ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0359.v1
Online: 19 August 2022 (05:52:42 CEST)
Dengue Fever (DF) is an important arthropod-borne viral infection, which has repeatedly oc-curred as outbreaks in eastern and northeastern Ethiopia since 2013. A cross-sectional epidemio-logical outbreak investigation was carried out from September - November 2019 on febrile pa-tients (confirmed malaria negative) who presented with suspected and confirmed DF at both public and private health facilities in Gewane District, Afar Region, northeastern Ethiopia. Ento-mological investigation of containers found in randomly selected houses belonging to DF positive patients was undertaken, to survey for the presence of Aedes larvae or pupae. A total of 1185 DF cases was recorded from six heath facilities during the 3-month study period. The mean age of DF cases was 27.2 years and 42.7% of the cases were female. The most affected age group was 15-49 years (78.98%). However, the attack rate (AR) was highest in the 49+ age group (134.2). A total of 162 artificial containers were inspected from 62 houses, with 49.4% found positive for Aedes larva/pupae. Aedes mosquitoes were mostly found breeding in buckets/bowls, clay jars, plastic tanks, and tires. World Health Organization entomological indices classified the study site as high risk for dengue outbreaks (House Index=45.2%, Container Index=49.4% and Breteau In-dex=129). Study findings highlight the importance of vector control to prevent future dengue out-breaks in the region. The scarcity of drinking water and changing climactic conditions may have also contributed to the occurrence of this outbreak.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0345.v1
Subject: Biology, Entomology Keywords: insecticide-treated nets (ITN); pyrethroid; mosquito; strain characterisation; insecticide resistance; method development; durability monitoring; product evaluation; quality control (QC); dual active ingredients (dual-AI); bioefficacy
Online: 25 March 2022 (14:12:38 CET)
Durability monitoring of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) containing a pyrethroid in combination with a second active ingredient (AI) must be adapted so that the insecticidal bioefficacy of each AI can be monitored independently. An effective way to do this is to measure rapid knock down of a pyrethroid-susceptible strain of mosquitoes to assess the bioefficacy of the pyrethroid component and to use a pyrethroid-resistant strain to measure the bioefficacy of the second ingredient. To allow robust comparison of results across tests within and between test facilities, and over time, protocols for bioefficacy testing must include either characterisation of the resistant strain, standardisation of the mosquitoes used for bioassays, or a combination of the two. Through a series of virtual meetings, key stakeholders and practitioners explored different approaches to achieving these goals. Via an iterative process we decided on the preferred approach and produced a protocol consisting of characterising mosquitoes used for bioefficacy testing before and after a round of bioassays, for example at each time point in a durability monitoring study. We present the final protocol and justify our approach to establishing a standard methodology for durability monitoring of ITNs containing pyrethroid and a second AI.