REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0432.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: mutation; gastric cancer; p53; K-Ras; c-Myc; cancer genomics; targeted therapy; immunotherapy
Online: 16 August 2022 (10:35:16 CEST)
The genetic changes appearing in the information system of the cell that program its unregulated growth and proliferation gradually lead to cancer manifestation, and the treatment options need to be guided accordingly. The critical roles played by some of the molecules associated with the signaling pathways and cell microenvironment that often induce tumorigenesis and metastasis have been described precisely in recent years based on findings of the human genome project and other related initiatives undertaken afterward to thoroughly understand the molecular basis of cancer cell behaviors. It is to rely upon the genomic study of cancer cells to fully understand the prognosis and pathways involved in disease progression to selectively target them for a cure. Furthermore, patients with the same cancer types often respond differently to cancer therapies, indicating the need for a patient-specific treatment regimen for cancer. In this direction, precision oncology, defined as the molecular profiling of tumors to identify targetable alterations for custom-tailored personalized treatment, is gaining ground as a potential means of cancer treatment and has started influencing the ways cancer has been treated in clinics. This article intends to comprehensively elucidate the foundations and frontiers of precision oncology in the context of recent advances in cancer genomics and single-cell technologies for assessing its scope and importance in the realization of a proper cure for cancer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0325.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Pollution in Lakes; Quality assessment; Water and metal quality index; Metal pollution index; Correlation analysis
Online: 22 October 2021 (10:09:36 CEST)
With this article, impact of effluent mixed water with the quality of the Mansagar Lake has been established by evaluating the physico-chemical parameters and the heavy-metal contents experimentally. The process of calculating water quality and the metal pollution quality indices is also explained in brief with respect to selected sample locations and varied environmental conditions (Pre- and Post-Monsoon season). Distribution trends of Pearson‘s correlation factor have also been discussed to establish their relation among the physico-chemical parameters and the heavy-metal contents for varied environmental conditions. In the end, detailed discussion on observations made during this study and useful recommendations are also elaborated in details. With this article, we intend to present a document for better understanding of the water quality of this lake in view of futuristic management strategies to be adopted to maintain it heritage values.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0237.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Mansagar Lake; Physico-chemical parameters; Water quality investigation; Trend analysis; Pearson’s correlation analysis
Online: 14 September 2021 (11:38:52 CEST)
The article reviews the constituent’s physico-chemical parameters in the water of the Mansagar Lake of the Jaipur City. The water quality is also investigated using evaluated physico-chemical parameters with in-depth study of their distribution as per sample location-wise and season-wise. A detailed discussion on the associationship among parameters (pH, Conductivity, turbidity, dissolved Oxygen, chemical and Biochemical Oxygen demand, etc.) using the Pearson’s analytical method is also presented. The strength of the article is the graphical presentation of evaluated physico-chemical parameters and the water quality indices for sample station-wise and the season-wise. To our best of understanding, first time such details have been clubbed together and discussion in brief for studied lake.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0107.v2
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: Emotion recognition; Emotion cues; Pure tone; Frequency dependent relationship
Online: 1 June 2022 (07:44:13 CEST)
The recent advances in Human-Computer Interaction and Artificial Intelligence have significantly increased the importance of identifying human emotions from different sensory cues. Hence, understanding the underlying relationships between emotions and sensory cues have become a subject of study in many fields including Acoustics, Psychology, Psychiatry, Neuroscience and Biochemistry. This work is a preliminary step towards investigating cues for human emotion on a fundamental level by aiming to establish relationships between tonal frequencies of sound and emotions. For that, an online perception test is conducted, in which participants are asked to rate the perceived emotions corresponding to each tone. The results show that a crossover point for four primary emotions lies in the frequency range of 417–440 Hz, thus consolidating the hypothesis that the frequency range of 432–440 Hz is neutral from human emotion perspective. It is also observed that the frequency dependant relationships between emotion pairs Happy—Sad, and Anger—Calm are approximately mirrored symmetric in nature.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0193.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: metabolomics; plant biology; metabolomics databases; data analysis; metabolomics software tools; mass spectrometry; omics
Online: 8 July 2021 (10:46:55 CEST)
Metabolomics is now considered to be a wide-ranging, sensitive and practical approach to acquire useful information on the composition of a metabolite pool present in any organism, including plants. Investigating metabolomic regulation in plants is essential to understand their adaptation, acclimation and defense response to environmental stresses through the production of numerous metabolites. Moreover, metabolomics can be easily applied for the phenotyping of plants; and thus, it has great potential to be used in molecular breeding and genome editing programs to develop superior next generation crops. This review describes the recent analytical tools and techniques available to study plants metabolome, along with their significance of sample preparation using targeted and non-targeted method. Advanced analytical tools, like gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), liquid chromatography mass-spectroscopy (LC-MS), capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry (CE-MS), fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance-mass spectrometry (FTICR-MS) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) have speed up metabolic profiling in plants. Further, we deliver a complete overview of bioinformatics tools and plant metabolome database that can be utilized to advance our knowledge to plant biology.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0030.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Crop, CRISPR/Cas9; Resistance; RNA interference; Stress
Online: 1 July 2021 (14:13:20 CEST)
With the rapid population growth, there is an urgent need for innovative crop improvement approaches to meet the increasing demand for food. Classical crop improvement approaches involve, however, a backbreaking process that cannot equipoise with increasing crop demand. RNA based approaches i.e. RNAi-mediated gene regulation and site-specific nuclease based CRISPR/Cas9 system for gene editing has made advances in the efficient targeted modification in many crops for the higher yield and resistance to diseases and different stresses. In functional genomics, RNA interference (RNAi) is a propitious gene regulatory approach that plays a significant role in crop improvement by permitting down-regulation of gene expression by small molecules of interfering RNA without affecting the expression of other genes. Gene editing technologies viz. clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein (CRISPR/Cas) have appeared prominently as a powerful tool for precise targeted modification of nearly all crops genome sequence to generate variation and accelerate breeding efforts. In this regard, the review highlights the diverse roles and applications of RNAi and CRISPR/Cas9 system as powerful technologies to improve agronomically important plants to enhance crop yields and increase tolerance to environmental stress (biotic or abiotic). Ultimately, these technologies can prove to be important in view of global food security and sustainable agriculture.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0130.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: induced mutagenesis; fast neutron irradiation; mutation mapping; deletagene; next-generation sequencing technologies; reverse genetics
Online: 10 May 2019 (14:38:21 CEST)
Fast neutron (FN) radiation mediated mutagenesis is a unique approach among the several induced mutagenesis methods being used in plant science in terms of impacted mutations. The FN mutagenesis usually creates deletions from a few bases to several million bases (Mb). A library of random deletion generated using FN mutagenesis lines can provide indispensable resources for the reverse genetic approaches. In this review, information from several efforts made using FN mutagenesis has been compiled to understand the type of induced mutations, frequency, and genetic stability. Concerns regarding the utilization of FN mutagenesis technique for a plant with different level of ploidy and genome complexity are discussed. We have highlighted the utility of next-generation sequencing techniques which can be efficiently utilized for the characterization of mutant lines as well as for the mapping of causal mutations. Pros and cons of Mut-map, MutChromSeq, exon capture, whole genome sequencing, MutRen-Seq, and different tilling approaches can be used for the detection of FN-induced mutation has also been discussed. Genomic resources developed using the FN mutagenesis have been catalogued wooing to meaningful utilization of the available resources. The information provided here will be helpful for the efficient exploration for the crop improvement programs and for better understanding of genetic regulations.