ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0333.v1
Subject: Keywords: Lung Cancer Prediction; Neural Network; Cross-validation; Gradient Boosting Classifier; Automated tool
Online: 28 June 2020 (09:56:30 CEST)
Lung cancer is known as lung carcinoma. It is a disease which is malignant tumor leading to the uncontrolled cell growth in the lung tissue. Lung Cancer disease is one of the most prominent cause of death in all over world. Early detection of this disease can assist medical care unit as well as physicians to provide counter measures to the patients. The objective of this paper is to approach an automated tool that takes influential causes of lung cancer as input and detect patients with higher probabilities of being affected by this disease. A neural network classifier accompanied by cross-validation technique is proposed in this paper as a predictive tool. Later, this proposed method is compared with another baseline classifier Gradient Boosting Classifier in order to justify the prediction performance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0098.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: lung cancer; adenovirus; E1b; UV-irradiation; genomics
Online: 19 December 2016 (09:33:20 CET)
Adenoviruses (Ads) have been extensively manipulated for the development of cancer selective replication, leading to cancer cell death or oncolysis. Clinical studies using E1-modified oncolytic Ads have shown that this therapeutic platform was safe, but with limited efficacy, indicating the necessity of targeting other viral genes for manipulation. To improve the therapeutic efficacy of oncolytic Ads, we treated the entire Ad genome repeatedly with UV-light and have isolated AdUV which efficiently lyses cancer cells as reported previously . In this report, we show that no mutations were observed in the early genes (E1 or E4) of AdUV while several mutations were observed within the Ad late genes which have structural or viral DNA packaging functions. This study also reported the increased release of AdUV from cancer cells. In this study, we found that AdUV inhibits tumor growth following intratumoral injection. These results indicate the potentially significant role of the viral late genes, in particular the DNA packaging genes, to enhance Ad oncolysis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0524.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Hsp70; sandwich ELISA; liquid biopsy; tumor biomarker; exosomes; prediction; response monitoring; non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC); glioblastoma
Online: 21 May 2021 (15:06:37 CEST)
In contrast to normal cells, tumor cells of multiple entities overexpress the Heat Shock Protein 70 (Hsp70) not only in the cytosol, but also present it on their plasma membrane in a tumor-specific manner. Furthermore, membrane-Hsp70 positive tumor cells actively release Hsp70 into lipid microvesicles termed exosomes into the blood. Due to conformational changes of Hsp70 in the lipid environment, most commercially available antibodies fail to detect membrane-bound and exosomal Hsp70. To fill this gap and to assess the role of exosomal Hsp70 in the circulation as a potential tumor biomarker, we established the novel complete Hsp70 (compHsp70) sandwich ELISA using two monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that are able to recognize both, free and lipid-associated Hsp70 on the cell surface of viable tumor cells and exosomes. The epitopes of the mAbs cmHsp70.1 (aa 451-461) and cmHsp70.2 (aa 614-623) that are conserved among different species reside in the substrate-binding domain of Hsp70, with measured affinities of 0.42 nM and 0.44 nM, respectively. Validation of the compHsp70 ELISA revealed a high intra- and inter-assay precision, linearity in a concentration range of 1.56 to 25 ng/ml, high recovery rates of ‘spiked’ liposomal Hsp70 (>84%), comparable values between human serum and plasma samples, and no interference by food intake or age of the donors. Hsp70 concentrations in the circulation of patients with glioblastoma, squamous cell or adeno non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) at diagnosis were significantly higher than those of healthy volunteers. Hsp70 concentrations dropped concomitantly with the decrease in viable tumor mass on irradiation of patients with approximately 20 Gy (range 18 – 22.5 Gy) or after completion of radiotherapy (60 - 70 Gy). In summary, the compHsp70 ELISA presented herein provides a highly sensitive and reliable tool for measuring free and exosomal Hsp70 in liquid biopsies of tumor patients, levels of which can be used as a predictive tumor-specific biomarker, risk assessment and for monitoring therapeutic outcome.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0312.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: lung cancer; biomarker; proteomics; QSOX1; secretome
Online: 17 September 2018 (13:13:39 CEST)
As lung cancer shows the highest mortality in cancer related death, serum biomarkers are demanded for the lung cancer diagnosis and its treatment. To discover lung cancer protein biomarkers, secreted proteins from primary cultured lung cancer and adjacent normal tissues from patients were subjected to LC/MS-MS proteomic analysis. Quescin sulfhydryl oxidase(QSOX1) was selected as a biomarker candidate from the proteins enriched in the secretion of lung cancer cells. QSOX1levels were higher in 82% (51 of 62 tissues) of lung cancer tissues compared to adjacent normal tissues. Importantly, QSOX1 serum levels were significantly higher in cancer patients (p<0.05, AUC=0.89), when measured by multiple reaction monitoring(MRM). Higher levels of QSOX1 are also uniquely detected in lung cancer tissues among several other solid cancers by immunohistochemistry. QSOX1 knock-downed Lewis lung cancer (LLC) cells was less viable from oxidative stress and had reduced migration and invasion. In addition, LLC mouse models with QSOX1 knock-down also proved that QSOX1 functions in promoting cancer metastasis. In conclusion, QSOX1 might be a lung cancer tissue-derived biomarker and involved in the promotion of lung cancers, and thus can be a therapeutic target for lung cancers.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0162.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biotechnology Keywords: Environmental Pollution; Airborne Carcinogens; Lung Cancer;
Online: 11 February 2022 (12:23:22 CET)
The risk of lung cancer continues to elevate for both smokers and never-smokers. With the increasing morbidities and mortalities related to lung cancer, there is much interest on establishing other confounding factors that lead to lung cancer, other than smoking which is the most common cause. Some of the environmental factors have been identified as potential lung cancer causes. Therefore, the aim of this systematic review is to assess the relationship of environmental factors and lung cancer incidences by investigating various carcinogenic risks exposures that predispose an individual to lung cancer. The objective of this systematic review is thus to assess the evidence of relationship between environmental carcinogens and lung cancer incidence by systematically reviewing relevant studies. A standard criterion for the review methodology was formulated to guide the review process and data extraction. Online databases like PubMed, MEDLINE, Scopus (EMBASE), Google Scholar, Web of Science, and CINAHL were systematically searched for articles published between 2000 and 2021 that explored potential environmental carcinogens that were believed to expose occupational workers and individuals within the environment with lung cancer risks. 25 studies were eligible based on the selection criteria, and were finally included in the systematic review among which four were case-control studies, seven were cohorts, five was prospective, four were previous systematic reviews and four were systematic analysis. Chemical exposures like pesticides were analyzed for their carcinogenesis. Air pollution was also discussed with particulate and coal being the core of evidence of association with lung cancer. Second hand smoke, Asbestos, metal compounds like copper, PVC dust particles and ionizing radiations also provided evidence of environmental carcinogenesis associating to lung cancer cases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0193.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: peroxiredoxins; lung cancer; prognostic
Online: 19 August 2019 (04:35:15 CEST)
Background: Peroxiredoxins (Prxs) comprise antioxidant factors that are widely found in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Abnormal expression of Prxs is closely related to tumorigenesis. Methods: This study examined the prognostic value and expression of Prxs in lung cancer by Human Protein Atlas (HPA), Gene Expression Profiling Interactive Analysis (GEPIA), UALCAN, Kaplan-Meier Plotter, cBioPortal and Functional Enrichment Analysis Tool (FunRich) databases. Results: We found that Prx1/2/3/4/5 were overexpressed in both lung squamous cell carcinoma (LUSC) and lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) relative to normal lung cells. However, the expression level of Prx6 was lower in LUAD and higher in LUSC than normal lung cells. The level of Prx3 and Prx6 were associated with pathological stage. Prognostic analysis showed that elevated Prx1 and Prx2 expression were correlated with low Overall Survival (OS), whereas high Prx5 and Prx6 expression level predicted high OS. Conclusions: Our results effectively revealed the level of Prxs in lung cancer and its influence on the prognosis of lung carcinoma, contributing to the study of the role of Prxs in tumorigenesis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0150.v1
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: dual-channel sensor; efficient capture; lung cancer biomarker; lung cancer screening
Online: 10 July 2019 (11:37:13 CEST)
Lung cancer remains the leading cancer killer worldwide. Early diagnosis can effectively increase the patient cure rate but existing diagnostic methods limit early lung cancer diagnosis. Therefore, development of a simple but efficient lung cancer screening method is important to improvement of both the diagnosis rate and the survival rate of lung cancer patients. In this study, ten photosensitive materials with high sensitivity and high specificity were screened accurately to construct a microarray sensor that can rapidly identify six types of lung cancer biomarkers in exhaled breath. Results from hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA), principal component analysis (PCA) and difference maps showed that the classification of the analytes agreed with structure similarity laws. The detection results from parallel experiments and structurally similar analytes, in turn, cluster into a group; the fingerprints of the different analytes have specific response regions. The well-screened sensor chip fabrication workload and cost were both reduced by approximately two thirds, while the microfluidic device sensitivity and stability increased by approximately 1.3 times their corresponding values before optimization. The dual-channel device also offers real-time contrast detection and synchronous parallel detection functions and has potential application prospects for use in extensive screening of high-risk populations for lung cancer.
TECHNICAL NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0168.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, General & Theoretical Computer Science Keywords: lung function; epigenetic aging; machine learning; feature selection; hyperparamter tuning
Online: 8 September 2020 (03:15:28 CEST)
Epigenetic aging has been found associated with a number of phenotypes and diseases. Few studies investigated its effect on lung function in relatively older people. However, this effect has not been explored in younger population. This study examines whether lung function at adolescent can be predicted with epigenetic age accelerations (AAs) using machine learning techniques. DNA methylation based AAs were estimated in 326 matched samples at two time points (at 10 years and 18 years) from the Isle of Wight Birth Cohort. Five machine learning regression models (linear, lasso, ridge, elastic net, and Bayesian ridge) were used to predict FEV1 (Forced Expiratory Volume in one second) and FVC (Forced Vital Capacity) at 18 years from feature selected predictor variables (based on mutual information) and AA changes between the two time points. The best models were ridge regression (R2 = 75.21% ± 7.42%; RMSE = 0.3768 ± 0.0653) and elastic net regression (R2 = 75.38% ± 6.98%; RMSE = 0.445 ± 0.069) for FEV1 and FVC, respectively. This study suggests that the application of machine learning in conjunction with tracking changes in AA over life span can be beneficial to assess the lung health in adolescence.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0112.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: lung cancer; epidemiology; histopathology; Central Iran; Isfahan
Online: 8 April 2020 (03:56:28 CEST)
Background: Lung cancer is one of the common causes of death worldwide. Although the incidence rate of lung cancer in Western countries is decreasing, it presents a growing trend in developed countries. Since there is no accurate enough information about the epidemiological and Histopathologic features of lung cancer in central Iran, Isfahan, we were motivated to conduct this research. Materials and Methods: This was a descriptive, cross-sectional study carried out in central Iran, Isfahan. All demographic, histopathological and clinical data of the lung cancer patients registered in MACSA, a referral charity-based cancer center in central Iran, was analyzed within 2012-2018 using SPSS v.22 software. Results: Altogether 260 patients with lung cancer were included in this study from 6127 cancer patients registered within 2012-2018 (4.2%). Out of them, 66.2% were men, and 18.8 % of the patients were alive at the time of the study. The mean age of the patients at diagnosis was 61.56 (SD=14.11, range: 9-93). Altogether, 63.1% of patients had metastasis of whom 57.6% were in stage IV at diagnosis. The Frequency of different types of lung cancer was 36.9% adenocarcinomas, 14.2% squamous cell carcinoma, 9.6% bronchogenic carcinoma and 8.1% small cell lung cancer, respectively. Altogether, 128 cases were smokers with an average 35.45 ± 14 pack- years. Only in 36.2% of the patients, the diagnostic and therapeutic biomarkers had been checked, and CK7 was positive in 88.9% of the cases in which the biomarker had been checked. Conclusion: Despite to similar Iranian studies, the most common histopathologic type of lung cancer among the patients was adenocarcinoma that it may be attributed to the lower consumption of smoking in our population and their different genetic context. Molecular biomarkers had been checked in a small portion of the patients. More education of the clinicians along with the development of cancer molecular testing may lead to promote the personalized-based approach.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0253.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: microRNA; SARS-CoV-2; coronavirus; lung epithelia; cellular antiviral defence
Online: 11 August 2020 (06:05:40 CEST)
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), an RNA virus, is responsible for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic of 2020. Experimental evidence suggests that microRNA can mediate an intracellular defence mechanism against some RNA viruses. The purpose of this study was to identify microRNA with predicted binding sites in the SARS-CoV-2 genome, compare these to their microRNA expression profiles in lung epithelial tissue and make inference towards possible roles for microRNA in mitigating coronavirus infection. We hypothesize that high expression of specific coronavirus-targeting microRNA in lung epithelia may protect against infection and viral propagation, conversely low expression may confer susceptibility to infection. We have identified 128 human microRNA with potential to target the SARS-CoV-2 genome, most of which have very low expression in lung epithelia. Six of these 128 microRNA are differentially expressed upon in vitro infection of SARS-CoV-2. Twenty-eight and 23 microRNA also target the SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV, respectively. In addition, 48 and 32 microRNA are commonly identified in two other studies. Further research into identifying bona fide coronavirus targeting microRNA will be useful in understanding the importance of microRNA as cellular defence mechanism against pathogenic coronavirus infections.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0146.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: Nanomedicine; drug resistance; lung cancer; chemotherapeutic agents; drug delivery
Online: 11 January 2022 (13:48:22 CET)
Lung cancer (LC) is one of the leading causes of cancer occurrence and mortality worldwide. Treatment of patients with advanced and metastatic LC presents a significant challenge as malignant cells use different mechanisms to resist chemotherapy. Drug resistance (DR) is a complex process that occurs due to a variety of genetic and acquired factors. Identifying the mechanisms underlying DR in LC patients and possible therapeutic alternatives for more efficient therapy is a central goal of LC research. Advances in nanotechnology resulted in the development of targeted and multifunctional nanoscale drug constructs. The possible modulation of the components of nanomedicine, their surface functionalization, and encapsulation of various active therapeutics provide promising tools to bypass crucial biological barriers. These attributes enhance the delivery of multiple therapeutic agents directly to the tumor microenvironment (TME), resulting in reversal of LC resistance to anticancer treatment. This review provides a broad framework for understanding the different molecular mechanisms of DR in lung cancer; presents novel nanomedicine therapeutics aimed to improve the efficacy of treatment of various forms of resistant LC; outlines current challenges in using nanotechnology for reversing DR; and discusses the future directions for clinical application of nanomedicine in management of LC resistance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0501.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: miRNA isoform; isomiR, miRNA editing; lung adenocarcinoma; race-disparities
Online: 31 December 2021 (10:41:04 CET)
Despite the development of targeted therapeutics, immunotherapy, and strategies for early detection, lung cancer carries a high mortality. Further, significant racial disparities in outcomes exist for which the molecular drivers have yet to be fully elucidated. The growing field of Epitranscriptomics has introduced a new layer of complexity to the molecular pathogenesis of cancer. RNA modifications can occur in coding and non-coding RNAs, such as miRNAs, possibly altering their gene regulatory function. The potential role for such modifications as clinically informative biomarkers remains largely unknown. Here, we concurrently profiled canonical miRNAs, shifted isomiRs (templated and non-templated), miRNAs with single-point modification events (RNA and DNA) in White American (W) and Black or African American (B/AA) lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) patients. We found that while most deregulated miRNA isoforms were similar in W and B/AA LUAD tissues compared to normal adjacent tissues, there was a subgroup of isoforms with deregulation according to race. We specifically investigated an edited miRNA, miR-151a-3p with an A-to-I editing event at position 3, to determine how its altered expression may be associated with activation of divergent biological pathways between W and B/AA LUAD patients. Finally, we identified distinct race-specific miRNA isoforms that correlated with prognosis for both Ws and B/AAs. Our results suggest that concurrently profiling canonical and non-canonical miRNAs may have potential as a strategy for identifying additional distinct biological pathways and biomarkers in lung cancer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0015.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: lung cancer; gene therapy; retrovirus vector
Online: 1 July 2022 (15:28:59 CEST)
Therapeutic efficacy of retroviral replicating vector (RRV)-mediated prodrug activator gene therapy has been demonstrated in a variety of tumor models, but clinical investigation of this approach has so far been restricted to glioma and gastrointestinal malignancies. In the present study, we evaluated replication kinetics, transduction efficiency, and therapeutic efficacy of RRV in experimental models of lung cancer. RRV delivering GFP as a reporter gene showed rapid viral replication in a panel of lung cancer cells in vitro, as well as robust intratumoral replication and high levels of tumor transduction in subcutaneous and orthotopic pleural dissemination models of lung cancer in vivo. Toca 511 (vocimagene amiretrorepvec), a clinical-stage RRV encoding optimized yeast cytosine deaminase (yCD) which converts the prodrug 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC) to the active drug 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), showed potent cytotoxicity in lung cancer cells upon exposure to 5-FC prodrug. In vivo, Toca 511 achieved significant tumor growth inhibition following 5-FC treatment in subcutaneous and orthotopic pleural dissemination models of lung cancer in both immunodeficient and immunocompetent hosts, resulting in significantly increased overall survival. This study demonstrates that RRV can serve as highly efficient vehicles for gene delivery to lung cancer, and indicates the translational potential of RRV-mediated prodrug activator gene therapy with Toca 511/5-FC as a novel therapeutic strategy for pulmonary malignancies.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0056.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: lung cancer; cigarette smoking; air pollution; epidemiology; etiology
Online: 6 June 2022 (03:51:38 CEST)
Cigarette smoking and air pollution (particulate matter) are recognized as two major etiological factors for lung cancer. Of all the risk factors, cigarette smoking is significantly associated with lung carcinogenesis. The main mechanism lies in the metabolically activated carcinogens (majorly polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and nitrosamines), which could covalently bind with DNA molecules and lead to irreversible mutations in pivotal cancer genes, such as TP53 and KRAS. Another major etiological factor for lung cancer is air pollution, which is with complex compositions and ubiquitous in daily life, especially in developing countries as China and India. The latest literatures on lung cancer epidemiology and etiology have been briefly summarized and reviewed in this work.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0526.v1
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: lung adenocarcinoma; tumor mutation load; cuproptosis; long noncoding RNA; immunotherapeutic response
Online: 29 November 2022 (03:08:33 CET)
Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer deaths worldwide, and lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) is the most common histological subtype. However, the prognostic and predictive outcomes differ because of the heterogeneity of programmed cell death. The purpose of this work is to investigate and develop a cuproptosis-associated lncRNA-based LUAD prediction marker. We firstly performed bioinformatic analysis of the Cuprotosis database and The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database to obtain 19 cuprotosis-related gene datasets and transcriptional data for LUAD. Univariate, least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO), and multivariate Cox regression analysis were utilized to construct cuproptosis-associated lncRNA modes. LUAD patients were thus classified into high-risk and low-risk categories based on prognostic risk values, with a median of It acted as a boundary. Risk models were evaluated and validated using Kaplan-Meier analysis, principal component analysis (PCA), gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) and nomograms. Utilizing the TCGA-LUAD dataset, we identified seven predicted cuproptosis-associated lncRNAs in tumor microenvironment to create the risk model. 95.54% (214/224) of high-risk category tumor samples included cuproptosis-associated gene alterations, compared to 85.65% (203/237) of low-risk category tumor samples, with TP53 accounting for the bulk of occurrences. According to these findings, risk value was superior to other clinical variables and tumor mutation burden as a predictor of 1-, 3-, and 5-year overall survival (OS). The predictive validity of the cuproptosis-associated lncRNA-based risk model for LUAD is high, and this may have implications for how lung cancer patients are treated individually.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201702.0054.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: human antibody; invasion; lung cancer; therapeutic target; VCAM-1; VCAM-1-D6
Online: 15 February 2017 (10:45:16 CET)
Vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) is closely associated with tumor progression and metastasis. However, the relevance and role of VCAM-1 in lung cancer have not been clearly elucidated. In this study, we found that VCAM-1 was highly overexpressed in lung cancer tissue compared with that of normal lung, and high VCAM-1 expression correlated with poor survival of lung cancer patients. VCAM-1 knockdown reduced invasion in A549 human lung cancer cells, and competitive blocking experiments targeting the Ig-like domain 6 of VCAM-1 (VCAM-1-D6) demonstrated that the VCAM-1-D6 domain was critical for VCAM-1-mediated A549 cell invasion. Next, we developed a human monoclonal antibody specific to human and mouse VCAM-1-D6 (VCAM-1-D6 huMab), which was isolated from a human synthetic antibody library using phage display technology. Finally, we showed that VCAM-1-D6 huMab had a nanomolar affinity for VCAM-1-D6 and that it potently suppressed invasion in A549 and NCI-H1299 lung cancer cell lines. Taken together, these results suggest that VCAM-1-D6 is a novel therapeutic target in VCAM-1-mediated lung cancer invasion and that our newly developed VCAM-1-D6 huMab will be a useful tool for inhibiting VCAM-1-expressing lung cancer cell invasion.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Non–Small Cell Lung Cancer; cisplatin; chemoresistance; molecular mechanisms
Online: 14 July 2021 (11:25:13 CEST)
Cancer cells utilize a number of mechanisms to increase their survival and progression as well as their resistance to anticancer therapy: deregulation of growth regulatory pathways by acquiring grow factor independence, immune system suppression, reducing the expression of antigens activating T lymphocyte cells (mimicry), induction of anti-apoptotic signals to counter the action of drugs, activation of several DNA repair mechanisms and driving the active efflux of drugs from the cell cytoplasm and epigenetic regulation by microRNAs (miRNAs). Due to the fact that it is commonly diagnosed late, lung cancer remains a major malignancy with a low five-year survival rate; when diagnosed, the cancer is often highly advanced and the cancer cells may have acquired drug resistance. This review summarizes the main mechanisms involved in cisplatin resistance and in interactions between cisplatin-resistant cancer cells and the tumor microenvironment. It also analyses changes in the gene expression profile of cisplatin sensitive vs. cisplatin resistant non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cellular model using the GSE108214 Gene Expression Omnibus database. It describes a protein-protein interaction network that indicates highly-dysregulated TP53, MDM2 and CDKN1A genes as they encodes the top networking proteins that may be involved in cisplatin tolerance, these all being upregulated in cisplatin-resistant cells. Furthermore, it illustrates the multifactorial nature of cisplatin resistance by examining the diversity of dysregulated pathways present in cisplatin-resistant NSCLC cells based on KEGG pathway analysis.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0183.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: lung cancer; Lipid Metabolism; Glucose Metabolism; Krebs Cycle; Cholesterol Metabolism
Online: 10 January 2023 (10:39:28 CET)
Metabolic changes are an important component of tumor cell progression. Tumor cells adapt to environmental stresses via changes to carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Autophagy, a physiological process in mammalian cells that digests damaged organelles and misfolded proteins via lysosomal degradation is closely associated with metabolism in mammalian cells acting as a meter of cellular ATP levels. In this review, we discuss the changes in glycolytic and lipid biosynthetic pathways in mammalian cells and their impact on carcinogenesis via the autophagy pathway. Also, we discuss the impact of these metabolic pathways on autophagy in lung cancer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0269.v2
Subject: Physical Sciences, Radiation & Radiography Keywords: computed tomography; radiation dose; cancer risk; CTPA; lung effective diameter
Online: 23 August 2019 (10:53:52 CEST)
The present study aims to investigate radiation doses from Computed Tomography Pulmonary Angiography (CTPA) examinations based on the patient’s size and to estimate the probability of cancer risk induced from the examination. Data from 100 patients who had undergone CTPA examinations, such as scanning acquisition parameters, patient demography, as well as radiation dose exposure, were collected and analysed. All subjects which aged above 18 y/o were scanned using a Philips Brilliance 128 multi-detector CT (MDCT) scanner. The mean dose value for Volume Computed Tomography Dose Index (CTDIvol), Dose-Length Product (DLP) and effective dose (E) were 11.06 ± 7.17 mGy, 400.38 ± 259.10 mGy.cm and 8.68 ± 5.47 mSv respectively. In addition, with respective of patient’s effective diameter, the mean SSDE value for Group 1, Group 2 and Group 3 were 9.93 ± 3.89, 13.70 ± 9.04 and 22.29 ± 7.35, respectively. Cancer risk per million procedure was calculated based on te recommendation by the International Commission on Radiological Protection Publication 103 report. The organ dose and cancer risk attained for breast, lung and liver were 17.05 ± 10.40 mGy (194 per one million procedure), 17.55 ± 10.86 mGy (192 per one million procedure) and 15.04 ± 9.75 mGy (53 per one million procedure), respectively. In conclusion, CTDIvol underestimated, and SSDE was more accurate in describing the radiation dose. Lung and breast with larger lung effective diameter received the highest dose exposure which increase the probability of the cancer risk. Therefore, it is important to apply optimised protocols in order to reduce patient’s exposure during CTPA examination.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0381.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: Lung Cancer; Magnetic nanoparticles; Detection and monitoring; Theranostics
Online: 15 March 2021 (12:55:08 CET)
There are numerous challenges involved in the diagnosis and treatment of lung cancer. Globally, majority of people suffers from cancerous disease involving throat cancer, lung cancer, stomach cancer, cancerous brain tumor. Among these the most common ones is the lung cancer or lung carcinoma. The leading cause of the lung cancer is the smoking. Around 80% to 90% of deaths are caused due to Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The inadequate diagnostic techniques and low chances for the survival of lung cancer patients results from the lack of an early prognosis and incompetency in traditional therapies. However, such challenges involved in the prognosis and treatment of lung cancer are on decline with the progression in magnetic nanoparticle (MNP) technology. Many break-through discoveries and inventions have been made in the field of cancer therapy by using magnetic nanoparticles. The implication of nanotechnology has led to the recent advancement in nanomedicine field. This has encouraged the improvement in different therapeutic and diagnosis strategies employing nanotechnology. The generation of immense technological benefits for nanoparticles systems has been accredited to its remarkable nanoscale physico-chemical properties. This in turns provides the early detection of lung cancer and active drugs delivery for an improved theranostics strategy. The present review provides a general idea of the current progression in the therapeutic and prognosis purpose of magnetic nanoparticles. Further, we disclose the development in the lung cancer theranostics by functionalization of magnetic nanoparticles. The established importance of magnetic nanoparticles in the theranostics centers for lung cancer has been revealed in this paper. The challenges existing in the theranostics of lung cancer are addressed through the functioning of magnetic nanoparticles in the process.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0068.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: cost-effectiveness; pembrolizumab; etoposide-platinum; extensive-stage small-cell lung cancer; small cell lung cancer.
Online: 1 February 2021 (18:10:59 CET)
Background: The phase III KEYNOTE-604 study confirmed the benefit of pembrolizumab combined with chemotherapy in the first-line treatment of extensive-stage small-cell lung cancer(ES-SCLC). Intergrated the clinical benefits of pembrolizumab and its high cost into account, this study aim to assess the cost-effectiveness of adding pembrolizumab to standard first-line etoposide-platinum (EP) for patients with ES-SCLC from the the US payer perspective. Methods: A Markov model was developed to compared the costs and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) of pembrolizumab plus EP and placebo plus EP over a 10-year time horizon. Clinical efficacy, treatment utilization and safety data were pooled from the KEYNOTE-604 trial. Utilities were obtained from published resources. Costs were mainly collected from Medicare in 2020. Sensitivity analyses were performed to examined the robustness of our model. Results: Adding pembrolizumab to standard first-line EP, resulted in better effectiveness than the use of EP alone for ES-SCLC by 0.22 QALYs. Pembrolizumab plus EP was dominated economically by placebo plus EP, leading to an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio(ICER) of $334,373/ QALY. Deterministic sensitivity analyses indicated that the uncertainty in model parameters exerts no substantial effect on our results. Probability sensitivity analysis indicated that probabilities for pembrolizumab plus EP being cost-effective within a wide rang of willingness to pay were modest. Conclusion: From the US payer perspective, the first-line treatment for ES-SCLC with pembrolizumab plus EP was not cost-effective compare with placebo plus EP. Although pembrolizumab combination chemotherapy was beneficial to the survival of ES-SCLC, price reduction may be the necessary measure to improve its cost-effectiveness.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0107.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: Nanobiotechnology; Biomarkers; Biosensors; Lung cancer; Skin Cancer; Colorectal Cancer
Online: 7 March 2022 (15:03:00 CET)
In the era of nanotechnology, researchers are implementing point to care service to cancer patients to detect malignancy beforehand and to reduce the mortality rate of cancers. Cancer is known to be the most fatal disease among all other diseases and the survivability from cancer is quite impossible if the stage of the cancer is an advanced level. Though the early detection of cancer can increase the chances of survival with a double fold. Biosensor is a part of nanotechnology which is capable to provide point to care service in the field of medicine. With the rising number of cancer occurrences being identified around the world and the increasing number of deaths because of the identification of advanced cancer, biosensors can play a significant part in the early detection of cancer. New molecular methods, including as genomic and proteomic approaches, are increasingly being used to study patient molecular profiles. When such diagnosis method is paired with bioinformatics tools, they generate new data that can be used to discover new disease biomarkers. Finding precise and sensitive indicators that are corelated to a specific disease, as with many other diseases, can be challenging. Furthermore, the concentration of biomarkers in biological fluids varies according to illness states and phases. Peptides, proteins, up or down regulated expression of gene markers, and gene alternation are all examples of molecular markers that are commonly used to diagnose cancer. In this article, we have highlighted six different deadliest cancers such as Ovarian, Breast, Prostrate, Lung, Colorectal and Liver cancer. The article contains distinct types of biomarkers which are normally found in these kinds of cancer and generally used as a potential diagnostic target in the medicine field. The article mainly summarized the application of different types of biosensors devices in the detection of the mostly found biomarkers in the above cancer types.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0081.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Genetics Keywords: Lung cancer; biomarker; gene ontology; protein-protein interaction networks; survival analysis
Online: 5 May 2020 (12:28:25 CEST)
Objective: The aim of study is to find key genes and enriched pathways associated with lung cancer. Participants and Methods: Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) data of 54674 genes based on stage, tumor and status of lung cancer was taken from 66 patients of African American (AAs) origin. 2392 DEGs were found based on stage, 13502 DEGs were found based on tumor, 2927 DEGs were found based on status having p value (p<0.05). Results: Total 33 common DEGs were found from stage, tumor and status of lung cancer. Gene ontology (GO) and KEGG pathway enrichment analysis was performed and 49 significant pathways were obtained, out of which 10 pathways were found to be exclusively involved in lung cancer development. Protein-protein interaction (PPI) network analysis found 69 nodes and 324 edges and identified 10 hub genes based on their highest degrees. Module analysis of PPI found that ‘Viral carcinogenesis’, ‘pathways in cancer’, ‘notch signaling pathway’, ‘AMPK signaling pathways’ had a close association with lung cancer. Conclusion: These identified DEGs regulate other genes which play important role in growth of lung cancer. The key genes and enriched pathways identified can thus help in better identification and prediction of lung cancer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0134.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: Kalanchoe tubiflora; bufadienolide; CL1-5 human lung cancer cells; autophagy
Online: 16 January 2018 (06:38:11 CET)
Lung cancer is almost the most common cause of cancer death in the world. Clinically, the conventional therapy to eradicate the cancer cells is chemotherapy but a better drug remains required. In this study, the effects of three bufadienolides, kalantuboside B, kalantuboside A and bryotoxin C, isolated from Kalanchoe tubiflora (Harvey) were evaluated and characterized in CL1-5 highly metastatic human lung cancer cells. Contrary to the apoptosis-promoting activity in other cancer cells, these three bufadienolides did not induce apoptosis in CL1-5 cancer cells. Instead, they activated an autophagy pathway, as indicated by the increase of autophagosomes formation. The induction of autophagy by these three bufadienolides was demonstrated to link to down-regulation of p-mTOR as well as up-regulation of LC3-II, ATG5, ATG7, Beclin-1. Moreover, among these three compounds, kalantuboside B in which a monosaccharide is attached at the bufadienolide aglycon, exhibited a better autophagy induction. Our findings revealed an alternative mechanism of drug action by bufadienolides in lung cancer cells and provided evidence for the possibility of treating highly metastatic human lung cancer through an autophagy pathway.
TECHNICAL NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0122.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: computer aided diagnosis; topological relations; TNM system; non-small Cells; lung cancer
Online: 20 November 2017 (07:57:32 CET)
Computers and artificial intelligence affect every field of life nowadays. In medical image interpretation automatic decision making using algorithms are used increasingly in every sub-field and computer aided diagnosis (CAD) is one of the main tools available to medical science today. CAD systems are used as an augmented option for both the medical practitioner and the patients, with image analysis and interpretation being of primary importance. In particular, spatial relations are used in knowledge representation, and these relations can be used for effective medical image interpretation. In this paper, we put forth an algorithm for defining non-small cells lungs cancer (NSCLC) stages in lungs images interpretation using topological spatial relations. We show an application case study in event motion predictions for lung cancer staging scoring - tumor, nodes and metastasis (TNM) - with combined topological and directional relations.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0497.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: lung cancer; immune checkpoint inhibitor; perioperative therapy; neoadjuvant therapy; adjuvant therapy
Online: 21 July 2021 (14:58:36 CEST)
The emergence of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) has dramatically changed the treatment landscape for patients with metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). These achievements inspired investigators and pharmaceutical companies to conduct clinical trials in patients with early-stage NSCLC because both adjuvant and neoadju-vant platinum-based doublet chemotherapies (PT-DCs) showed only a 5% improve-ment in the 5-year overall survival. IMpower010, a phase 3 trial (P3), showed that ad-juvant PT-DC followed by maintenance atezolitumab significantly prolonged dis-ease-free survival than adjuvant PT-DC alone (hazard ratio, 0.79; stage II to IIIA). Since conventional therapies, including chemotherapy and radiotherapy, can promote im-munogenic cell death, which releases tumour antigens from dead tumour cells, ICI combination therapies with conventional therapies are widely proposed. Checkmate 816 trial (P3) indicated a significantly higher pathological complete response rate of neoadjuvant nivolumab/PT-DC combination therapy than neoadjuvant PT-DC alone (odds ratio, 13.9, for stage IB to IIIA). Detection of circulating tumour DNA is highly anticipated for the evaluation of minimal residual disease. Multimodal approaches and new ICI agents are being attempted to improve the efficacy of ICI treatment in phase 2 trials. This review presents the development of perioperative treatment using ICIs in patients with NSCLC while discussing problems and perspectives.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0103.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: lung cancer; brain metastase; prognostic factors; stereotactic radiosurgery
Online: 5 September 2018 (16:22:01 CEST)
Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is considered the initial treatment for lung cancer patients with small-sized and limited number of brain metastases. The objective of this study was to assess clinical outcomes of SRS treatment using CyberKnife (CK) for recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) class II/III patients with one to three brain metastases from lung cancer and identify which patients in the high RPA class could benefit from SRS. A total of 48 lung cancer patients who received CK-based SRS for their metastatic brain lesions from 2010 to 2017 were retrospectively analyzed. Radiographic response was evaluated during follow-up period. Overall survival (OS) and intracranial progression-free survival (IPFS) were calculated and prognostic variables associated with OS and IPFS were evaluated. Median follow-up time was 6.6 months. Local control rates at 6 months and 1-year following SRS were 98% and 92%, respectively. The median OS of all patients was 8 months. One-year and 2-year OS rates were 40.8% and 20.9%, respectively. In multivariate analysis, uncontrolled primary disease (p = 0.008) and ECOG performance status of 2 or 3 (p = 0.001) were independent prognostic factors for inferior OS. These two factors were also significantly associated with inferior IPFS. In subgroup analysis according to RPA class, primary disease status was the only prognostic factor, showing statistically significant OS differences in both RPA class II and III (controlled vs. uncontrolled: 41.1 vs. 12.3 months in RPA class II, p = 0.031; 26.9 vs. 4.1 months in RPA class III, p = 0.011). Our results indicated that SRS could be an effective treatment option for RPA class II/III patients with brain metastases from lung cancer in the modern treatment era. SRS might be particularly considered for patients with controlled primary disease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0132.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Herbal Informatics; Ayurveda; Lung Cancer; Ethnopharmacology; Natural Compounds; Alternative Medicine
Online: 7 December 2020 (09:35:10 CET)
The incidence of lung cancer has increased in recent years and causes major mortalities across the globe. Besides, the availability of the several chemotherapeutics modalities in the management, there is still a challenge to find out an efficient remedy with lesser or no toxic effects. Hence, there is a necessity to employ complementary research to establish effective management for lung cancer. In this study, we have implemented a novel herbal informatics model to find out the alternative remedy in the treatment of lung cancer. This model utilizes five major steps of the bioprospection process based on the classical surge followed by the binary index and rationale-based selection of herbal products targeting the cancer-causing factors which are explained in detail in the methodology section of this model. This study revealed 07 herbals such as Withania somnifera (Ws), Berberis vulgaris(Bv), Glycyrrhiza glabra(Gg), Andrographis paniculate(Ap), Azadirachta indica(Ai), Cinnamomum Verum(Cv), Piper longum(Pl) based on the fuzzy set optimization scoring(0.6-1) that could be further studied in vitro and in vivo level for utilization in the management of lung cancer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0477.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Exportin-1; Eriodictyol; Juglans mandshurica; Non-small cell lung cancer
Online: 23 October 2020 (10:19:32 CEST)
Exportin-1, the ubiquitous nuclear protein transporter, is widely confirmed as an active chemotherapeutic target in non-small cell lung cancer condition while Juglans mandshurica is a well-studied anticancer plant in some lung cancer cell lines. We intend to find novel exportin-1 inhibitor from Juglans mandshurica with better potential tolerability and pharmaco-dynamo-kinetic properties than the current selective inhibitors of nuclear export in non-small cell lung cancer treatment. Osiris property explorer DataWarrior, Glide standard precision docking, quantum mechanics polarized ligand docking, MMGBSA binding free energy calculations, Jaguar density functional theory analysis, and the online web-based SwissADME were employed respectively in this study to filter the retrieved compounds based on tolerability, toxicity, and Lipinsky’s rule of five violation potential, determine their druggability, establish relative stability of the lead compound in water solvation model, and evaluates druglikeness, lead-likeness, as well as synthetic accessibility of the lead compound. This study reveals eriodictyol as having higher binding free energy (-40 kcal/mol) than that of standard (-39.56 kcal/mol) in exportin-1 active site, better synthetic accessibility score (3.15 versus 3.29), high GI absorption, non-blood brain barrier permeant, lacks Brenk and PAINS alert, obeying Lipinski’s, Ghose’s, Veber’s, Egan’s, and Muegge’s rule of druglikeness and lead-likeness as well as non-cytotoxic to HepG2 cells. We therefore found eriodictyol as a lead-like, non-toxic exportin-1 inhibitor with good predictive stability and pharmacokinetic potential and thus provided data for further validation of eriodictyol as a candidate exportin-1 inhibitor in both preclinical and clinical studies involving lung cancer therapy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0478.v1
Online: 31 May 2020 (16:11:51 CEST)
Background: At present, the treatments for patients with advanced lung cancer focus on chemotherapy, targeted therapy, immunotherapy, or a combination of multiple treatments. Purpose: The main purpose of this study is to compare the various chemotherapy-based combination therapies and find the best one for patients with advanced lung cancer. Methods: Based on database (PubMed, EMBASE and Medline) for randomized controlled trials of advanced lung cancer with combination therapy from 2008 to 2020, we searched literatures with overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), objective response rate (ORR) and adverse as outcome indicators and established a Bayesian mesh meta-analysis for multiple treatment strategies. Then, we combined the results of four outcome indicators to find out the best chemotherapy-based combination therapy strategy for patients with advanced lung cancer, further, we tried to screen out the best drugs of which were commonly used now. Results: It contained a total of 51 studies, including five combination therapies: Chemotherapy/Chemotherapy plus placebo (CT), chemotherapy plus one targeted therapy drug (CT+T), chemotherapy plus two targeted therapy drugs (CT+T+T), chemotherapy combined with immunotherapy (CT+I) or chemotherapy combined with biotherapy (CT+B). In terms of four outcome indicators, CT+I showed the best therapeutic benefits. In the comparison of immunotherapy drugs, pembrolizumab showed the best effect. Conclusion: Our results showed that, among the multiple chemotherapy-based combination therapy strategies, chemotherapy combined with immunotherapy is the best choice for patients with advanced lung cancer, and pembrolizumab combined with chemotherapy has the best effect.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0439.v2
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: non-ionizing radiation; lung cancer; millimeter waves; cell morphology; 75-110 GHz
Online: 17 April 2020 (12:49:49 CEST)
Efficiently targeted cancer therapy without causing detrimental side effects is necessary for alleviating patient care and improving survival rates. This paper presents observations of morphological changes in H1299 human lung cancer cells following W-band MMW irradiation (75 – 105 GHz) at a non-thermal power density of 0.2 mW/cm2, investigated over 14 days of subsequent physiological incubation following exposure. Microscopic analyses of physical parameters measured indicate MMW irradiation induces significant morphological changes characteristic of apoptosis and senescence. The Immediate short-term responses translate into long-term effects, retained over the duration of the experiment(s); reminiscent of the phenomenon of Accelerated Cellular Senescence (ACS) achieving terminal tumorigenic cell growth. Further, results were observed to be treatment-specific in energy (dose) dependent manner and were achieved without the use of chemotherapeutic agents, ionizing radiation or thermal ablation employed in conventional methods; thereby overcoming associated side effects. Adaptation of the experimental parameters of this study for clinical oncology concomitant with current developmental trends of non-invasive medical endoscopy alleviates MMW therapy as an effective treatment procedure for human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0091.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: lung cancer; Fine Particulate Matter (PM2.5); secondhand smoking; cigarette smoking
Online: 10 January 2020 (04:59:44 CET)
Background: Lung cancer is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide with 25% of deaths due to lung cancer occurring in Europe. This study therefore sought to assess the burden of lung cancer by country and to evaluate the magnitude of fine Particulate Matter (PM2.5) and cigarette smoking by country in Europe. Methods: An ecological study nested on the World Health Organization air pollution database 2016 was conducted. We sampled 30 European Countries, with a total of 1625 mean annual samples of Particulate Matter (PM2.5) collected from 1625 designated sites (n = 1625). We further used the ‘World Health Disease Rankings’ database to extract Lung Cancer Morbidity and Mortality Rate by country. We used SAS version 9.4 to indicate the distribution of PM2.5 and Lung Cancer Mortality Rate. Results: Lung cancer Relative Risk (RR) was 1.0 in all never- smokers. RR for Ex-smokers for Adeno carcinoma was 3.5 in males and 1.1 in females, small cell carcinoma was 16.2 in males and 3.8 in females. RR for current smokers for Adeno carcinoma was 8.0 in males and 4.1 in females, small cell carcinoma was 57.9 in males and 18.2 in females. Mean annual PM2.5 by country ranged from 6.01 to 37.28µg/m3 whereas lung cancer mortality rate by country ranged from 19.67 to 54.26 deaths per 100,000 population. Conclusion: Cigarette smoking and exposure to both second hand smoke and high concentration of PM2.5 resulted into increased burden of lung cancer in Europe. Countries should re-strategize to reduce the burden of lung cancer in Europe.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0004.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: Lewis lung cancer; miRNAs; transcription factors; extracellular matrix; cancer cachexia
Online: 1 September 2019 (08:37:12 CEST)
Cachexia is a complex metabolic syndrome characterized by loss of skeletal muscle, leading to a significant weight loss that impacts patient morbidity and mortality. Given the complexity of gene regulatory networks that control gene expression, our objective was to perform an integrative mRNA and miRNA profiling to identify genetic programs that capture essential mechanistic details that promote muscle atrophy in cancer cachexia. Here, we used RNA sequencing to analyze miRNAs and mRNAs expression profiles in tibialis anterior (TA) muscles of the Lewis lung carcinoma model of cancer cachexia. In addition, we compared these findings with RNA-Seq data from C2C12 myotubes treated in vitro with the cachectic factors tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ). Extracellular matrix (ECM) alterations were validated by picrosirius staining, western blot, and fractal dimension analyses. We found 1,008 mRNAs and 18 miRNAs differentially expressed in cachectic mice. This set of genes was associated with the ECM, proteolysis, and inflammatory response. Enrichment analysis of transcriptional factor binding sites revealed activation of the atrophy-related transcriptional factors: NF-κB, Stat3, AP-1, and FoxO. Furthermore, the integration of mRNA and miRNA expression profiles identified post-transcriptional regulation by miRNAs of genes involved in ECM organization, cell migration, transcription factors binding, ion transport, and FoxO signaling pathway. C2C12 myotubes treated with TNF-α and IFN-γ similarly down-regulate subsets of ECM genes, including collagens. Our integrative analysis of miRNA-mRNA co-profiles comprehensive characterized regulatory relationships of molecular pathways and revealed miRNAs targeting ECM-associated genes in cancer cachexia. We also confirmed in C2C12 myotubes that changes in ECM-associated genes are dependent on inflammatory signaling of the cytokines TNF-α and IFN-γ.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0082.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: Resveratrol; TRAIL; apoptosis; lung cancer cells; NF-κB; Cytochrome c
Online: 13 August 2018 (06:18:03 CEST)
Aims TRAIL is a promising anticancer agent that has the potential to sensitize a wide variety of cancer or transformed cells by inducing apoptosis. However, resistance to TRAIL is a growing concern. Current manuscript aimed to employing combination treatment to investigate resveratrol induced TRAIL sensitization in NSCLC. Method A549 and HCC-15 cells were used in experimental design. Cell viability was determined by morphological image, crystal violet staining and MTT assay. Apoptosis was evaluated by LDH assay, Annexin V and DAPI staining. Autophagy and apoptosis indicator protein were examined by western blotting. TEM and puncta assay were carried out to evaluate the autophagy. MTP and ROS activity were evaluated by JC-1 and H2DCFDA staining. Findings Resveratrol is a polyphenolic compound capable of activation of tumor suppressor p53 and its pro-apoptotic modulator PUMA. Herein, we showed the p53-independent apoptosis by decrease the expression of phosphorylated Akt-mediated suppression of NF-κB that is also substantiated with the downregulation of anti-apoptotic factors Bcl-2 and Bcl-xl in NSCLC, resulting in an attenuation of TRAIL resistance in combined treatment. Furthermore, apoptosis was induced in TRAIL-resistant lung cancer cells with a co-treatment of resveratrol and TRAIL assessed by the loss of MMP, ROS generations which resulting the translocation of cytochrome c from the mitochondria into the cytosol due to mitochondrial dysfunction. Moreover, autophagy flux was not affected by resveratrol-induced TRAIL-mediated apoptosis in NSCLC. Significance Overall, targeting the NF-κB (p65) pathway via resveratrol attenuates TRAIL resistance and induces TRAIL-mediated apoptosis which could be the effective TRAIL-based cancer therapy regimen.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0205.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: lung cancer; digital pathology; whole slide imaging; artificial intelligence; deep learning; convolutional neural networks; computer-aided diagnosis
Online: 10 November 2022 (15:06:51 CET)
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer mortality worldwide, and it is urgently necessary to diagnose it as early as possible. Usually, the diagnostic process begins with a radiological examination which, when a possible tumour is present, is followed by a biopsy to extract tissue samples from the patient's lungs. Therefore, the purpose of this study is the development of an artificial intelligence algorithm that will analyse the Whole Slide Image (WSI) generated by the digitisation of the glass slides obtained from the extracted samples and detect if there is a tumour. The developed learning algorithms as well as the tested neural networks (NNs) were trained on a dataset composed of previously annotated WSI tiles, classified as Tumour or Non-Tumour. From these, four developed convolutional neural networks stood out and were selected to be compared with each other and with the tested NNs. When the best result of each of the developed architectures was compared to the highest result of the tested NNs, it was possible to denote that version 4 of CancerDetecNN achieved an average accuracy of 89.749 \% and an average loss of 0.220. Furthermore, the results for the four selected versions are in agreement with the results reported in the literature, however, the limited size of the given dataset must be considered. Given the results obtained, the fourth version has the potential to optimise the lung cancer diagnosis process.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0308.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: gold nanoparticles; green chemistry; Piper betle; Lung cancer cell line (A549); nanomedicine
Online: 25 December 2018 (14:05:09 CET)
The present work encompasses an application-oriented perspective to the possible employment of gold nanoparticles as nanomedicine in cancer therapeutics. The rationale of the work lies in the growing needs for assessment of advanced alternative treatment of cancer employing functionalized nanoparticles as nanomedicine. Gold nanoparticles fabricated via green chemistry methods by leaves of a time-honored medicinal plant, Piper betle were ascertained for their synthesis and properties under the umbrella of characterization of nanoparticles, through various techniques like UV-vis spectroscopy, FTIR spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy. The cytotoxicity assay of well-characterized gold nanoparticles was monitored against lung cancer cell line (A549) by metabolic and imaging assays. MTT assay or the metabolic assay was performed for a range of nanoparticles’ concentrations. The results were promising and proved to be a leading-edge venture, envisaging the possibility of gold nanoparticles for cancer therapeutics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0217.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, General & Theoretical Computer Science Keywords: Chicken-sine Cosine algorithm; Deep Belief Network; Lung nodule detection
Online: 15 June 2022 (09:02:28 CEST)
Malignant growth is the most widely recognized repulsive infections winning around the world, and the patients with disease are saved just when the malignant growth is distinguished at the beginning phase. Each kind of disease is interesting, with its own arrangement of development properties and hereditary changes. This paper presents the lung knob division and disease characterization by proposing an enhancement calculation. The general technique of the created approach includes four stages, such as pre-processing, division, highlight extraction, and the order. From the outset, the CT picture of the lung is taken care of to the division. When the division is done, the highlights are extricated through morphological and measurable and surface highlights like LOOP and LGP. At long last, the extricated highlights are given to the order step. Here, the characterization is done dependent on the Deep Belief Network (DBN) which is prepared by utilizing the proposed Chicken-Sine Cosine Algorithm (CSCA) which distinguish the lung tumor, giving two classes in particular, knob or non-knob. The presentation assessment of lung knob division and malignant growth grouping dependent on CSCA is figured utilizing three measurements to be specific, precision, affectability, and the explicitness.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0236.v1
Online: 15 April 2020 (09:50:21 CEST)
Importance: The COVID-19 pandemic is currently accelerating. Patients with locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (LA-NSCLC) may require treatment in locations where resources are limited and the prevalence of infection is high. Patients with LA-NSCLC frequently present with comorbidities that increase the risk for severe morbidity and mortality from COVID-19. These risks may be further increased by treatments for LA-NSCLC. Observation: We present expert thoracic oncology multidisciplinary (radiation oncology, medical oncology, surgical oncology) consensus of alternative strategies for the treatment of LA-NSCLC during a pandemic. The overarching goals of these approaches are to reduce the number of visits to a healthcare facility, reduce the risk of SARS-CoV-2 exposure, and attenuate the immunocompromising effects of lung cancer therapies. Patients with resectable disease can be treated with definitive non-operative management if surgical resources are limited or the risks of perioperative care are high. Non-operative options include chemotherapy, chemoimmunotherapy, and radiation therapy with sequential schedules. The order of treatments may be based on patient factors and clinical resources. Whenever radiation therapy is delivered without concurrent chemotherapy, hypofractionated schedules are appropriate. For patients who are confirmed to have COVID-19, usually cancer therapies may be withheld until symptoms have resolved with negative viral test results. Conclusions and Relevance: The risk of severe treatment-related morbidity and mortality is significantly elevated for patients undergoing treatment for LA-NSCLC during the COVID-19 pandemic. Adapting alternative treatment strategies as quickly as possible may save lives and should be implemented through communication with the multidisciplinary cancer team.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0279.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: beta adrenoblocker; anticancer; non-small cell lung cancer; clonogenic; apoptosis; necrosis
Online: 25 July 2019 (06:20:58 CEST)
Beta adrenoblockers is a large class of drugs mainly used to manage abnormal heart rhythms. Over the last couples of decades, the anticancer effects of these compounds has been extensively studied. There is much evidence about their activity in non-small cell lung, pancreatic, breast, colorectal, prostate and ovarian cancer. However, the mechanism of beta blockers anticancer activity is still not known, and more detailed studies are needed. The aim of our study was to evaluate the anticancer activity of beta adrenoblockers in non-small cell lung cancer cell lines A549 and H1299. In order to find the relationship with their selectivity to beta adrenoreceptors, in our study we used selective (atenolol, betaxolol, esmolol, metoprolol) and non-selective (pindolol, propranolol and timolol) beta blockers. The effect on cell viability was evaluated by MTT assay and the activity on cell ability to form colonies was tested by clonogenic assay. The type of cell death was evaluated by cell double staining with Hoechst 33342 and Propidium iodide. The most active adrenoblockers against both tested cancer cell lines were propranolol and betaxolol. They completely inhibited lung cancer cell colony formation at 90% of EC50 (half maximal effective concentration) value. Most tested compounds induced cell death through apoptosis and necrosis. In A549 cell lines apoptosis was mainly induced while in H1299 cell line compounds induced both apoptosis and necrosis. There was no correlation established between beta adrenoblocker anticancer activity and their selectivity to beta adrenoreceptors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0109.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: connexins; Cx43; gap junctions; lung cancer; immunohistochemistry; prognosis; nuclear
Online: 13 February 2019 (10:30:49 CET)
Direct intercellular communication, mediated by gap junctions formed by the connexin transmembrane protein family, is frequently dysregulated in cancer. Connexins have been described as tumour suppressors, but emerging evidence suggests that they can also act as tumour promoters. This feature is connexin- and tissue-specific and may be mediated by complex signalling pathways through gap junctions or hemichannels or by completely junction-independent events. Lung cancer is the number one cancer in terms of mortality worldwide, and novel biomarkers and therapeutic targets are urgently needed. Our objective was to gain a better understanding of connexins in this setting. We used several in silico tools to analyse TCGA data in order to compare connexin mRNA expression between healthy lung tissue and lung tumours and correlated these results with gene methylation patterns. Using Kaplan-Meier plotter tools, we analysed a microarray dataset and an RNA-seq dataset of non-small cell lung tumours in order to correlate connexin expression with patient prognosis. We found that connexin mRNA expression is frequently either upregulated or downregulated in lung tumours. This correlated with both good and poor prognosis (overall survival) in a clear connexin isoform-dependent manner. These associations were strongly influenced by the histological subtype (adenocarcinoma versus squamous cell carcinoma). We present an overview of all connexins but particularly focus on four isoforms implicated in lung cancer: Cx26, Cx30.3, Cx32 and Cx43. We further analysed the protein expression and localization of Cx43 in a series of 72 human lung tumours. We identified a subset of tumours that exhibited a unique strong nuclear Cx43 expression pattern that predicted worse overall survival (p=0.014). Upon sub-stratification, the prognostic value remained highly significant in the adenocarcinoma subtype (p=0.002) but not in the squamous carcinoma subtype (p=0.578). This finding highlights the importance of analysis of connexin expression at the protein level, particularly the subcellular localization. Elucidation of the underlying pathways regulating Cx43 localization may provide for novel therapeutic opportunities.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0492.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: Adenocarcinoma of lung; Ductal carcinoma; Breast Neoplasms; ErbB receptors; Germ cells
Online: 29 September 2021 (11:41:12 CEST)
The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) exon-19 deletion is one of the most common mutations detected in lung cancer patients. Although exon-19 deletion is frequently detected in adenocarcinoma, observing this mutation in germline cells is very rare. Besides, the co-occurrence of homozygous and heterozygous mutations in dual primary cancers in a person is very uncommon. This article presents a 53-year-old Iranian woman with no history of smoking who was diagnose with two primary cancers; invasive ductal carcinoma, and primary pulmonary lung adenocarcinoma. The case reported a history of breast cancer in her sister and a history of lung cancer in her father. To select the best choice of treatment the EGFR gene was analyzed with Sanger’s sequencing method from DNA extracted from the patient’s lung tissue sample. Observing two primary cancers in this patient and considering her family pedigree, germline cells were also analyzed using samples recruited from the patient’s peripheral blood to investigate any EGFR mutations in her germline cells. The obtained data revealed that the lung tissue of the patient carried a homozygous form of EGFR exon-19 deletion while her peripheral blood contained a heterozygous form of this mutation, which is exceptionally rare.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0080.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: experimental lung cancer; immunomodulators; oxidative stress; autophagy; tumor growth; sirtuin-1
Online: 10 June 2019 (16:12:57 CEST)
Background: Lung cancer (LC) is a major leading cause of death worldwide. Immunomodulators that target several immune mechanisms have proven to reduce tumor burden in experimental models through induction of the immune microenvironment. We hypothesized that other biological mechanisms may also favor tumor burden reduction in lung cancer-bearing mice treated with immunomodulators. Methods: Tumor weight, area, and immune cells (T, B, macrophages, and TNF-alpha levels, immunohistochemistry) and tumor growth, oxidative stress, apoptosis, autophagy, and sirtuin-1 markers were analyzed (immunoblotting) in subcutaneous tumor of BALB/c mice injected with LP07 adenocarcinoma cells treated with monoclonal antibodies (CD-137, CTLA-4, PD-1, and CD-19, N=9/group) and non-treated control animals. Results: Compared to non-treated cancer mice, in tumors of monoclonal-treated animals, tumor area and weight and ki-67 significantly reduced, while T cell counts, oxidative stress, apoptosis, autophagy, and sirtuin-1 marker increased. Conclusion: Immunomodulators elicited a reduction in tumor burden (reduced tumor size and weight) through decreased tumor proliferation and increased oxidative stress, apoptosis, autophagy, and sirtuin-1 levels, which may have interfered with the immune profile of the tumor microenvironment. Future research should be devoted to the elucidation of the specific contribution of each biological mechanism to the reduced tumor burden.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0323.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: exploratory regression analysis; built environment; influencing factors; incidence rate for female lung cancer
Online: 20 May 2020 (09:06:39 CEST)
Objective: Application of ERA methods to investigate the atmospheric pollution and built environment factors influencing lung cancer incidence rate in Chinese women. Methods: Lung cancer incidence rate among Chinese women at 339 cancer registries were obtained from the China Cancer Registry Annual Report 2017, air quality and built environment data were obtained from the Greenpeace and China Construction Yearbook. After multiple covariates variables were eliminated, an exploratory regression analysis was performed using the world standardized population incidence rate as the dependent variable. Air quality and built environment factors as the independent variable. Results: Shandong Peninsula, Hebei and Liaoning are high incidence rate areas of female lung cancer in China, with significant regional aggregation. In addition to air quality factors such as industrial smoke emission data, the association between built environmental factors such as urbanization rate, development LUI, population density and greening coverage of built-up areas and female lung cancer incidence rate is statistically significant. Conclusion: In addition to air quality factors, urban spatial factors can also significantly affect respiratory health. The LUI is positively while urbanization rates and population density are negatively correlated with the incidence rate of lung cancer. The role of green space for respiratory health has not been proven. In addition, there is little relationship between income and health, and similar findings are found for indicators such as the public transportation and roads network.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0051.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Genetics Keywords: lung cancer; molecular signature; molecular pathway; differentially expressed genes; protein-protein interaction; reporter biomolecules and bioinformatics
Online: 3 July 2019 (08:54:37 CEST)
Lung cancer is one of the most important health risks worldwide for human. Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the most common cause of premature death from malignant disease. This study provides in-depth insights from systems biology analyses to identify molecular to inform systemic drug targeting in NSCLC. Gene expression profiles from non small cell lung cancer were analyzed with genome-scale biomolecular networks (I,e., protein-protein interaction, transcriptional and post transcriptional regulatory networks). The aim of the study was to determine the pathways and expression profile of the genes to discover molecular signature at RNA and protein levels which could serve as potential drug targets for therapeutics innovation and the identification of novel targets. Eight proteins, six TFs and seven miRNAs came into prominence as potential drug targets. The differential expression profiles of these reporter biomolecules were cross-validated by independent RNA-Seq and miRNA-Seq. Risk discrimination performance of the reporter biomolecules NPR3, JUN, PPARG, TP53, CKMT1A, SP3 and TFAP2A were also evaluated. Total 213 drugs and 7 proteins were found for non small cell lung cancer through dgidb. Among these identified drugs seven drugs such as- Gemcitabine, Carboplatin, paclitaxel, Docetaxel, Crizotinib, Bevacizumab and Gemcitabine is used for NSCLC which is approved by National Cancer Institute. The molecular signatures and repurposed drugs presented here permit further attention for experimental studies which are offer significant potential as biomarkers and candidate therapeutics for precision medicine approaches to clinical management of NSCLC.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0491.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: epidemiology, causality, association, smoking, lung cancer, vitamin D, sun exposure, multiple sclerosis
Online: 29 June 2018 (15:42:02 CEST)
If environmental exposures are shown to cause an adverse health outcome, reducing exposure should reduce the disease risk. Links between exposures and outcomes are typically based on ‘associations’ derived from observational studies, and causality may not be clear. Randomised controlled trials to ‘prove’ causality are often not feasible or ethical. Here the history of evidence that tobacco smoking causes lung cancer – in observational studies – is compared to that of low sun exposure and/or low vitamin D status as causal risk factors for the autoimmune disease, multiple sclerosis. Evidence derives from in vitro and animal studies, as well as ecological, case-control and cohort studies, in order of increasing strength. For smoking and lung cancer, the associations are strong, consistent, and biologically plausible – the evidence is coherent or ‘in harmony’. For low sun exposure/vitamin D as risk factors for MS, the evidence is weaker, with smaller effect sizes, but coherent across a range of sources of evidence, and biologically plausible. The association is less direct – smoking is directly toxic and carcinogenic to the lung, but sun exposure/vitamin D modulate the immune system, which in turn may reduce the risk of immune attack on self-proteins in the central nervous system. Opinion about whether there is sufficient evidence to conclude that low sun exposure/vitamin D increase the risk of multiple sclerosis, is divided. General public health advice to receive sufficient sun exposure to avoid vitamin D deficiency (<50nmol/L) should also ensure any benefits for multiple sclerosis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0214.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: Breast; Targeted Radiotherapy; Lung injury; Heart injuries; Health-Related Quality Of Life; Irradiation toxicity.
Online: 13 December 2022 (01:17:52 CET)
TomoBreast hypothesized that hypofractionated 15 fractions/3 weeks image-guided radiation therapy (H-IGRT) can reduce lung-heart toxicity, as compared with normofractionated 25-33 fractions/5-7 weeks conventional radiation therapy (CRT). 123 women with stage I-II operated breast cancer were randomized to receive CRT (N=64) or H-IGRT (N=59). The primary endpoint used a four-items measure of the time to 10% alteration in any of patient self-reported measure, physician clinical evaluation, echocardiography or lung function tests, analyzed by intention-to-treat without exclusion. Results found comparable survivals, but H-IGRT significantly reduced the toxicity measured by lung diffusion capacity and alveolar volume as compared with CRT, G1 in 53% (31/59) versus 72% (44/61) patients, P=0.006; G2, 29% versus 48%, P=0.020. H-IGRT significantly reduced the risk of composite cardio-pulmonary alteration at 5 years, 10.2% versus 26.7%, P=0.024. In conclusion, TomoBreast is a proof-of-concept that image-guided radiation-therapy can improve the overall balance of lung-heart outcomes in breast cancer adjuvant therapy. Furthermore, the significance of the findings supports the efficacy of a small trial size design, which can be critical when clinical research resources are limited.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0381.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: cancer; mortality; electromagnetic fields; breast neoplasms; lung neoplasms; esophageal neoplasms; uterine cervical neoplasms
Online: 15 December 2020 (12:47:54 CET)
Background. This study aims to estimate the rate of death by cancer, according to Radio Base Stations (RBS) radiofrequency exposure, especially for the types of breast, cervix, lung and esophagus cancer. Methods. We collected information about the number of deaths by cancer, gender, age group, Gross Domestic Product per capita, death year and the amount of exposure over the lifetime. We investigated all cancer types and some specific types (breast, cervix, lung and esophagus cancers). Results. In capitals where RBS radiofrequency exposure was higher than 2,000/antennas-year, the average mortality rate was 112/100,000 for all cancers. The adjusted analysis showed that the higher the exposure to RBS radiofrequency, the higher cancer mortality. The highest adjusted risk was observed for cervix cancer (Rate Ratio = 2.18). The spatial analysis showed that the highest RBS radiofrequency exposure was observed in a city in southern Brazil, which also showed the highest mortality rate for all types of cancer and specifically for lung and breast cancer. Conclusion. The balance of our results indicates that the exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields from RBS increases the rate of death by all types of cancer.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0482.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: non-small-cell lung cancer; immune checkpoint inhibitor; Bayesian meta-analysis; Review
Online: 30 December 2021 (12:13:58 CET)
We performed Bayesian network meta-analysis (NMA) to suggest frontline treatments for patients with high PD-L1 expression (at least 50%). A total of 5,237 patients from 22 studies were included in this NMA. In terms of progression-free survival, immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) plus bevacizumab plus chemotherapy had the highest surface under the cumulative ranking curve (SUCRA) value (98.1%), followed by ICI plus chemotherapy (82.9%). In terms of overall survival (OS), dual immunotherapy plus chemotherapy had the highest SUCRA value (79.1%), followed by ICI plus bevacizumab plus chemotherapy (73.4%). However, there was no significant difference of survival outcomes among treatment regimens combined with immunotherapy. Moreover, ICI plus chemotherapy failed to reveal a significant OS superiority to ICI monotherapy (hazard ratio = 0.978, 95% credible internal: 0.771-1.259). In conclusion, this NMA indicates that ICI plus chemotherapy with/without bevacizumab might to be the best options in terms of OS for NSCLC with high PD-L1 expression. Considering there was no significant difference of survival outcomes among treatment regimens incorporating immunotherapy and ICI plus chemotherapy failed to show significant survival benefits over ICI monotherapy, however, ICI monotherapy may be reasonable as first-line treatment for advanced NSCLC with high PD-L1 expression and no targetable aberrations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0157.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: docosahexaenoic acid; apoptosis; SIRT6; Hedgehog signaling; non-small cell lung cancer cells
Online: 24 October 2017 (05:43:16 CEST)
Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω3-PUFAs), including docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), have been shown to exert anticancer effects by inducing apoptotic cell death. However, the mechanism for DHA-induced cell death in lung cancer is not fully understood. Here, we show that DHA induces apoptosis in two human EGFR mutant non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines, and that DHA-induced cell death is accompanied by SIRT6 activation and attenuated Hedgehog (Hh) signaling. Knockdown of SIRT6 using siRNAs inhibited DHA-induced apoptosis, whereas SIRT6 overexpression increased apoptotic cell death. DHA-induced SIRT6 activation was associated with downregulation of Hh signaling, and knockdown of SIRT6 resulted in augmentation of Hh signaling. Pretreatment of NSCLC cells with a Smoothened agonist prevented DHA-induced decreases in the levels of Hh signaling proteins and increases in cleaved PARP levels. Moreover, endogenous production of ω3-PUFAs in PC9 cells via fat-1 expression resulted in elevated SIRT6 levels and reduced levels of Hh signaling molecules, including Gli, following DHA treatment. Overall, these results implicate that ω3-PUFAs induce apoptosis by downregulating Hh signaling via SIRT6 activation in human EGFR mutant NSCLC cells. These findings suggest that ω3-PUFAs potentially represent an effective therapy for the chemoprevention and treatment of NSCLC.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0139.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pediatrics Keywords: chorioamnionitis; fetal lung; vascularization; alveolarization; lung inflammation
Online: 8 November 2022 (02:33:57 CET)
There is disagreement on the associations between chorioamnionitis and pneumonia/sepsis, respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), and bronchopulmonary (BPD)dysplasia, three pulmonary outcomes of concern for preterm newborns. Determining clear correlations is challenging due to the intricacy of the prenatal, postnatal, and therapeutic practices that affect the diagnosis of RDS, pneumonia/sepsis, and BPD, two long-term outcomes, as well as their short- and long-term consequences. Owing to the interconnected nature of the variables, the vaguely defined fetal exposures, and the imprecise identification of disorders like RDS and BPD, multivariant studies of huge data sets are unreliable methods for defining associations. On the other hand, research using animal models offers reliable data regarding the effects of exploratory chorioamnionitis on the fetal lung. Understanding the clinical intricacy and the experimental consequences of chorioamnionitis together will help us understand on the impact on the fetal lung .
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: EGFR-mutated non-small cell lung cancer; EGFR-TKI; intrinsic resistance; resistance mechanisms
Online: 22 April 2019 (11:08:42 CEST)
Activating mutations in the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor gene occur as early cancer-driving clonal events in a subset of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and result in increased sensitivity to EGFR-tyrosine-kinase-inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs). Despite very frequent and often prolonged clinical response to EGFR-TKIs, virtually all advanced EGFR-mutated (EGFRM+) NSCLCs inevitably acquire resistance mechanisms and progress at some point during treatment. Additionally, 20-30% of patients do not respond or respond for a very short time (< 3 months) because of intrinsic resistance. While several mechanisms of acquired EGFR-TKI-resistance have been determined analyzing tumor specimens obtained at disease progression, the factors causing intrinsic TKI-resistance are less understood. However, recent comprehensive molecular-pathological profiling of advanced EGFRM+ NSCLC at baseline has illustrated the co-existence of multiple genetic, phenotypic, and functional mechanisms that may contribute to tumor progression and cause intrinsic TKI-resistance. Several of these mechanisms have been further corroborated by preclinical experiments. Intrinsic resistance can be caused by mechanisms inherent EGFR or by EGFR-independent processes, including genetic, phenotypic or functional tumor changes. This comprehensive review describes the identified mechanisms connected with intrinsic EGFR-TKI-resistance and differences and similarities with acquired resistance and among clinically implemented EGFR-TKIs of different generations. Additionally, the review highlights the need for extensive pre-treatment molecular profiling of advanced NSCLC for identifying inherently TKI-resistant cases and designing potential combinatorial targeted strategies to treat them.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0252.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: signal transduction; γ-ionizing radiation; cancer invasion; non-small cell lung cancer; epithelial-mesenchymal transition; tumor microenvironment
Online: 22 January 2020 (03:04:00 CET)
Previously, we demonstrated that IR triggers the invasion/migration of A549 cells via activation of an EGFR–p38/ERK–STAT3/CREB-1–EMT pathway. Here, we have demonstrated the involvement of a novel intracellular signaling mechanism in γ-ionizing radiation (IR)-induced migration/invasion. Expression of receptor-interacting protein (RIP) 1 was initially increased upon exposure of A549, a non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell line, to IR. IR-induced RIP1 is located downstream of EGFR and involved in the expression/activity of matrix metalloproteases (MMP-2 and MMP-9) and vimentin, suggesting a role in epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Our experiments showed that IR-induced RIP1 sequentially induces Src-STAT3-EMT to promote invasion/migration. Inhibition of RIP1 kinase activity and expression blocked induction of EMT by IR and suppressed the levels and activities of MMP-2, MMP-9, and vimentin. IR-induced RIP1 activation was additionally associated with stimulation of the transcriptional factor NF-κB. Specifically, exposure to IR triggered NF-κB activation and inhibition of NF-κB suppressed IR-induced RIP1 expression followed by a decrease in invasion/migration as well as EMT. Based on the collective results, we propose that IR concomitantly activates EGFR and NF-κB and subsequently triggers the RIP1–Src/STAT3–EMT pathway, ultimately promoting metastasis.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0626.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: BTB and CNC homology 1 BACH1; mitochondrial metabolism; glycolysis; heme oxygenase 1 (HMOX1); mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC); Nrf2 (encoded by Nfe2l2); metformin; hemin; breast cancer; lung cancer
Online: 29 January 2021 (13:57:41 CET)
BTB domain and CNC homology 1 (BACH1) is a highly expressed transcription factor in tumors including breast and lung, relative to their non-tumor tissues. BACH1 is known to regulate multiple physiological processes including heme homeostasis, oxidative stress response, senescence, cell cycle, and mitosis. In a tumor, BACH1 promotes invasion and metastasis of cancer cells, and the expression of BACH1 presents a poor outcome for cancer patients including breast cancer patients. Recent studies identified novel functional roles of BACH1 in the regulation of metabolic pathways in cancer cells. BACH1 inhibits mitochondrial metabolism through transcriptional suppression of mitochondrial membrane genes. In addition, BACH1 suppresses activity of pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH), a key enzyme that converts pyruvate to acetyl-CoA for the citric acid (TCA) cycle through transcriptional activation of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK). Moreover, BACH1 increases glucose uptake and lactate secretion in aerobic glycolysis through the expression of metabolic enzymes involved such as hexokinase 2 (HK2) and glyceraldehyde 3- phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH). Pharmacological or genetic inhibition of BACH1 could reprogramme metabolic pathways, subsequently rendering metabolic vulnerability of cancer cells. Furthermore, inhibition of BACH1 decreased antioxidant-induced glycolysis rates as well as reduced migration and invasion of cancer cells, suggesting BACH1 as a potentially useful cancer therapeutic target.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0296.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: non-small-cell lung cancer; performance status; cytotoxic chemotherapy; immune checkpoint inhibitor; cancer cachexia
Online: 20 September 2022 (05:53:12 CEST)
Most pivotal clinical trials in advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) have excluded patients with poor performance status (PS), and data on the efficacy and safety of pharmacotherapy have not been fully accumulated. For NSCLC patients with PS 2 and without druggable genetic alterations, monotherapy with cytotoxic agents or carboplatin-based combination therapy is usually administered based on the results of several randomized trials. However, the evidence of cytotoxic chemotherapy for patients with PS 2 is insufficient, with limited efficacy and toxicity concerns. Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are a promising treatment for patients with PS 2 because of lower incidence of severe toxicity compared to cytotoxic chemotherapy. Meanwhile, several reports suggest that anti-PD-1 antibodies monotherapy is less effective for patients with PS 2, especially for those with PS 2 caused by disease burden. Although the combination therapy of nivolumab and ipilimumab is a promising treatment option, there is a divergence in efficacy data between clinical trials. The standard of care for advanced NSCLC with PS 2 has not been established, and future therapeutic strategies should take into account the heterogeneity of the PS 2 population.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0129.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Non-small cell lung cancer; Circulating tumor cells; Circulating tumor-derived endothelial cells; Biomarkers; SE-iFISH
Online: 6 January 2021 (15:32:40 CET)
Effective biomarkers are essential to the early diagnosis of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Herein, a retrospective study of 49 newly diagnosed and recurrent NSCLC patients, 31 patients with benign pulmonary disease and 24 healthy volunteers was conducted, to evaluate the diagnostic value of circulating rare cells for NSCLC. The expression of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) and circulating tumor-derived endothelial cells (CTECs) in peripheral blood were measured by subtraction enrichment-immunostaining-fluorescence in situ hybridization (SE-iFISH). The level of CTCs (P＜0.001) and CTECs (P＜0.001) was significantly higher in NSCLC group than that in benign pulmonary disease group. The proportion of small CTCs (P＜0.001) and CTECs (P＜0.0001) significantly increased from benign lung disease individuals to NSCLC patients. The AUC of ROC curves of total CTCs and CTECs were 0.815 (95%CI: 0.722~0.907), 0.739 (95%CI: 0.618~0.860), respectively. The cut-off values for discriminating NSCLC with benign lung disease patients were total CTCs 11.5 units/6ml and total CTECs 10.5 units/6ml, with sensitivity and specificity being 67.3% and 83.9%, 77.6% and 77.4%, respectively. When CTCs and CTECs were combined, predictive value significantly increased to 82.6% as measured by the area under the curve. Small CTCs and triploid CTCs had high positive predictive value (PPV) and positive likelihood ratio (LR+) of the diagnosis of NSCLC in early stage. CTCs and CTECs can not only be used as new biomarkers for the diagnosis of NSCLC, but can also improve diagnostic performance of the early stage NSCLC. Moreover, the combined examination of CTCs and CTECs is be superior to the single.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0220.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: checkpoint inhibitors; tuberculosis; non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC); Anti-PD-1; toxicity management; immunotherapy; pembrolizumab
Online: 13 May 2020 (04:38:50 CEST)
Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) – anti-programmed death-1 (PD-1) and their ligands (PD-L1 and PD-L2) have become widely used in the treatment of several malignancies. Many immune-related adverse events have been linked to these agents. However, tuberculosis (TB) reactivation during their use is increasingly reported. Herein, we present a 58-year-old lady with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) ALK-negative, EGFR wild, and PD-L1 Immune histochemistry (IHC) strongly positive in 95% of tumor cells. The patient presented with high-grade fever and a history of productive cough for a 1-week duration. A few days later, she was diagnosed with pulmonary tuberculosis following the 6th cycle of Pembrolizumab, an anti-PD-1 monoclonal antibody. AFB smear and TB PCR from BAL were positive (rifampin resistance not detected), and she was accordingly started on Anti-TB medications. Immunotherapy was held. Of note, the patient had a history of sick contact with a patient with active TB infection ten years ago, but there was no documentation of latent TB or previous TB infection. Her HIV status is negative. Her sputum AFB smear continued to be positive after four weeks of anti-TB medications. Later, the patient was discharged after her sputum was cleared from AFB (negative x 2 sets). We assumed that our patient developed reactivation of pulmonary tuberculosis secondary to an immune checkpoint inhibitor (Pembrolizumab). She was not re-challenged with Pembrolizumab following TB diagnosis. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case from the Arab and the Middle East; it reinforces the previous observations of the association between ICIs administration and the development of MTB. Nevertheless, further studies in the clinical setting are necessary to establish the exact mechanism involved in this association. Oncologists' awareness & prompt recognition of this potential hazardous consequence are essential. Since there is no clear evidence whether LTBT prior PD-1/PD targeted immunotherapy is required, targeted LTBT before starting ICIs immunotherapy with TB chemoprophylaxis; yet to be explored, particularly in the regions where the MTB prevalence is high.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0117.v1
Subject: Biology, Physiology Keywords: Astragalus polysaccharide, PG2, cisplatin, macrophages, monocytes, M1/M2 polarization, immunotherapy, maintenance therapy,lung cancer, NSCLC
Online: 9 August 2019 (12:13:24 CEST)
Background: Recently we demonstrated that Astragalus polysaccharide (PG2), the active ingredient in dried roots of astragalus membranaceus, ameliorates cancer symptom clusters and improve quality of life (QoL) in patients with metastatic disease by modulating inflammatory cascade, against the background that inflammatory cells including macrophages, dendritic cells (DCs), and cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) in tumor initiation, metastasis, and progression. Nevertheless, the role of PG2 in the modulation of anticancer immunogenicity and therapeutic response remains relatively underexplored and unclear. Purpose: The present study investigates how and to what extent PG2 modulates cellular and biochemical components of the inflammatory cascade, enhance anticancer immunity, and the therapeutic implication of same in patients with lung cancer. Methods and Results: Herein, we demonstrated that PG2 significantly increased the M1/M2 macrophage polarization ratio in non-small cell carcinoma (NSCLC) H441 and H1299 cells. This PG2-induced preferential pharmacologic up-regulation of tumoral M1 population in vitro, positively correlated with the downregulation of tumor-promoting IL-6 and IL-10 expression in NSCLC cell-conditioned medium, with concomitant marked inhibition of cell proliferation, clonogenicity and tumorsphere formation. Our ex vivo results, using clinical sample from our NSCLC cohort, demonstrated that PG2 also promoted the functional maturation of DCs with consequent enhancement of T cell-mediated anticancer immune responses. Consistent with the in vitro and ex vivo results, our in vivo studies showed that mice treated with PG2 exhibited significant time-dependent depletion of the tumor-associated M2 population, synergistically enhanced the anti-M2-based anticancer effect of cisplatin, and inhibition of xenograft tumor growth in the NSCLC mice models. Moreover, in the presence of PG2, cisplatin-associated dyscresia and weight-loss was markedly suppressed. Conclusion: These results do indicate a therapeutically-relevant role for PG2 in modulating the M1/M2 macrophage pool, facilitating DC maturation, and synergistically enhancing the anticancer effect of conventional chemotherapeutic agent, cisplatin; thus laying the foundation for further exploration of the curative relevance of PG2 as surrogate immunotherapy and/or clinical feasibility of its use for maintenance therapy in patients with lung cancer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0159.v1
Online: 8 January 2021 (13:21:27 CET)
Objectives- We prospectively analyzed children with acute chest pain and clinical suspicion of pneumothorax (PNX) evaluated at the pediatric Emergency Department. Methods- After clinical examination and before Chest X-Ray, children underwent LUS to evaluate the presence of PNX. We enrolled 70 children, 13 (18,57%) received a final diagnosis of PNX. Results- In all 13 (100%) patients LUS showed the “bar-code sign”, the absence of lung sliding and the absence of B lines while in 12 (92,3%) there was the lung point, giving a diagnosis of PNX. All cases had PNX features on CXR. The “bar-code sign”, the absence of lung sliding and the absence of B lines had a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 100%. The “bar-code sign” had a positive predictive value of 100% and a negative predictive value of 100% for the detection of PNX. Conclusions- LUS is highly accurate in detecting or excluding pneumothorax in children with acute chest pain evaluated in the pediatric emergency department.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0083.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: COPD; Interstitial lung disease; Combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema; interstitial lung abnormalities
Online: 6 May 2021 (12:56:28 CEST)
Although chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and interstitial lung disease (ILD) have distinct clinical features, both diseases may coexist in a patient because they share similar risk factors such as smoking, male sex, and old age. Patients with both emphysema in upper lung fields and diffuse ILD are diagnosed with combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema (CPFE), which causes substantial clinical deterioration. Patients with CPFE have higher mortality compared with patients who have COPD alone, but results have been inconclusive compared with patients who have idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Poor prognostic factors for CPFE include exacerbation, lung cancer, and pulmonary hypertension. The presence of interstitial lung abnormalities, which may be an early or mild form of ILD, is notable among patients with COPD, and is associated with poor prognosis. Various theories have been proposed regarding the pathophysiology of CPFE. Biomarker analyses have implied that this pathophysiology may be more closely associated with IPF development, rather than COPD or emphysema. Patients with CPFE should be advised to quit smoking and undergo routine lung function tests, and pulmonary rehabilitation may be helpful. Various pharmacologic agents may be beneficial in patients with CPFE, but further studies are needed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0296.v2
Subject: Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: W-band (75-105 GHz) MMW; H1299 human lung cancer cells; non-tumorigenic MCF-10A human epithelial cells; in vitro
Online: 15 June 2020 (06:44:57 CEST)
Therapeutically effective treatments of cancer are limited. To calibrate the efficiency of the novel technique we recently discovered to modulate cancer cell viability using tuned electromagnetic fields; H1299 human lung cancer cells were irradiated in a sweeping regime of W-band (75-105 GHz) millimeter waves (MMW) at 0.2 mW/cm2 (2 W/m2). Effects on cell morphology, cell death and senescence were examined and compared to that of non-tumorigenic MCF-10A human epithelial cells. MMW irradiation led to alterations of cell and nucleus morphology of H1299 cells, significantly increasing mortality and senescence over 14 days of observation. Extended irradiation of 10 minutes duration resulted in complete death of exposed H1299 cell population within two days, while healthy MCF-10A cells remained unaffected even after 16 minutes of irradiation under the same conditions. Irradiation effects were observed to be specific to MMW treated H1299 cells and absent in the control group of non-irradiated cells. MMW irradiation affected nuclear morphology of H1299 cells only and not of the immortalized MCF-10A cells. Irradiation with low intensity MMW shows an antitumor effect on H1299 lung cancer cells. This method provides a novel treatment modality enabling targeted specificity for various types of cancers.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0173.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma; non small cell lung cancer; double primary cancers; B7-H3; gefitinib; chemotherapy
Online: 14 May 2019 (13:04:44 CEST)
Management of multiple primary cancers, a not so infrequent event in oncology practice, is a critical issue due to the lack of literature . In this study, we reported the case of a patient with metachronous double metastatic non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) who received gefitinib in combination with gemcitabine plus nab-paclitaxel and with mFOLFOX6 in first and second line, respectively. She achieved a progression free survival and an overall survival (OS) of 28 months for NSCLC and PFS-1 and OS of 20 and 13 months, respectively for PDAC. Moreover, the combination of gefitinib and chemotherapies treatments displayed a good safety profile. Given the insignificant frequency of this case, we performed a molecular characterization of both neoplasms with the aim to investigate the existence of particular activated pathways and/or similar immunological mutations. it is interesting to note that two neoplasms shared a commune mutation of B7-H3 gene, with the consecutive impairment of its expressed protein. In both PDAC and NSCLC, the expression of this protein was associated with a worse survival. Since B7-H3 is an anti-apoptotic protein, the reduction of its expression or function should justify a pro-apoptotic activity with a putative justification of the long survival of the patient considered in this report.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0400.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pathology & Pathobiology Keywords: asbestos; chrysotile; mesothelioma; lung cancer
Online: 26 July 2022 (09:43:02 CEST)
Asbestos-related risks have been estimated on the basis of data from the past, when professional exposures were higher. Fibers are present in the environment due to erosion of surface deposits and human activities unrelated to asbestos industry. If searched for, asbestos fibers are frequently found at autopsies. Bias can be encountered in asbestos research e.g. attributing of mesothelioma and lung cancer to asbestos when fibers are present, although cause-effect relationships remain unproven. Some studies rely on work or residence histories of questionable reliability. Asbestos is banned in some countries while others are increasing production and exports. Asbestos is a low-cost material and an excellent reinforcing fiber. Different asbestos types have their technical advantages and preferred application areas. The traffic is safer with asbestos-containing brake linings. Asbestos cement constructions are sturdy and inexpensive. The fireproofing properties of asbestos are well known. It can be reasonably assumed that the non-use of asbestos-containing brakes, fireproofing and insulation lagging has increased the damage and numbers of victims of traffic accidents, fires and armed conflicts. Nowadays, when a probability of conflicts seems to be enhanced, the attitude to asbestos should be changed. Most importantly, asbestos-related science must be separated from economical and political interests. Reliable information can be obtained in lifelong bioassays.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0427.v1
Online: 19 May 2021 (07:35:10 CEST)
:Pulmonary fibrosis is a chronic and fatal lung disease that significantly impacts the aging population globally. To date, anti-fibrotic, immunosuppressive, and other adjunct therapy demonstrate a limited efficacy. Advancing our understanding of pathogenic mechanisms of lung fibrosis provides a future path for the cure. Cellular senescence has gained substantial interest in the past decades due to the increased incidence of fibroproliferative lung diseases in the older age group. Furthermore, the pathologic state of cellular senescence that includes maladaptive tissue repair, decreased regeneration, and chronic inflammation resembles key features of progressive lung fibrosis. This review describes regulatory pathways of cellular senescence and discusses the current knowledge on the senescence of critical cellular players of lung fibrosis, including epithelial cells (alveolar type 2 cells, basal cells, etc.), fibroblasts, and immune cells, their phenotypic changes, and the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which these cells contribute to the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis. A few challenges in the field include establishing appropriate in vivo experimental models and identifying senescence targeted signaling molecules and specific therapy to target senescent cells, known collectively as "senolytic" or “senotherapeutic” agents.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0186.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: Air pollution; coal-fired thermal power plant; oil thermal power plant; geocoded; lung cancer; bladder cancer; North-eastern Italy
Online: 20 June 2017 (08:50:26 CEST)
This study investigated the risk of lung and bladder cancers in people residing in proximity of a coal-oil-fired thermal power plant in an area of north-eastern Italy, covered by a population-based cancer registry. Incidence rate ratios (IRR) by sex, age, and histology were computed according to tertiles of residential exposure to benzene, nitrogen dioxide (NO2), particular matter, and sulfur dioxide (SO2) among 1076 incident cases of lung and 650 cases of bladder cancers. In men of all ages and in women under 75 years of age, no significant associations were observed. Conversely, in women aged >75 years significantly increased risks of lung and bladder cancers were related to high exposure to benzene (IRR for highest vs. lowest tertile: 2.00 for lung cancer and 1.94 for bladder cancer) and NO2 (IRR: 1.72 for lung cancer; and 1.94 for bladder cancer). In these women, a 1.71-fold higher risk of lung cancer was also related to a high exposure to SO2. The findings of this descriptive study indicated that air pollution may have a role with regard to the risk of lung and bladder cancers, limited to women aged ≥ 75 years. Such increased risk warrants further analytical investigations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0399.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: Amino acids, lipids, diet, low-fat diet, cancer therapy, cancer metabolism, triple-negative breast cancer, lung cancer, melanoma, colorectal cancer, ovarian cancer, metastasis
Online: 21 December 2022 (10:05:50 CET)
Patients with metastatic triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) need new therapies to improve the low survival rates achieved with standard treatments. In this work, we show that the survival of mice with metastatic TNBC can be markedly increased by replacing their normal diet with artificial diets in which the levels of amino acids (AAs) and lipids are strongly manipulated. After observing selective anticancer activity in vitro, we prepared five artificial diets and evaluated their anticancer activity in a challenging model of metastatic TNBC. The model was established by injecting 4T1 murine TNBC cells into the tail vein of immunocompetent BALB/cAnNRj mice. First-line drugs doxorubicin and capecitabine were used as positive controls. AA manipulation led to modest improvements in mice survival when the levels or lipids were normal. Reducing lipid levels to 1% markedly improved the activity of several diets with different AA content. Mice fed the artificial diets as monotherapy lived longer than mice treated with doxorubicin and capecitabine. An artificial diet without 10 non-essential AAs, with reduced levels of essential AAs, and with 1% lipids improved the survival not only of mice with TNBC but also of mice with other types of metastatic cancers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0520.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: Exosomes; COPD; smokers; IPF; BALF; lung
Online: 27 August 2021 (11:33:42 CEST)
Background: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) and Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF) are chronic, progressive lung ailments which are characterized by distinct pathologies. Early detection biomarkers and disease mechanisms for these debilitating diseases are lacking. Exosomes are small extracellular vesicles attributed to carry proteins, mRNA, miRNA and sncRNA to facilitate cell-to-cell communication under normal and diseased conditions. Exosomal miRNAs have been studied in relation to many diseases. However, there is little to no knowledge regarding the miRNA population of BALF or the lung tissue derived exosomes in COPD and IPF. Here, we determined and compared the miRNA profiles of BALF and lung tissue-derived exosomes from healthy non-smokers, healthy smokers, and patients with COPD and IPF in independent cohorts. Results: Exosome characterization using NanoSight particle tracking and TEM demonstrated that the BALF-derived exosomes were approximately 89.85 nm in size and ~2.95 X 1010 particles/mL. Lung-derived exosomes were ~146.04 nm in size and ~2.38 X 1011 particles/mL. NGS results identified three differentially expressed miRNAs in the BALF, while one in the lung-derived exosomes from COPD patients as compared to healthy non-smokers. Of these, three- and five-fold downregulation of miR-122-5p amongst the lung tissue-derived exosomes from COPD patients as compared to healthy non-smokers and smokers, respectively. Interestingly, there were key 55 differentially expressed miRNAs in the lung tissue-derived exosomes of IPF patients compared to non-smoking controls. Conclusions: Overall, we identified specific miRNAs to develop as biomarkers or targets for pathogenesis of these chronic lung diseases.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0688.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: lung disease; pulmonary embolis; circulating anticoagulant
Online: 31 August 2020 (03:26:55 CEST)
The quarantine imposed as the response to the COVID 19 pandemic has been related to an increase in cases of thromboembolism in Non-COVID19 patients .We report the case of a patient with pulmonary thromboembolism without usual triggering causes during the quarantine period, related to a previously undiagnosed hypercoagulable condition.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0045.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: eosinophilic pneumonia; lung nodules; dyspnea; eosinophils
Online: 13 September 2016 (04:04:39 CEST)
Chronic eosinophilic pneumonia (CEP) is an idiopathic disorder characterized by an abnormal and marked accumulation of eosinophils in the interstitial and alveolar spaces of the lung. Idiopathic chronic eosinophilic pneumonia is reported to comprise anywhere from 0-2.5% of cases within the registries of interstitial lung disease. Diagnosis is based on the clinical constellation of symptoms, characteristic radiographic findings and peripheral blood or BAL eosinophilia, in the absence of infection or drug-induced eosinophilia. There is no consensus on the dose and duration of treatment, but most authors recommend initial doses of prednisone at 0.5–1 mg/kg/day with gradual tapering of the dose for total treatment duration of 6–12 months.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0390.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC); liquid biopsy; cell-free nucleic acid (cfNA); next generation sequencing (NGS); CNA (copy number amplifications); fusions, exon-skipping.
Online: 26 January 2022 (03:21:12 CET)
Liquid biopsies are an integral part of the diagnosis of cancer. Here, we have extended previous validation studies of a new targeted NGS panel to include the detection of copy number amplifications (CNAs), fusions, and exon skipping variants. Detection of these gene classes included specimens from clinical and healthy donors and cell lines (fusions: ROS1, EML4-ALK, NTRK1), (exon skipping: MET exon 14), and (CNAs: HER2, CDK6, EGFR, MYC and MET). The limit of detection (LOD) for fusion/skipping was 42 copies (QC threshold = 3 copies) and was verified using 3 additional fusion/skipping variants. LOD for CNAs was 1.40-fold-change (QC threshold = 1.15-fold change) and was verified with 3 additional CNAs. In precision studies, all fusion/skipping variants were detected in all runs and all days of testing (n=18/18; 100%); average CV for repeatability was 20.5% (range 8.7% - 34.8%), and for reproducibility was 20.8% (range 15.7% - 30.5%). For CNAs, 28/29 (96.6%) copy gains were detected. For CNAs, average CV of 1.85% (range 0% to 5.49%) for repeatability and 6.59% (range 1.65% to 9.22%) for reproducibility. The test panel meets the criteria for being highly sensitive and specific and extends its utility for the detection of clinically relevant variants in cancer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0086.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: diffusion-weighted whole body imaging with background suppression（DWIBS）; magnetic res-onance imaging (MRI); lung cancer; response evaluation criteria in solid tumors (RECIST); ap-parent diffusion coefficient (ADC); BD Score
Online: 5 January 2023 (01:43:25 CET)
Chemotherapy for lung cancer has made remarkable progress, and its selection has been subdivided by genetic analysis. Although response evaluation criteria in solid tumors (RECIST) is a simple and highly objective evaluation method, it has been pointed out that it has the disadvantage of not being able to accurately evaluate the therapeutic effect of molecularly targeted drugs and immune checkpoint inhibitors. The purpose of this study is to determine whether quantitative evaluation of DWIBS is useful in determining the effectiveness of treatment for lung cancer. There were 31 patients with lung cancer and 56 patterns were obtained. First, the determination of treatment effect (PD, SD, PR) based on RECIST was performed on CT. Second, tDV and ADC (median) were measured using BD score from DWI images taken at the same time, and the rate of change was calculated. Then, we compared and examined the correlation between RECIST and the rate of change in tDV. There were correlations between RECIST and the rate of change in tDV in PD and PR cases respectively. Compared RECIST on CT, DWIBS using BD score would be more accurate for response evaluation of treatment. There was a tendency that tDV decreased with increasing ADC values, but some of the cases had a dissociated response with increasing ADC values and increasing tDV. Thus, since the color display of ADC values allows us to infer their contents, it would be useful for the evaluation of cases such as dissociated response and pseudoprogression, which are suspected to be atypical responses that are difficult to evaluate with RECIST and other methods.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0513.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pediatrics Keywords: lung ultrasound; LUS, children; asthma; personalized medicine
Online: 29 November 2021 (07:48:13 CET)
In recent years, lung ultrasound (LUS) has been increasingly used for the diagnosis of respiratory diseases in both adult and pediatric patients. However, asthma is a field in which the use of LUS is not yet well defined or is in development. In the following case series, we describe clinical, laboratory, radiological results as well as detailed lung ultrasound findings of 6 children with asthma: some of them with acute asthma attack and with inadequately controlled allergic asthma or childhood asthma; others with acute asthma and allergic or infantile asthma adequately controlled by preventive therapy. Finally we describe the clinical, laboratory and imaging parameters of a child with severe allergic asthma in the absence of exacerbation. In these cases, albeit at different times, LUS played an important role in both the initial diagnostic process and follow-up. It also showed different ultrasound features depending on the severity of the individual asthma based on the type of asthmatic phenotype and control of it.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0493.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: COVID-19; Obesity; BMI; heart; lung; severity
Online: 23 October 2020 (13:28:04 CEST)
Obesity is a significant public health concern with higher morbidity. Obesity patients are at risk of severe COVID-19 infection and obesity is a higher risk factor for intensive Care Unit admission in COVID-19 infection. Obesity status affects lung volumes, cardiac structure and hemodynamics. Obesity is associated with a low inflammation state, endothelial dysfunction, hyperinsulinaemia and metabolic disorders. The authors review cardio-respiratory pathophysiological aspects involved in obesity and propose clinical management in obese patients infected by COVD-19.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0073.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pediatrics Keywords: genomics; pediatrics; lung disease; pulmonary arterial hypertension
Online: 3 September 2020 (15:29:36 CEST)
Pulmonary arterial hypertension is a rare disease with high mortality despite recent therapeutic advances. The disease is caused by both genetic and environmental factors, and likely gene x environment interactions. While PAH can manifest across the lifespan, pediatric-onset disease is particularly challenging because it is frequently associated with a more severe clinical course and comorbidities including lung/heart developmental anomalies. In light of these differences, it is perhaps not surprising that emerging data from genetic studies of pediatric-onset PAH indicate that the genetic basis is different than that of adults. There is a greater genetic burden in children, with rare genetic factors contributing to at least 36% of pediatric-onset idiopathic PAH (IPAH) compared to ~11% of adult-onset IPAH. De novo variants are frequently associated with PAH in children, and contribute to at least 15% of all pediatric cases. The standard of medical care for pediatric PAH patients is based on extrapolations from adult data. However, the increased etiologic heterogeneity, poorer prognosis and increased genetic burden for pediatric-onset PAH calls for a dedicated pediatric research agenda to improve molecular diagnosis and clinical management. A genomics-first approach will improve the understanding of pediatric PAH and how it is related to other rare pediatric genetic disorders.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0064.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Genetics Keywords: TCGA; lung adenocarcinoma; RN7SL494P; nodal metastasis; prognosis
Online: 5 March 2019 (12:27:55 CET)
The metastasis of lung cancer can spread to the lymph nodes around the lungs. Metastasis, rather than the primary cancer, judges patients survival. Wherefore, a more detailed study on transcriptome of metastatic lung adenocarcinoma including primary carcinoma was carried out. LUAD RNA-seq data and the corresponding clinical information were available from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), which included 522 cases but only 515 cases have transcriptome data. Differential expression analyses between cases and controls, between primary cancer and metastasis subgroup, or between TNM stages, were respectively carried out using edgeR package. Then, the Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to verify the gradient changes of cancer metastasis or staging with the differential expression genes. The survival analyses were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier algorithm and log-rank test. The functional predictions for the differentially expressed genes were porformed with the Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (GO/KEGG). Single gene set enrichment analysis (single GSEA) was run to explore the biological pathways associated with the expressions of RN7SL494P gene based on the Molecular Signatures Database (MSigDB). 406 and 439 differentially expressed genes were identified respectively in lymph node metastasis or TNM stages. 112/296 intersection genes were associated with nodal metastasis and/or staging, among them only 25 genes were associated with the nodal metastasis, 13 genes were associated with the staging with gradient changes. Only one gene (RN7SL494P) was found to be associated with prognosis. But RN7SL494P was not found joining any biological functions or processes or cellular components with GO/KEGG analyses. Finally, single GSEA enrichment and pathway analyses showed that RN7SL494P might be involving in cancer development process and poor outcome in lung adenocarcinoma. These findings highlight the potential applications of RN7SL494P as a promising molecular predictor not only in nodal metastasis but prognosis evalution in lung adenocarcinoma patients.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0357.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: lung cancer; molecular analysis; NGS; oncogene drivers
Online: 25 May 2018 (09:44:51 CEST)
Recent changes in lung cancer care, including new approvals in first line and the introduction of high throughput molecular technologies in routine testing led us to question ourselves on how deeper molecular testing may be helpful for the optimal use of targeted drugs. In this article we review recent results in the scope of personalized medicine in lung cancer. We discuss biomarkers that have a therapeutic predictive value in lung cancer with a focus on recent changes and on the clinical value of large scale sequencing strategies. We review the use of second and third generation EGFR and ALK inhibitors with a focus on secondary resistance alterations. We discuss anti-BRAF and anti-MEK combo, emerging biomarkers as NRG1 and NTRKs fusions and immunotherapy. Finally we discuss the different technical issues of comprehensive molecular profiling and show how large screenings might refine the prediction value of individual markers. Based on a review of recent publications (2012–2018), we address promising approaches for the treatment of patients with lung cancers and the technical challenges associated to the identification of new predictive markers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0077.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: centromere protein F (CENPF); Estrogen Receptor beta; Lung Adenocarcinoma (LUAD); WGCNA package; non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC)
Online: 5 May 2020 (12:08:59 CEST)
The signal transduction pathways of estrogen receptors (ER) mainly includes gene pathway and non-gene pathway. Studies have shown that the gene pathway of ER is related with the expression of nuclear proteins, and this is the key issue for our current research. With the GEO database analysis, Human centromere protein F (CENPF) is highly expressed in adenocarcinoma of lung (LUAD), and the co-expression of CENPF and ERβ was found in the nucleus of LUAD cells. Meanwhile, CENPF and ERβ2/5 were related with T stage and poor prognosis (P<0.05). Knockdown of CENPF gene significantly inhibited the biological effects of LUAD cells, the tumor growth of mice and the expression of ERβ2/5 (P<0.05). Further, group experiments showed that knockdown CENPF inhibits biological effects of LUAD cells mediated by ERβ pathway. All the results indicated that both CENPF and ERβ2/5 play important roles in the progression of LUAD, and knockdown of CENPF can inhibit the progression of LUAD by inhibiting the expression of ER2/5. Thus, the development of inhibitors against ERβ2/5 subtype and CENPF remained more effective in improving the therapeutic effect of LUAD.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0732.v1
A Real-World, Observational, Prospective Study to Assess the Molecular Epidemiology of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) Mutations upon Progression on or after First-Line Therapy with a First or Second Generation EGFR Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor in EGFR Mutation-Positive Locally Advanced or Metastatic Non-small Cell Lung Cancer: The ‘LUNGFUL’ Study
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR); mutations, EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor; molecular epidemiology; Non-small-cell lung cancer
Online: 28 April 2021 (07:55:22 CEST)
Background: Real-world data on the molecular epidemiology of EGFR resistance mutations at or after progression with first- or second-generation EGFR-TKIs in patients with advanced NSCLC are lacking. Methods: This ongoing observational study was carried out by 23 hospital-based physicians in Greece. The decision to perform Cobas® EGFR Mutation Test v2 in tissue and/or plasma at disease progression was made before enrollment. For patients with negative/inconclusive T790M plasma-based results, tissue re-biopsy could be performed. Results: Ninety-six (96) eligible patients were consecutively enrolled (median age: 67.8 years) between July-2017 and September-2019. Of the patients, 98% were tested upon progression using plasma and 2% using tissue/cytology biopsy. The T790M mutation was detected in 16.0% of liquid biopsies. Tissue re-biopsy was performed in 22.8% of patients with a T790M-negative plasma result. In total, the T790M positivity rate was 21.9%, not differing between patients on first- or second-generation EGFR-TKI. Higher (≥2) ECOG performance status and longer (≥10 months) time to disease progression following EGFR-TKI treatment initiation were associated with T790M positivity. Conclusions: Results from plasma/tissue-cytology samples in a real-world setting, yielded a T790M positivity rate lower than previous reports. Fewer than one in four patients with negative plasma-based testing underwent tissue re-biopsy, indicating the challenges in routine care settings.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0099.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Interstitial lung disease; Diffuse interstitial lung disease; Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis; High-resolution computed tomography; Complex Networks; Computer aided diagnosis
Online: 4 August 2022 (04:14:44 CEST)
Diffuse interstitial lung diseases (DILD) are a heterogeneous group of over 200 entities, some with dramatical evolution and poor prognostic. Because of their overlapping clinical, physiopathological and imagistic nature, successful management requires early detection and proper progression evaluation. This paper tests a complex networks (CN) algorithm for imagistic aided diagnosis fitness for the possibility of achieving relevant and novel DILD management data. 65 DILD and 31 normal high resolution computer tomography (HRCT) scans were selected and analyzed with the CN model. The algorithm is showcased in two case reports and then statistical analysis on the entire lot shows that a CN algorithm quantifies progression evaluation with a very fine accuracy, surpassing functional parameters’ variations. The CN algorithm can also be successfully used for early detection, mainly on the ground glass opacity Hounsfield Units band of the scan.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0353.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: Lung cancer; Adjuvant treatment; Non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC); Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR); Tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI)
Online: 15 July 2021 (10:16:30 CEST)
Lung cancer is the most common malignancy across the world. The new era in lung cancer treatments, especially this past decade, has yielded novel categories of targeted therapy for specific mutations and adjuvant therapy, both of which have led to improved survival rates. In the present study, we review the changes and development of treatments, with a special focus on adjuvant therapy using tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) administered to non-small-cell lung carcinoma patients who had a complete resection of the tumor harboring a mutated epidermal growth factor receptor. The clinical trials are dating from the past (chemotherapy trials), present (TKIs) and future (ongoing trials).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0057.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: PET; lung nodule; Renal Cell Carcinoma; RCC; FDG
Online: 4 January 2023 (03:37:05 CET)
Renal Cell Carcinoma (RCC) is generally represented by low-FDG avidity, and [18F]FDG-PET/CT is not recommended to stage the primary tumor. However, its role to assess metastases is still unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of [18F]FDG-PET/CT to correctly identify RCC lung metastases using histology as standard of truth. Records of 350 patients affected by RCC and with CT evidence of at least one lung nodule, were retrospectively analyzed. Inclusion criteria were: a) histologically proven RCC; b) [18F]FDG-PET/CT performed prior to lung surgery; c) lung surgery with histological analysis of surgical specimens; d) complete follow-up available. A per-lesion analysis was performed, and diagnostic accuracy was reported as sensitivity and specificity, using histology as standard of truth. [18F]FDG-PET/CT semiquantitative parameters (Standardized Uptake Value [SUVmax], Metabolic Tumor Volume [MTV] and Total Lesion Glycolysis [TLG]) were collected for each lesion. Sixty-seven (n=67) patients with a total of 107 lesions were included: lung metastases from RCC were detected in 57/107 of cases, while 50/107 lesions were related to others lung malignancies. Applying a cut-off of SUVmax ≥2, the sensitivity and the specificity of [18F]FDG-PET/CT for detect RCC lung metastases were 33.3% (95% CI: 21.4% - 47.1%) and 26% (95%CI: 14.6% - 40.3%), respectively. The analysis demonstrated sub-optimal diagnostic accuracy of [18F]FDG-PET/CT to discriminate between RCC lung metastases versus other malignancies. However, semiquantitative analysis including also volumetric parameters (MTV and TLG) can support [18F]FDG-PET/CT image interpretation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0156.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: diffuse interstitial lung disease; complex networks; model; HRCT
Online: 11 July 2022 (09:12:00 CEST)
The High-Resolution Computed Tomography (HRCT) detection and diagnosis of diffuse lung disease is primarily based on the recognition of a limited number of specific abnormal findings, pattern combinations or their distributions, as well as anamnesis and clinical information. Since texture recognition has a very high accuracy percentage if a complex network approach is used, this paper aims to implement such a technique customized for diffuse interstitial lung diseases (DILD). The proposed procedure translates HRCT lung imaging into complex networks by taking samples containing a secondary lobule, converting them into complex networks and analyzing them in 3 dimensions: emphysema, ground glass opacity and consolidation. This method was evaluated on a 60 patient lot and the results show a clear quantifiable difference between healthy and affected lungs. By deconstructing the image on three pathological axes, the method offers an objective way to quantify DILD details which, so far, have only been analyzed subjectively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0295.v1
Subject: Biology, Animal Sciences & Zoology Keywords: WGCNA; lung development; histological structure; molecular changes; amphibian
Online: 20 January 2022 (10:16:10 CET)
Metamorphosis is a critical process for most anurans to transition from water to land. The appearance of air-breathing lungs occurs during the change in oxygen medium from water to air. Revealing the structural construction and molecular switches of lung organogenesis is essential to understand the realization of air-breathing function. In this study, histology and transcriptomics were combinedly conducted to explore these issues in Microhyla fissipes lungs during metamorphosis. During the pro-metamorphic phase, histological structure improving of the alveolar wall was accompanied by robust substrate metabolism and protein turnover. The lungs, at the metamorphic climax phase, are characterized by an increased number of cilia in the alveolar epithelial cells and collagenous fibers in the connective tissues, corresponding to the transcriptional upregulation of cilia and extracellular matrix-related genes. The post-metamorphic lungs strengthen the contracting function, as suggested by the thickened muscle layer and the upregulated expression of genes involved in muscle contraction. The blood–gas barrier is fully developed in adult lungs whose transcriptional features are tissue growth and differentiation regulation and immunity. Importantly, significant transcriptional switches of pulmonary surfactant protein and hemoglobin facilitate air-breathing. Our results illuminated four key steps of lung development for amphibians to transition from water to land.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0002.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: lung ultrasound; implementation science; point of care ultrasound
Online: 1 July 2021 (07:43:46 CEST)
Despite the many advantages of lung ultrasound (LUS) in the diagnosis and management of patients with dyspnea, adoption among hospitalists has been slow. We performed semi-structured interviews of hospitalists from 4 diverse health systems in the US to understand determinants of adoption within a range of clinical settings. We used the Diffusion of Innovation Theory to guide a framework analysis of the data. Of 27 hospitalists invited, we performed in-terviews of 22 from 4 hospitals of diverse types. Median years post-residency of interviewees was 10.5 [IQR:5-15]. Four main themes emerged: 1) There are important clinical advantages to LUS despite operator dependence, 2) LUS enhances patient and clinician experience, 3) Investment of clinician time to learn and perform LUS is a barrier to adoption but yields improved efficiency for the health system and 4) Mandated training and use may be necessary to achieve broad adoption as monetary incentives are less effective. Despite perceived benefits of LUS for patients, clinicians and health systems, an important barrier to broad LUS adoption is the experience of time scarcity by hospitalists. Future implementation strategies should focus on changes to the clinical environment that address clinician barriers to learning and adoption of new skills.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: lung adenocarcinoma; macrophage; PD-L1; GM-CSF; STAT3
Online: 11 June 2021 (13:08:03 CEST)
Background; Programmed death-1 (PD-1) and PD-1 ligand 1 (PD-L1) are target molecules for immunotherapy in non-small cell lung cancer. PD-L1 is expressed not only in cancer cells, but also on macrophages, and has been suggested to contribute to macrophage-mediated immune suppression. Methods; Clinical significance of PD-L1 expression on macrophages in human lung adenocarcinoma was examined. The mechanisms of PD-L1 overexpression on macrophages were investigated by means of cell culture studies. Results; High PD-L1 expression on macrophages was correlated with the presence of EGFR mutation, a lower cancer grade, and a shorter cancer-specific overall survival. In an in vitro study using lung cancer cell lines and human monocyte-derived macrophages, the conditioned medium from cancer cells was found to up-regulate PD-L1 expression on macrophages via STAT3 activation, and a cytokine array revealed that granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) was a candidate factor that induced PD-L1 expression. Culture studies using recombinant GM-CSF, neutralizing antibody, and inhibitors indicated that PD-L1 overexpression was induced via STAT3 activation by GM-CSF derived from cancer cells. Conclusions; PD-L1 overexpression on macrophages via the GM-CSF/STAT3 pathway was suggested to promote cancer progression in lung adenocarcinoma. Cancer cell-derived GM-CSF might be a promising target for anti-cancer therapy.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0007.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: computerized tomography; coronavirus disease 2019; echocardiography; lung ultrasound
Online: 1 June 2021 (09:31:10 CEST)
Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is the pandemic challenge of the last year. Cardiovascular involvement is one of the main characteristics of this disease. Due to endothelial damage, consequent phlogosis may increase a thrombosis risk. Cardiac injury may occur in different ways. However, an ischemic involvement of the cardiovascular system is rarely implied. In this regard, direct and indirect effects of COVID-19 are described. Nonetheless, the possible evaluation of the cardiovascular system may require different modalities. The cardiovascular evaluation may be different in emergency compared to critical care, requiring different tools for each setting. The aim of this review is to explore these modalities according to the different involvement of the cardiovascular system..
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0021.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: COVID-19; metastasis; lung adenocarcinoma; smoking; aging; ACE2
Online: 6 July 2020 (10:14:03 CEST)
The recent COVID-19 outbreak in China led to a worldwide pandemic associated with a severe acute respiratory illness. A higher incidence of COVID-19 infection was demonstrated in cancer patients, including patients with lung cancer. This study was conducted to get insights into the reasons for this enhanced frequency of COVID-19 infection. Methods: Using different bioinformatic tools, the expression and methylation pattern of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 gene were analyzed in healthy and malignant tissues with a focus on lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) and correlated to clinical parameters and smoking history. Results: ACE2 and TMPRSS2 were heterogeneously expressed across 36 healthy tissues with the highest expression in digestive, urinary and reproductive organs, while their expression was significantly lower in 36 cancer tissues. In LUAD, ACE2, but not TMPRSS2 was overexpressed, which inversely correlated to the promoter methylation. An age-dependent upregulation of ACE2 expression was found in LUAD compared to normal lung tissues. In a healthy lung, TMPRSS2 expression was dependent on sex and smoking history and downregulated in LUAD of smokers. Cancer progression was associated with decreased TMPRSS2, but unaltered ACE2 expression, while ACE2 expression in lung metastases of different cancers was higher than in metastasis of other sites. TMPRSS2, but not ACE2 expression, was associated with LUAD patients’ survival. Conclusions: Comprehensive molecular analyses revealed a heterogeneous, distinct expression and methylation profile of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 in healthy lung vs LUAD tissues across sex, age and smoking history, which is associated with clinical parameters and might have implications for COVID-19 disease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0483.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: Lung CT; imaging; COVID-19; Pneumonia; Heart Failure
Online: 31 May 2020 (16:49:04 CEST)
Background: Lung CT provides an effective modality to evaluate patients with suspected COVID-19. However, overlapping imaging findings with cardiogenic pulmonary oedema have been reported. Reports comparing lung CT features of these diseases have not been elaborated. Thus, we aimed to investigate these gaps in the knowledge regarding low-dose lung CT features of patients with COVID-19 pneumonia with those with acute heart failure (HF). Methods: This retrospective analysis enrolled hospitalized patients with COVID-19 (n=10) and acute heart failure (n=9) that exclusively underwent low-dose lung CT scans within 24-hours of admission. Clinical and lung CT characteristics were collected and analysed. Results: Ground-glass-opacities (GGO) appearance has been recorded in all subjects in HF and COVID-19 group. There was no significant statistical difference between the two groups for rounded morphology, consolidation, crazy paving pattern, lesion distribution, parenchymal band (P> 0.05). However, diffuse lesions were more frequent in HF cases (55.6% vs. 0%) than in COVID-19 pneumonia, which had predominantly multifocal pattern. Notably, CT images in HF patients were more likely to have signs of interstitial tissue thickening such as the interlobular septums, fissures and peribronchovascular interstitium (55.6% vs 0%, 88.9% vs 20% and 44.4% vs 0%,respectively), as well as cardiomegaly (77.8% vs 0%), increased artery to bronchus ratio (55.6% vs 0%), and pleural effusions (77.8% vs 0%). Conclusions: Major overlaps of lung CT imaging features existed between COVID-19 pneumonia and acute HF cases. However, signs of fluid redistribution are clues that favour HF over COVID-19 pneumonia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0401.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: lung cancer; environment; EE2; NP; estrogen receptor; EGFR
Online: 22 July 2018 (11:23:02 CEST)
Lung cancer has been the leading cause of cancer death in the world. In addition to smoking, estrogen is supposed to play an important role in the lung cancer development because women have a higher proportion of adenocarcinoma than men. In the environment, there are many metabolites and wastes that mimic human estrogen structurally and functionally. As an oral contraceptive, 17α-ethynylestradiol (EE2) is released to wastewater after being utilized. Moreover, 4-nonylphenol (NP) exiting in the petrochemical products and air pollutants has estrogenic activity. In our study, 17β-estradiol (E2), EE2, and NP are administered to stimulate A549 male lung adenocarcinoma cells and H1435 female lung adenocarcinoma cells. The results demonstrate that EE2 and NP stimulate A549 and H1435 cells proliferation in a dose- and time-dependent trend. Both estrogen receptor α and β are activated simultaneously during these processes. Up-regulation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and ERK expression is involved in response to estrogens. In conclusion, we first time report that EE2 and NP exert biotoxic effect to stimulate the proliferation of both male and female lung cancer cells in a dose- and time- response manner. New challenges from environmental hormones to lung cancer deserved further investigation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0091.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: cancer; lung cancer; leukemia; Daphne; Thapsia; daphnane diterpenes
Online: 13 February 2018 (07:08:47 CET)
Although several plant-derived drug groups (vinca alkaloids, taxanes, podophyllotoxin derivatives and camptothecins) continue to be widely used in cancer therapy, the anticancer potential of the Plant Kingdom remains largely unexplored. In this work, we have carried out a random screening for selective anticancer activity of 57 extracts from 45 plants collected in Grazalema Natural Park, an area in the South of Spain of high plant diversity and endemism. Using lung cancer cells (A549) and lung non-malignant cells (MRC-5), we found that several extracts were more cytotoxic and selective against the cancer cell line than the standard anticancer agent cisplatin. Five active extracts were further tested in cancer and normal cell lines from other tissues, including three skin cell lines with increasing degree of malignancy. An extract from the leaves of Daphne laureola L. (Thymelaeaceae) showed a striking potency and selectivity on lung cancer cells and leukemia cells; the IC50 values against these cancer cells were approximately 10000-fold lower than against the normal cells. Daphnane-type diterpene orthoesters may be responsible for this highly selective anticancer activity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0144.v1
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: MMP-1, EGFR-TKI resistance, lung adenocarcinoma, mTOR
Online: 16 January 2018 (13:57:04 CET)
Lung adenocarcinoma with EGFR-TKI (epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitor) resistance was reported to harbor higher ability of invasion and migration than those sensitive to EGFR-TKI, but the function of MMPs (matrix metalloproteinases) has not been explored in EGFR-TKI resistant lung adenocarcinoma. In this study, the correlation between immunohistochemical status of MMP-1 and clinicopathological factors were analyzed in 89 lung adenocarcinoma. We performed microarray, migration assay and invasion assay using EGFR-TKI sensitive cell lines and EGFR-TKI resistant cell lines. To clarify the mechanism of MMP-1 induction, we treated lung adenocarcinoma cells with EGF and rapamycin, performed phosphorylation antibody array and analyzed the correlation between MMP-1 expression and EGFR or mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) pathway. As a result, we firstly demonstrated that MMP-1 played an important role in migration and invasion abilities of EGFR-TKI resistant lung adenocarcinoma, and that mTOR pathway could be associated with an induction of MMP-1. We demonstrated the significant positive correlation between MMP-1 status in lung adenocarcinoma cells and the history of smoking, and the subtype of invasive mucinous adenocarcinoma. In conclusion, This study provides insights into the development of a possible alternative therapy manipulating MMP-1 and mTOR signaling pathway in EGFR-TKI resistant lung adenocarcinoma.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pathology & Pathobiology Keywords: coronavirus; COVID-19; viral reproduction; immune response; low temperature injury; lung damages; cold flu influenza; deep breathing exercises; diet; emotion stress; lifestyle
Online: 4 March 2020 (05:30:58 CET)
To understand great disparities in disease outcomes between CIVID-19 patients, we explore infection and host responses in kinetics. From existing data, we deduced a model that the lungs are damaged by rapidly rising flow resistance as a result of retaining white blood cells in lung tissues. The retention of white blood cells is initially triggered by viral infection but aggravated by injuries caused by low temperature. Lungs are initially damaged by fluid leakage, rapidly followed by extruding blood into alveolar spaces. The step of blood extruding is predicted to take place in a very short time. Our simulations show that as little as 0.1% retention of white blood cells in the lungs can lead to their failure in 5 to 10 days. The small degrees of imbalance implies that this imbalance could be corrected by a large number of factors that are known to reduce flow resistance. The model implies that the top priority is maintaining blood micro-circulation and preserving organ functions in the entire disease course, especially after the virus has spread the whole lungs. From exploring a large number of hypothetical infection modes, we propose preventive, mitigating and treatment strategies for ultimately ending the pandemic. The first strategy is avoiding exposures that could result in widespread damages to lungs and taking post exposure mitigating measures that would reduce disease severity. The second strategy is reducing death rate and disability rate from the current levels to one tenth for infected patients by using multiple factors health optimization method. The double reduction strategies are expected to generate a series of chain reactions that favor mitigating or ending the pandemic. Some reactions include a big reduction of the amount of viral discharges from infected patients into the air, the avoidance of panic, chronic stress and emotional distress, and cross-infections which are expected in quarantines. The double reductions would have a final effect of ending the pandemic.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pathology & Pathobiology Keywords: coronavirus COVID-19; SARS; MERS; viral reproduction; immune response; lung infection influenza; deep breathing; diet; emotional stress; lifestyle
Online: 23 March 2020 (06:34:44 CET)
We conducted many model simulations to understand the causes of the damages of coronavirus (COVID-19) to lung tissue and constructed a diagram showing apparent viral reproduction, immune response and damage accumulation curves. We found that lung damages include virus-caused damage, tissue damage caused by immune responses and tissue damage caused by accumulated wastes. The virus-caused damage is proportional to the phase lag between the viral reproduction curve and the delayed adaptive immune response curve, while waste-induced damage is attributed to imbalance in removing viral, cellular and metabolic by-products. We found that treatment strategies should slow down viral reproduction and speed up immune response, and improve blood micro-circulation in the lungs. Consistent with the strategies, measures are taken to void direct lung infection, strengthen innate responses, promote immune responses, dilute viral concentration in lung tissue, maintain waste removal balance, protect heart and kidneys, control other infections, avoid allergic reactions and other inflammation, etc. We show that medical, dietary, emotional, lifestyle, environmental, mechanical factors, etc. may be simultaneously used to mitigate lung damages and prove that multiple factor health optimization method is magnitudes more powerful than a single factor treatment. Such a method does not depend on molecular specificity and can be used in parallel to antiviral drugs.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0437.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Corticosteroids; Glucocorticoids; Solid organ transplantation; Liver; Kidney; Heart; Lung
Online: 16 June 2021 (10:30:41 CEST)
Glucocorticoids (GCs) have been the mainstay of immunosuppressive therapy in solid organ transplantation (SOT) for decades due to their potent effects on the innate immunity and tissue protective effects. But, some SOT centers are reluctant to administer GCs for long-time due to the various side effects. This review summarizes advantages and disadvantages of GCs in SOT. PubMed and Scopus databases were searched from 2011 to April 2021 using search syntaxes cover “transplantation” and “glucocorticoids”.GCs are used in transplant recipients, transplant donors, and organ perfusate solution to improve transplant outcomes. In SOT recipients GCs are administered as induction and maintenance immunosuppressive therapy. GCs are also the cornerstone to treat acute anti-body- and T-cell-mediated rejections. Addition of GCs to organ perfusate solution and pretreatment of transplant donors with GCs are recommended by some guidelines and protocols to reduce ischemia-reperfusion injury peri-transplant. GCs with low bioavailability and high potency for GC receptors such as budesonide, nanoparticle-mediated targeted delivery of GCs to specific organs, and combination use of dexamethasone with inducers of immune-regulatory cells are new methods of GC usage in SOT patients to reduce side effects or induce immune-tolerance instead of immunosuppression. Various side effects on different non-targeted organs/tissues such as bone, cardiovascular, neuromuscular, skin, and gastrointestinal tract have been noted for GCs. There are also potential drug-drug interactions for GCs in SOT patients.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0229.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: COVID-19; pneumonia; low-dose whole-lung irradiation; SpO2
Online: 10 September 2020 (08:36:57 CEST)
Purpose: Novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is the current global concern. Radiotherapy (RT), commonly employed in cancer management, has been considered one of the potential treatments for COVID-19 pneumonia. Here, we present the final report of the pilot trial evaluating the efficacy and safety of low-dose whole-lung irradiation (LD-WLI) in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia. Methods and Materials: We enrolled patients with moderate COVID-19 pneumonia who were older than 60 years. Participants were treated with LD-WLI in a single fraction of 0.5 or 1.0Gy along with the national protocol of COVID-19. The primary endpoints were improvement of SpO2, the number of hospital/ICU stay days, and the number of intubations after RT and the secondary endpoints were alterations of the c-reactive peptide, interleukin-6, ferritin, procalcitonin, and D-dimer. The response rate (RR) was defined as a rise in SpO2 upon RT with rising or constant trend in the next two days, and clinical recovery (CR) included patients who were discharged from the hospital or acquired SpO2 ≥93% on room air. Results: Between 21 May 2020 and 2 July 2020, ten patients were enrolled. The median age was 75 years, 80% were male, and 80% had comorbidities. The first five patients received a single 0.5Gy-WLI, and others received 1.0Gy. Patients were followed for 2-14 days (median 5.5 days). Following one day, nine patients experienced an improvement in SpO2. Five patients were discharged (median 6th day, range 2nd-14th day), and four patients died (median 7th day, range 3rd-10th day). Overall, the RR and CR were 60.0% and 55.5%, respectively. The RR and CR rates of 0.5- and 1.0Gy group were 80% vs 40% and 75% vs 40%, respectively. No acute radiation-induced toxicity was recorded. Conclusions: LD-WLI with a single 0.5Gy fraction seems to be a more appropriate dose to warrant further evaluation in a large-scale, randomized trial.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0135.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: air pollution; soot; particulate matter; lung inflammation; functional groups
Online: 5 August 2020 (15:39:00 CEST)
Air pollution has become the world’s single biggest environmental health risk of the past decade, causing about 7 million yearly deaths worldwide. One of the dominant air pollutants is fine particulate matter (PM2.5), a product of combustion. Exposure to PM2.5 has been associated with decreased lung function, impaired immunity, and exacerbations of lung disease. Accumulating evidence suggests that many of the adverse health effects of PM2.5 exposure are associated with lung inflammation and oxidative stress. While the physical structure and surface chemistry of PM2.5 are surrogate measures of particle oxidative potential, little is known about their contributions to negative health effects. In this study, we used functionalized carbon black particles as surrogates for atmospherically aged combustion formed soot to assess the effects of PM2.5 surface chemistry in lung cells. We exposed the BEAS-2B lung epithelial cell line to different soot at a range of concentrations, and assessed cell viability, inflammation, and oxidative stress. Our results indicate that exposure to soot with varying particle surface composition results in differential cell viability rates, expression of pro-inflammatory and oxidative stress genes, and protein carbonylation. We conclude that particle surface chemistry, specifically oxygen content, in soot modulates lung cell inflammatory and oxidative stress responses.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0126.v1
Online: 10 June 2020 (05:12:20 CEST)
Lung cancer predominates in cancer-related deaths worldwide, with lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) being a common histological subtype of lung cancer. The aim at this study was to search for biomarkers associated with the progression and prognosis of LUAD. We have integrated the expression profiles of 1174 lung cancer patients from five GEO datasets (GSE18842, GSE19804, GSE30219, GSE40791 and GSE68465) and identified a set of differentially expressed genes. Functional enrichment analysis showed that these genes are closely related to the progression of LUAD, such as cell cycle, mitosis and adhesion. Cytoscape software was used to establish a protein-protein interaction (PPI) network to analyze important modules using Molecular Complex Detection (MCODE), and finally CCNB1, BUB1B and TTK were selected for further study. The study found that compared with non-tumor lung tissue, CCNB1, BUB1B and TTK are highly expressed in LUAD. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that CCNB1, BUB1B and TTK were negatively correlated with the overall survival and disease-free survival of patients. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) demonstrated that for the samples of any hub gene highly expressed, most of the functional gene sets enriched in cell cycle. In summary, CCNB1, BUB1B and TTK can be used as biomarkers of poor prognosis of LUAD. The high expression of CCNB1, BUB1B and TTK can accelerate the progression of LUAD and lead to shorter survival, suggesting that they may be potential targets for treatment in LUAD.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0033.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: Nicotine; carcinogenesis; growth; toxicity; Carcinoma; Non-Small-Cell Lung
Online: 4 June 2020 (12:14:49 CEST)
Nicotine exposure may affect NSCLC is associated with lung cancer in humans. Whether nicotine exhibits carcinogenesis promoted activities in tumor growth still unknown. Nicotine is known to have dichotomous effects on cancer biology, acting like a pro- or anti-carcinogenesis agent. There are different functions between adenocarcinoma and squamous NSCLC cancer cells. Excess generation of nicotine may inhibit mitochondrial metabolism, protein modification, and DNA cleavage. Materials and Methods: We used the H520 NSCLC line obtained from human lung epithelial cells to detected nicotine growth and toxicity using MTT assay and western blotting. The concentration of nicotine stimulated cell growth to correspond to low concentration, while high concentration was cytotoxic. Results: According to MTT assay results, at 1.0 μM nicotine has significantly enhanced the H520 cell viability (%). Nicotine induced lung cancer carcinogenesis through mechanisms of α7nAchR, EGFR, HDAC2/4/5, Cyclin D/Cyclin E, Bcl-2, p-Akt, and inflammatory proteins of NF-KappaB and COX2 increases at 1.0 μM. Apoptosis proteins were decreases at 1.0 μM nicotine by p21, p27, c-jun, and p38α using western blotting. Nicotine stimulates tumor growth is mediated through α7nicotinic-acetylcholine receptors (α7nAChR), possibly involving inflammation. On the other hand, at high nicotine concentrations (> 1.0 μM) with consistent cytotoxic effects and appeared to be due to direct cell kill. Nicotine can prevent apoptosis induced by NSCLC. Conclusion: Therefore, the effects on chemotherapeutics by NSCLC malignant cell lines, nicotine in concentrations as low as 1.0 μM decreased. These mechanisms are responsible for the genotoxic effects caused by nicotine. This leads to downstream effects on decreased apoptosis, increased cell proliferation and transformation. The malignant NSCLC cells respond to the treatment with nicotine in lung cancer, the nicotine-mediated induction of growth may provide one of its links to α7nAchR or EGFR.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0103.v1
Subject: Keywords: lung adenocarcinoma; papillary thyroid carcinoma; mediastinal lymph nodes; lymphadenectomy
Online: 7 May 2020 (02:30:36 CEST)
In the surgical treatment of lung cancer, systemic mediastinal lymph node dissection, as one important routine procedure, has been accepted by most peers in the world. However, due to the special location of some mediastinal lymph nodes, the difficulty of dissection, and the negative preoperative CT results, the specific scope of lymph node dissection is still controversial. Especially the second group, which is located at the top of thorax, is likely to be overlooked for the above reasons. Here, we report a case of lung adenocarcinoma in which the preoperative CT showed no abnormal lymph nodes in the second group and also no enlarged lymph nodes of the second group were found during the surgery, yet lymphadenectomy was still performed according the routine with the lymph node of station 2 being sampled. In the postoperative pathological report, cancer cells were found in the second group, instead of lung adenocarcinoma, these cells come from thyroid and were proved to be papillary thyroid carcinoma, which is unusual because no obvious indication of thyroid carcinoma was found in preoperative color doppler ultrasound of superficial lymph nodes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0221.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Cancer; cytochrome c; drug delivery; Lewis Lung Carcinoma; nanoprecipitation
Online: 14 April 2020 (14:27:15 CEST)
The delivery of Cytochrome c (Cyt c) to the cytosol stimulates apoptosis in cells were its release from mitochondria and apoptosis induction is inhibited. We developed a drug delivery system consisting of Cyt c nanoparticles decorated with folate-poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)-thiol (FA-PEG-PLGA-SH) to deliver Cyt c into cancer cells and test their targeting in the Lewis Lung Carcinoma (LLC) mouse model. Cyt c-PLGA-PEG-FA nanoparticles (NPs) of 253 ± 55 and 354 ± 11 nm were obtained by Cyt c nanoprecipitation, followed by surface decoration with the co-polymer SH-PLGA-PEG-FA, and compared to a nanoparticle-free formulation. Overexpression of FA in LLC cells and internalization of Cyt c-PLGA-PEG-FA nanoparticles (NPs) was confirmed by confocal microscopy. Caspase activation assays show NPs retain 88-96% Cyt c activity. The NP formulations were more efficient in decreasing LLC cell viability than the NP-free formulation, with IC50: 49.2 to 70.1 μg/ml versus 129.5 μg/ml, respectively. Our NP system is thrice as selective towards cancerous than normal cells. In-vivo studies using tagged nanoparticles show accumulation in mouse LLC tumor 5 min post-injection. In conclusion, our NP delivery system for Cyt c shows superiority over the NP-free formulation and reaches a folic acid-overexpressing tumor in an immune-competent animal model.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0426.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: Ginsenoside Rh2; Lipopolysaccharide; Acute lung injury; MEK; Nrf-2;
Online: 23 July 2018 (13:05:06 CEST)
The anti-inflammatory effect of ginsenoside Rh2 (GRh2) is one of the most important ginsenosides. The purpose of this study is to identify the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of GRh2 after LPS challenge lung injury animal model. GRh2 reduced LPS-induced NO, TNF-α, IL-1, IL-4, IL-6 and IL-10 productions in lung tissues. GRh2 treatment decreased the histological alterations in the lung tissues and BALF protein content and total cells number also diminished in LPS-induced lung injury mice. Moreover, GRh2 blocked iNOS, COX-2, the phosphorylation of IκB-α, ERK, JNK, p38, Raf-1 and MEK protein expression which is corresponded to the growth of HO-1, Nrf-2, catalase, SOD and GPx expressions in LPS-induce lung injury. An experimental study has suggested that GRh2 has provided with anti-inflammatory effects in vivo, and its potential therapeutic efficacy in major anterior segment lung diseases.