and digital resilience and capabilities. This framework can be useful for esports businesses to evaluate their current digital status and effectively guide them towards a desirable digital status. Furthermore, esports businesses can prioritize their efforts and resources for digital transformation by focusing on targeted capabilities and enablers and ensure more effective and efficient allocation of resources towards digital transformation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1718.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: digital transformation; small and medium enterprises (SMEs); digital maturity; digital transformation strategy
Online: 26 September 2023 (05:31:22 CEST)
Proposed study aims to investigate the digital transformation of Greek small and medium enterprises (SMEs), with a particular focus on their digital maturity and the strategic and organizational factors contributing to digital transformation. The research issue of digital transformation is attracting considerable interest among academics and business practicians since COVID-19 accelerated the procedure of implementing Industry’s 4.0 principles all over global economies. Quantitative research on 147 Greek SMEs revealed most important issues on how these businesses implement digital transformation, factors accelerating or decelerating the process, barriers and expected outcomes. Research enlights how SMEs face the transition to digital business and reveals the factors that can facilitate the whole process. Results can be valuable for stakeholders enabled to digital transformation process from both business and academic point of view, while there exist aspects that can contribute to policy makers / motivation developers in state’s level as well.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0211.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Horticulture Keywords: UV-B radiation; Mango; Fruit maturity; Fruit quality,Photosynthesis; Photosynthetic enzymes; Gene expression
Online: 11 November 2021 (13:01:28 CET)
(1) Background: Investigating the characteristics of photosynthetic physiological changes of leaves in Mangifera indica L. cv. 'GuIfei' under enhanced UV-B radiation, natural light exposed trees were regarded as control, and 96 kJ·m-2·d-1enhanced UV-B radiation was artificially simulated in the field; (2) Methods: The changes of fruit maturity and fruit quality, leaf net photosynthetic rate (Pn), photosynthetic pigments contents, photochemical reaction, activities of photosynthetic enzymes and their genes expressions were determined; (3) Results: Compared with CK, the percentage of mature fruits of the treatment was significantly increased, and fruit quality was better. The net photosynthetic rate (Pn), the contents of photosynthetic pigment, Hill reaction activity and photochemical quenching coefficient (qP) of the treatment leaves showed a significantly higher trend than CK. The activities of Rubisco and RCA, and the expression of Rubisco genes rbcL and rbcS were significantly increased; (4) Conclusions: 96 kJ·m-2·d-1 enhanced UV-B radiation treatment improved Rubisco activity through increasing the expression of Rubisco genes rbcL and rbcS, thereby enhancing the CO2-fixing capacity and dark reaction capacity of leaves. Based on this, it raised the net photosynthetic rate of leaves, which promoted the early maturity of 'Guifei' mango by the fast accumulating photosynthetic products.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0198.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Postharvest storage; fruit firmness; total soluble solids; apple cultivars; apple packaging; apple maturity
Online: 8 June 2021 (09:15:30 CEST)
This research was conducted to understand changes of physicochemical properties of fruits of three apple cultivars as influenced by stage of maturity and packaging types over storage period of three weeks. The research was designed to replicate practices by the producers and along the value chains and to assess the fruit quality under the conditions of the major markets in the region. All the measured physicochemical parameters significantly varied with the cultivars, maturity stage at harvest and packaging types. Higher firmness was recorded for the samples harvested about two weeks before the optimal maturity, usually practiced by significant number of producers to gain market advantage. Lower total soluble solids corresponded to the early harvested samples regardless of cultivars and packaging types. The firmness was observed decreasing over the storage periods whereas the total soluble solids increased, which is associated to improving sensorial quality for the early harvested cultivars as the soluble solids are mainly sugars. The early harvesting resulted in fruits of inferior desirability including extreme hardness, firmness and low total soluble solids that may have high sourness and less sweet taste. Awareness creation for the producers on the quality and advantages of harvesting their produces at optimal maturity and practicing good postharvest management is required.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0167.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Applied Chemistry Keywords: phytosterols; mesocarp; oilseed; maturity; pod-blast; α-tocopherol; oil bodies; campesterol; stigmasterol; β-sitosterol
Online: 9 October 2018 (04:02:35 CEST)
The seeds of cultivated peanut, Arachis hypogaea, are an agronomically important crop produced for human nutrition, oilseed and feed stock. Peanut seed is the single most expensive variable input cost and thus producers require seed with excellence performance in terms of germination efficiency. During the maturation process, triglycerides are stored in oil bodies as an energy resource during germination and seedling development. The stability of oil body membranes is essential for nutrient mobilization during germination. This study focused on evaluating the phytosterol composition in seed components including the kernel, embryo (heart), and seed coat or skin. Samples of different maturity classes were analyzed for macronutrient and phytosterol content. The three most abundant phytosterols, β-sitosterol, campesterol, and stigmasterol, comprised 82.29%, 86.39%, and 94.25% of seed hearts, kernels, and seed coats, respectively. Stigmasterol concentration was highest in the seed kernel providing an excellent source of this sterol known to have beneficial effects on human health. Peanut hearts contained the highest concentration of sterols by mass potentially providing protection and resources for the developing seedling. The amount of α-tocopherol increases in peanut hearts during the maturation process providing protection from temperature stress and stability required for seedling vigor. These results suggest that phytosterols may play a significant role in the performance of seeds and provides a possible explanation for the poor germination efficiency of immature seeds.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0458.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: machine learning; deep leaning; physiological maturity; computer vision; plant breeding; Phenology; Glycine max (L.) Merr.
Online: 19 September 2020 (10:08:43 CEST)
Soybean maturity is a trait of critical importance for the development of new soybean cultivars, nevertheless, its characterization based on visual ratings has many challenges. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) imagery-based high-throughput phenotyping methodologies have been proposed as an alternative to the traditional visual ratings of pod senescence. However, the lack of scalable and accurate methods to extract the desired information from the images remains a significant bottleneck in breeding programs. The objective of this study was to develop an image-based high-throughput phenotyping system for evaluating soybean maturity in breeding programs. Images were acquired twice a week, starting when the earlier lines began maturation until the latest ones were mature. Two complementary convolutional neural networks (CNN) were developed to predict the maturity date. The first using a single date and the second using the five best image dates identified by the first model. The proposed CNN architecture was validated using more than 15,000 ground truth observations from five trials, including data from three growing seasons and two countries. The trained model showed good generalization capability with a root mean squared error lower than two days in four out of five trials. Four methods of estimating prediction uncertainty showed potential at identifying different sources of errors in the maturity date predictions. The architecture used solves limitations of previous research and can be used at scale in commercial breeding programs.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1327.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: Plum consumption; Consumer Quality Index; flesh breakdown; temperature management; critical bruising thresholds; maximum maturity; late harvest; firmness; SSC
Online: 18 May 2023 (10:25:20 CEST)
Plums are primarily marketed for fresh consumption, canning, freezing, jam and jelly. Unfortunately, plum consumption has remained steady or declined. Consumers complain about a lack of flavor quality but are willing to pay for higher quality. Thus, lack of flavor and cold storage disorders are the main barriers to consumption. Plum cultivars are susceptible to gel breakdown, flesh browning and ‘off flavors’. Consumer acceptance and postharvest life are highly dependent on genotype, quality attributes, harvest date and proper postharvest handling. A consumer quality index (CQI) based on soluble solids concentration (SSC) and minimum firmness is proposed to maximize flavor and postharvest life. In most cases, late harvest increases quality attributes. Our work and industry experience demonstrated that using critical bruising thresholds (CBT) based on minimum firmness measured at harvest acts as a reliable predictor of how late to harvest safely for maximum visual and sensory quality. Plums are well adapted to late harvest because of their low susceptibility to bruising damage, but proper postharvest temperature management and marketing within the potential market life are necessary to maintain flavor and avoid the onset of storage disorders. Thus, to maximize flavor and postharvest life, a CQI based on SSC and minimum firmness measured at consumption is proposed. This article provides guidance on using this CQI, combined with proper postharvest handling techniques such as correct harvest date determination and temperature management, to maintain quality and increase consumption.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0504.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Political Science Keywords: science policy; technology policy; technology; technology maturity level; technology readiness level; technology commercialization; technology transfer; university technology transfer
Online: 27 January 2023 (10:45:25 CET)
This paper presents the results of a study aimed at understanding how technology maturity level influences the incidence of university technology transfer to the private sector. The study examined the topic from the perspective of private sector organizations. It used data from a random sample of patent applications filed with the United States Patent and Trademark Office and a theoretically guided sampling of multiple cases of private sector organizations that contemplated obtaining and assimilating technologies created at universities in the United States. The patent application data were analyzed using nonparametric statistical techniques and the case data were analyzed using qualitative comparative analysis (QCA). The findings of the study suggest that the typical maturity level of technologies created at U.S. universities is a TRL-5 or lower on as scale adapted from the NASA technology readiness level (TRL) scale. A technology maturity level of TRL-6 or higher is likely an insufficient but necessary part of at least one unnecessary but sufficient configuration of conditions that tends to result in the occurrence of university technology transfer. However, under certain circumstances, a technology maturity level of at least TRL-6 could be a sufficient but unnecessary condition for the occurrence of university technology transfer. These findings have several important implications. First, they provide support for the notion that university technology transfer is subject to causal complexity. Moreover, it may be possible to increase the incidence of university technology transfer in the United States by implementing public policy and practices that explicitly take technology maturity level into consideration.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0397.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: flax; genome-wide association study (GWAS); selective sweep; genotyping by sequencing (GBS); bi-parental population; single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP); seed yield; plant height; maturity; fatty acid composition
Online: 3 August 2018 (15:34:24 CEST)
A genome-wide association study (GWAS) was performed on a set of 260 lines which belong to three different bi-parental flax mapping populations. These lines were sequenced to an averaged genome coverage of 19× using the Illumina Hi-Seq platform. Phenotypic data for 11 seed yield and oil quality traits were collected in eight year/location environments. A total of 17,288 single nucleotide polymorphisms were identified, which explained more than 80% of the phenotypic variation for days to maturity (DTM), iodine value (IOD), palmitic (PAL), stearic, linoleic (LIO) and linolenic (LIN) acid contents. Twenty-three unique genomic regions associated with 33 QTL for the studied traits were detected, thereby validating four genomic regions previously identified. The 33 QTL explained 48-73% of the phenotypic variation for oil content, IOD, PAL, LIO and LIN but only 8-14% for plant height, DTM and seed yield. A genome-wide selective sweep scan for selection signatures detected 114 genomic regions that accounted for 7.82% of the flax pseudomolecule and overlapped with the 11 GWAS-detected genomic regions associated with 18 QTL for 11 traits. The results demonstrate the utility of GWAS combined with selection signatures for dissection of the genetic structure of traits and for pinpointing genomic regions for breeding improvement.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0347.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Pomegranate; separation of varieties by taste; degree of maturity; fruit weight and ratio of its in-dividual parts; chemical composition; sugar; protein; ascorbic acid; common polyphenols; flavo-noids
Online: 21 February 2023 (02:08:54 CET)
The results of physico-chemical studies of individual fruit parts, including crusts, partitions, juice and seeds themselves, extracted from immature (green), unripe and mature fruits of three harvest periods are presented: 20.VII, 01.IX and 15.X. The analyses were carried out in 2019-20 during the period of active growth and ripening of fruits in the varieties Spring, Iridanaly, Guleisha pink and wild pomegranate from the Geokchay region (Azerbaijan) using standard and generally accepted physico-chemical methods. The ripe fruit (130-288 g) consisted of 60-113% of the peel (peel together with partitions), 53-140% of the juice and 17-85% of the seeds themselves. The edible part of the ripened fruits (53.85-73.2 of the total weight of the fruit) consisted of 58.54-78.65% juice and 21.35 -41.46% seeds, fresh juice contained 15.7-17.7% solids, including 12.04-13.84% sugar, 0.17-0.30% protein, 0.15—0.23% pectin, 0.30-0.40% ash and 0.26-0.57% total polyphenols. The concentrations of solids, protein, ash and total polyphenols in the seeds themselves, remaining after the extraction of juice from the grains of ripe fruits, were 50.0-58.2, 4.13-5.75, 0.60-1.0 and 0.08-0.32%, respectively. There were fewer total polyphenols, flavonoids, chlorogenic acids, catechins and leucoanthocyanins in ripe fruits, and more ascorbic acid, anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins than in unripe ones. The period from the second half of July to the beginning of September is the time of a real “boom” of common polyphenols.