ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0514.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: cyclic loads; fatigue of rocks; S/N curves; number of cycles; stress-strain behaviour
Online: 22 July 2021 (11:40:20 CEST)
The cyclic load applied to civil and mining structures can lead to a reduction of the materials’ strength, different from that which would occur with a monotonous load. Numerous cases can be found where the decay of the rock parameters subjected to this type of stress leads to progressive or sudden collapse: among them, tunnel walls, pillars and slabs in mining operations, roads with a heavy vehicle transit, abutments of bridges and dams can be quoted. The topic can therefore be fundamental for a correct structural design, to avoid problems during the life of the structure. However, given the heterogeneity of the rock materials and the difficulty of their characterization under this aspect, an unequivocal analysis is hardly achievable. Then, the discussion initially develops through a general historical review of the concept of fatigue, with a synthetic collection of case histories. The laboratory tests on rock samples are then examined and the most important results obtained are discussed. Finally, a comparison between different types of tests is proposed. The experimental data are expressed through the Wӧhler diagram. The goal is to fill the lack of design codes or standards in the field of cyclic stresses applied to rock materials, the understanding of its effect being of great interest in order to apply suitable parameters in the design phase.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0035.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: presplitting, smooth blasting, line drilling, mechanical cutting, controlled blasting.
Online: 2 August 2021 (12:56:17 CEST)
The strictness of the result of an excavation, whether mechanical or by means of explosives, is naturally conditioned by the objective, and therefore by the type of technique applied to achieve it. To attain the best results in terms of rock breakage and respect of the final profile, it’s important to evaluate the excavation specific energy and its optimization. This research focuses on evaluating the effects of different techniques on the quality of final walls in open-pit and underground operations. Different geometries and configurations can be applied to both quarrying and tunnelling blasts. The research is aimed to push contour blasts to their limits, and the main aspects are discussed in order to improve the blast parameters in the daily practice.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0600.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Tunnel boring machine (TBM); correlation models; mechanical and operational parameters; performance prediction; model validation
Online: 26 February 2021 (09:31:43 CET)
The study takes into account different classes of tunnel boring machines (TBMs), with the aim of identifying correlation models which are meant to estimate, at a preliminary design phase, the construction time of a tunnel and to evaluate the mechanical and operational parameters of the TBMs, starting from the knowledge of the tunnel length and/or the excavation diameter. To achieve this goal, first of all a database was created, thanks to the collection of the most meaningful technical parameters from a large number of tunnels; afterward, it was statistically analysed through Microsoft Excel. In a first phase, forecasting models were identified for the three types of machines investigated, separately for compact rocks (open TBM) and fractured rocks (single and double shield TBM). Then, the mechanical parameters collected through the database were analysed, with the aim of obtaining models that take into account, in addition to the type of TBM, the geological aspect, and the type of rock characterising the rock mass. Finally, the validation of the study was proposed in a real case, represented by the Moncenisio base tunnel, a work included in the new Turin–Lyon connection line. The estimated values were compared with the real ones, in order to verify the accuracy of the experimental models identified.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0642.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Ornamental stone; rock mass state of stress and fracturing; marble exploitation techniques; waste reduction
Online: 30 October 2020 (13:39:36 CET)
The use of natural stone has a historical and environmental value that makes it strategically valuable for landscape conservation in Europe. Marble, among others, is widely spread on Earth, and it offers high-performance features in architectural applications. However, the complexity of these formations and the rock variability in different ore bodies require detailed studies of the natural and induced stress state, the fracturing degree, and the influence of external factor (such as temperature and/or chemical agents) on the mechanical properties in order to optimize the exploitation processes by reducing extractive waste. This article shows a series of studies conducted by the authors over the last 20 years aimed at making the exploitation of marble blocks in the Carrara basin safer, more efficient, and, therefore, more sustainable. In particular, studies for increasing the knowledge on the natural and the induced stress state through on-site measurements and numerical modeling, studies to improve the quality of the exploited material through improvements of cutting technologies, studies to improve the knowledge of the mechanical behavior of the material under varying loads and temperature conditions and studies to improve the reuse of water materials and their reduction are reported.