ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0496.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: Grey slender loris; Mysore slender loris; Malabar slender loris; Phylogenetics
Online: 29 March 2023 (02:37:35 CEST)
Phylogenetics is a powerful tool for understanding the evolutionary history of organisms and for informing conservation and management of species. Among the strepsirrhine primates, the slender lorises are a threatened genus of small, nocturnal animals confined to India and Sri Lanka. The grey slender loris (Loris lydekkerianus) is divided into several subspecies based on the morphological and geographical variation but not supported by molecular data. We investigated the genetic basis of taxonomic and biogeographic variation as well as the phylogenetic divergence of two subspecies of the grey slender loris in southern India: the Mysore slender loris (Loris lydekkerianus ssp. lydekkerianus) and the Malabar slender loris (Loris lydekkerianus ssp. malabaricus). We sequenced and assembled the whole mitochondrial genomes of three representative individuals from their distribution in southern India and compared them with publicly available mitogenomes of other lorises. We found that the two Indian subspecies vary by 2.09% in the COX1 and CYTB gene regions and form distinct monophyletic clades that diverged about 1.049 million years ago. Our results support the morphological classification of these two subspecies in southern India and have implications for their conservation and management in captivity and in the wild.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0106.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: IRF5; transcriptional factors; immuno-stimulation; nervous necrosis virus; malabar grouper (epinephelus malabaricus)
Online: 22 September 2017 (08:58:20 CEST)
Interferon regulatory factor 5 (IRF5) is known to be involved in the innate immune response and pro-inflammatory cytokines. However, the roles of IRF5 in immune responses in Malabar grouper (Epinephelus malabaricus) have not been extensively explored. In this study, IRF5 gene was identified and characterized from M. grouper. The full-length IRF5 cDNA consisted of a 5’ terminal untranslated region (5’-UTR) of 289 bp and a 3’-UTR of 542 bp, an open reading frame (ORF) of 1500 bp encoding a polypeptide of 499 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of 56.28 kDa and isoelectric point (pI) of 5.2. The putative MgIRF5 protein consists of four important conserved domains: a helix DNA-binding domain (DBD) at the N-terminus, a middle region, an IRF association domain (IAD) and a virus activated domain (VAD) at the C-terminus. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis showed that highest sequence similarity of IRF5 was observed between the IRF5 genes from Oplegnathus fasciatus and Miichthys miiuy. The mRNA transcripts of IRF5 were detected in a wide range of tissues types from healthy M. grouper with highest expression in muscle, liver and skin. After treatment with poly (I: C), it was significantly up-regulated in spleen and liver tissues. When infected with NNV, the expression level of MgIRF5 was up-regulated in spleen and head kidney and their transcriptional responses to IRF5 increased in the grouper kidney cells. This approach suggests that MgIRF5 is important in the underlying mechanism of the innate immune responses against antiviral response.