ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0056.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: mmWave; 5G heterogeneous network; meshed backhaul; outdoor dynamic crowd; SDN; dynamic construction; testbed; numerical analysis; experimental validation
Online: 4 September 2018 (05:51:50 CEST)
5G heterogeneous network overlaid by millimeter-wave (mmWave) access employs mmWave meshed backhauling as a promising cost-efficient backhaul architecture. Due to the nature of mobile traffic distribution in practice which is both time-variant and spatially non-uniform, dynamic construction of mmWave meshed backhaul is prerequisite to support the varying traffic distribution. Focusing on such scenario of outdoor dynamic crowd (ODC), this paper proposes a novel method to control mmWave meshed backhaul for efficient operation of mmWave overlay 5G HetNet through Software-Defined Network (SDN) technology. Our algorithm is featured by two functionalities, i.e., backhauling route multiplexing for overloaded mmWave small cell base stations (SC-BSs) and mmWave SC-BSs’ ON/OFF status switching for underloaded spot. In this paper, the effectiveness of the proposed meshed network is confirmed by both numerical analyses and experimental results. Simulations are conducted over a practical user distribution modeled from measured data in realistic environments. Numerical results show that the proposed algorithm can cope with the locally intensive traffic and reduce energy consumption. Furthermore, a WiGig (Wireless Gigabit Alliance certified) device based testbed is developed for Proof-of-Concept (PoC) and preliminary measurement results confirm the proposed dynamic formation of the meshed network’s efficiency.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0132.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Ophthalmology Keywords: multidrug resistance protein 4; ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters; aging; retina; mouse; electroretinogram
Online: 4 February 2021 (10:58:06 CET)
Multidrug resistance protein 4 (MRP4) is an energy-dependent membrane transporter that is responsible for cellular efflux of a broad range of xenobiotics and physiological substrates. In this trial, we aimed to investigate the co-effects of aging and MRP4 deficiency using gene expression microarray and morphological and electrophysiological analyses of the mouse retina. Mrp4-knockout (null) mice and wild-type (WT) mice were reared in the same condition to 8–12 wk (young) or 45–55 wk (aged). Microarray analysis identified 186 differently expressed genes from the retinas of aged Mrp4-null mice as compared to that from aged WT mice, and subsequence gene ontology and KEGG pathway analyses showed that differently expressed genes were related to lens, eye development, vision, and transcellular barrier function that are involved in metabolic pathways or viral infection pathways. No significant change in thickness was observed for each retinal layer among young/aged WT mice and young/aged Mrp4-null mice. Moreover, immunohistochemical analyses of retinal cell type did not exhibit an overt change in the cellular morphology or distribution among the 4 age/genotype groups, and the electroretinogram responses showed no significant differences in the amplitude or the latency between aged WT mice and aged Mrp4-null mice. Aging would be an insufficient stress to cause some damage to the retina in the presence of MRP4 deficiency.