ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0242.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Rotating electrical machines; winding design; symmetrical winding; star of slots.
Online: 25 January 2018 (12:18:58 CET)
Winding design methods have been a subject of research for many years of the past century. Many methods have been developed, each one characterized by some advantages and some drawbacks. Nowadays, the star of slots is the most widespread design tool for electrical machine windings. In this context, this paper presents a simple and effective procedure to determine the distribution of the EMF stars and of the winding configuration in all possible typologies of electrical machines equipped with symmetrical windings. Moreover, this procedure can also be easily implemented in a computer program in order to perform automated winding designs for rotating electrical machines. Several examples are provided in order to validate the proposed procedure.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0114.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: ACE-2; nicotine; smoke; cigarette; epithelial cells.
Online: 6 October 2020 (09:43:40 CEST)
Prevalence studies of current smoking among hospitalized COVID-19 patients demonstrated an unexpectedly low prevalence of current smoking among patients with COVID-19. The aim of the present proposal was to evaluate the effect of smoke from cigarettes on ACE-2 in bronchial epithelial cells. Normal bronchial epithelial cells (H292) were exposed to smoke by an air-liquid-interface (ALI) system and ACE-2 membrane protein expression was evaluated after 24 hours from exposure. Our transcriptomics data analysis showed a significant selective reduction of membrane ACE-2 expression (about 25%) following smoking exposure. Interestingly, we observed a positive direct correlation between ACE-2 reduction and nicotine delivery. Furthermore, by stratifying GSE52237 as a function of ACE-2 gene expression levels, we highlighted 1012 genes related to ACE-2 in smokers and 855 in non-smokers. Furthermore, we showed that 161 genes involved in the endocytosis process were highlighted using the online pathway tool KEGG. Finally, 11 genes were in common between the ACE-2 pathway in smokers and the genes regulated during endocytosis, while 12 genes with non-smokers. Interestingly, six in non-smokers and four genes in smokers were closely involved during the viral internalization process. Our data may offer a pharmaceutical role of nicotine as potential treatment option in COVID-19.