ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0757.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Covid-19; Vaccine; Medical Science Students; Mandatory Policy
Online: 10 May 2023 (14:01:57 CEST)
Introduction. Covid-19 faced the world with serious health and socioeconomic issues. At the very beginning of the pandemics, the vaccine was considered by health authorities and the medical community the only way to curb the spread of the virus. One of the measures that have been proposed to increase vaccinations was the mandatory policy. The purpose of this study was to compare determinants of voluntary and mandatory vaccination among students of Albanian University. Methodology: This cross-sectional study by means of an online survey, was conducted among students enrolled in the private University “Albanian University”, Tirana, Albania during the last week of winter semester 7-14 Feb 2022. Results: 878 students participated in this study, among them 612 (69.7%) were females, 266 (30%) were males. 506 (57%) of the participants were enrolled in Medical Sciences (MS), 372(42.3%) were Non-Medical Science (Non-MS) group. 773 (88%) was vaccinated against Covid-19, 105 (11.8%) were not vaccinated. 466 (53%) reported voluntary vaccination, 412 (46.9%) reported mandatory vaccination. Among students that vaccinated voluntary 266 (57%) were from MS group, 200(42.9%) from Non-MS group. 237(57.5%) of students in mandatory vaccination group were from MS group, 175 (42.4%) from Non-MS. Conlusion. Vaccine safety and efficacy were hindering factors of vaccination. Also, based on the results of this study, the students felt encouraged to vaccinate by the academic staff. This clearly demonstrates that the staff does not lack the skills to enhance stu-dents' knowledge about the risk of infectious diseases and the importance of vaccination. Therefore, to influence as much as possible students’ attitude toward vaccination, comprehensive educational programs including modification of existing curricula should be considered.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0082.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: COVID-19; vaccination; nationalism; conspiracy theories; mandatory vaccination
Online: 4 November 2022 (01:06:55 CET)
A large body of research has examined people’s attitudes toward mandatory vaccination to cope with the COVID-19 pandemic. However, studies have yet to explore how Chinese people view the COVID-19 vaccine mandates, let alone placing such views in the country’s highly politicized context. On the other hand, facing the high pressure of loosening its zero-COVID policies amidst the worldwide practices of co-existing with the COVID-19 virus, the country has to improve its vaccination coverage quickly. In this situation, it is more than necessary to systematically investigate the Chinese public’s attitude to mandatory vaccination against the virus and the underlying determinants. The current study utilizes data from a national survey adopting quota sampling to analyze the Chinese public’s medical and non-medical considerations when judging compulsory COVID-19 vaccination. The study reveals that thanks to China’s successful lockdown policies, personal risk, and benefit perceptions did not dominate their views regarding vaccination mandates. Instead, conspiracy beliefs regarding the pandemic outbreaks, conspiratorial thinking, and nationalism more strongly predicted their willingness to accept mandatory vaccination. Given the potentially massive impacts of the COVID-19 infection, if China opens its door and loosens its strict quarantine restrictions, the Chinese public needs to be educated with more medically valuable and relevant information to improve their vaccination protection against COVID-19.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0761.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Urban expressway; Cell transmission model; Mandatory merge; Merge section; Diverge section
Online: 1 November 2018 (18:05:19 CET)
Mechanism of traffic congestion generation is more than complicated, due to complex geometric road design and complicated driving behavior at urban expressway in China. We employ Cell transmission model (CTM) to simulate traffic flow spatiotemporal evolution process along the expressway, and reveal the characteristics of traffic congestion occurrence and propagation. Here we apply the variable-length-cell CTM to adapt the complicated road geometry and configuration, and propose the merge section CTM considering drivers' mandatory lane-changing and other unreasonable behavior at on-ramp merge section, and propose the diverge section CTM considering queue length end extending expressway mainline to generate dynamic bottleneck at diverge section. In the new improved CTM model, we introduce merge ratio and diverge ratio to describe the effect of driver behavior at merge and diverge section. We conduct simulation on the real urban expressway in China, results show that merge section and diverge section are the original location of expressway traffic congestion generation, on/off-ramp traffic flow has great effect on expressway mainline operation. When on-ramp traffic volume increases by 40%, merge section delay increases by 35%. And when off-ramp capacity increases by 100 veh/hr, diverge section delay decreases about by 10%, which proves the strong interaction between expressway and adjacent road networks . Our results provide the underlying insights of traffic congestion mechanism in urban expressway in China, which can be used to better understand and manage this issue.