Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: Deep Learning; Reducing Training Annotations per Image; Object Detection; Object Counting; Asymmetric Loss Function
Online: 15 January 2021 (15:44:51 CET)
Annotating training data is a time consuming and labor intensive process in deep learning, especially for images with many objects present. In this paper, we propose a method to allow deep networks to be trained on data with reduced numbers of annotations (per image) in heatmap regression tasks (e.g. object detection and counting), by applying an asymmetric loss function. In a real scenario, this reduction of annotations can be imposed by the researchers (e.g. ask the annotators to label only 50% of what they see in each image), or can potentially counteract unintentionally missing labels from the annotators. To demonstrate the effectiveness of our method, we conduct experiments in two domains, crowd counting and wheat spikelet detection, using different deep network architecture. We drop various percentages of instance annotations per image in training. Results show that an asymmetric loss function is effective across different models and datasets, even in very extreme cases with limited annotations provided (e.g. 90% of the original annotations reduced). Whilst tuning of the key parameters are required, we find that setting conservative parameter values can help more realistic situations, where only small amounts of data have been missed by annotators.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0222.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Probability And Statistics Keywords: Maximum likelihood estimate; Bayes estimate; Gamma distribution; Squared error loss function; Posterior distribution
Online: 10 August 2021 (09:54:48 CEST)
The power function distribution is a flexible waiting time model that may provide better fit for some failure data. This paper presents the comparison of the maximum likelihood estimates and the Bayes estimates of two-parameter power function distribution. The Bayes estimates are obtained, using conjugate priors, under five loss functions consist of square error, precautionary, weighted, LINEX and DeGroot loss function. The Gibbs sampling algorithm is proposed to generate samples from posterior distributions and in result the Bayes estimates are computed. The comparison of the maximum likelihood estimates and the Bayes estimates are done through the root mean squared errors. One real-life data set is analyzed to illustrate the evaluation of proposed methods of estimation. Finally, results from the simulation are discussed to assess the performance behavior of the maximum likelihood estimates and the Bayes estimates.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0093.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Polymers & Plastics Keywords: unidirectional fibrous composites, interphase, storage/loss modulus, loss factor, frequency, glass transition.
Online: 7 December 2018 (17:07:22 CET)
Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) is a versatile technique that complements the information given by the more traditional thermal analysis techniques such as differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and thermal mechanical analysis (TMA). Dynamic constants such as storage modulus, loss modulus, and loss factor are temperature dependent and provide information about interfacial bonding between reinforced fibre and polymer matrix of composite material. To study the above mentioned properties at the glass transition region, for unidirectional fibrous composites reinforced with continuous fibers a reliable model was applied. In particular, the composite material was considered as composed of three phases with the intermediate phase between matrix and fibres, the interphase, to have variable properties depending on those of main phases and the mode of preparation of the overall material. The glass transition temperature is defined as the point at which the specific volume versus temperature curve changes abruptly slope marking the region between rubbery polymer and glassy polymer nature. Hence, the behaviour of unidirectional fibrous composites was investigated at this region. Examination of the glass transition temperature, which constitutes an upper limit for the structurally important glassy region through the loss factor, was performed by its consideration as a combination of glass transition temperature of matrix and interphase.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0456.v1
Subject: Biology, Physiology Keywords: Mediterranean Diet; weight loss; determinants of health; healthy lifestyle; clinically significant weight loss
Online: 29 July 2022 (09:52:36 CEST)
Evidence indicates that unhealthy eating habits constitute multilevel obstacles threatening our health and well-being—studies suggesting that consumer choices turn irremovably towards Western diets. Mediterranean diets (MD) have been identified as one of the most effective in preventing and treating overweight and obesity. Considering this scientific substantiation in prevention and treatment activity, the purpose of this investigation is to verify this evidence. In our prospective interventional study, we examined the effect of MD on body weight in a female cohort sample. The analyzed group consisted of (n=181) females divided into three distinct groups based on their age (tricenarian, quadragenarian, and quinquagenarian). Anthropometric (weight, BMI, FATP, VFATL, FFM, TBW, and BMR), biochemical examinations (urea, creatinine, uric acid, ALT, AST, GGT, CHOL, HDL-CH, non-HDL, LDL-CH, TAG, GLU, and CRP) and comprehensive, personalized three months MD program was completed on the examined subjects. We didn’t establish convincing evidence of MD on weight reduction and its magnitude of correlation with a positive correspondence on selected determinants in all groups combined. There is a challenge to construct more robust prospective cohort studies that will incorporate add-on critical integrands that will be appropriate to monitor, evaluate and predict weight management in experimenting.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201702.0045.v1
Online: 14 February 2017 (03:08:37 CET)
Biodiversity has become an issue of global anxiety over the past decades due to its rapid decline worldwide. Bangladesh as one of the most densely populated countries in the world is no more exception. The country, although, was once very rich in biodiversity, during the last few decades as a consequence of the rapid reduction in forest area, urbanisation, habitat modification, unsustainable natural resources use and collection and overall climate change it has decreased alarmingly. Of late, the government, as a signatory of various regional and international conservation treaties, has taken various initiatives to improve country’s dwindling biodiversity. This paper reviews the present situation of biodiversity in Bangladesh, management trends and major causes of biodiversity loss. A separate statutory body is fundamental to ensure conservation, sustainable use and equitable sharing of benefits arisen from biodiversity in the country.
Subject: Keywords: hearing loss; aging; hyperactivity; excitability; loss of inhibition; neurophysiology; auditory perception; neural plasticity; speech processing
Online: 15 April 2021 (13:34:54 CEST)
Many aging adults experience some form of hearing problems that may arise from auditory peripheral damage. However, it has been increasingly acknowledged that hearing loss is not only a dysfunction of the auditory periphery but results from changes within the entire auditory system, from periphery to cortex. Damage to the auditory periphery is associated with an increase in neural activity at various stages throughout the auditory pathway. Here, we review neurophysiological evidence of hyperactivity, auditory perceptual difficulties that may result from hyperactivity, and outline open conceptual and methodological questions related to the study of hyperactivity. We suggest that hyperactivity alters all aspects of hearing – including spectral, temporal, spatial hearing – and, in turn, impairs speech comprehension when background sound is present. By focusing on the perceptual consequences of hyperactivity and the potential challenges of investigating hyperactivity in humans, we hope to bring animal and human electrophysiologists closer together to better understand hearing problems in older adulthood.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0310.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Behavioral Neuroscience Keywords: olfactory loss; parosmia; food liking; cooking
Online: 24 May 2022 (02:59:57 CEST)
Olfactory dysfunction affects often has severe consequences on patients’ quality of life. The most common complaint in these patients is their reduced enjoyment of food in both patients with olfactory loss and parosmia. How the different types of olfactory dysfunction differ in relation to food and cooking habits, sensory awareness, and food-related quality of life has not yet received much attention. By applying questionnaires on cooking, food, olfactory function, weight changes, sensory awareness, and food-related quality of life, we investigate how various aspects of eating differ between participants with olfactory loss (n=271), parosmia(n=251), and normosmic controls(n=166). Cooking habits in olfactory dysfunction revealed pronounced differences as compared with normosmic controls. Cooking with olfactory dysfunction was associated with e.g., a lack of comfort and inspiration for cooking and an inability to make new foods successfully. Significant differences in cooking were also found between olfactory loss and parosmia. Food items were less familiar in participants with olfactory loss and parosmia, while the ratings of liking food items differed between olfactory loss and parosmia, indicating the importance of adapting ingredients in meals separately for olfactory loss and parosmia. Parosmia was associated with a higher incidence of weight loss, but we found no difference in the food-related quality of life between participants with olfactory loss and parosmia. While olfactory loss and parosmia have wide-ranging consequences on patients’ cooking and food habits, adapting meals to include ‘safer food items’ and integrating multisensory stimulation may be a possible avenue for improving the enjoyment of food.
Online: 26 September 2020 (14:20:53 CEST)
Rapeseed (Brassica napus) is one of the most important oil crops in the world; however, drought significantly curtails its growth and productivity. Identifying drought-tolerant germplasm is an efficient and low-cost strategy for addressing water shortages. Using water loss ratio (WLR) as an index of drought tolerance, we screened a panel of 265 B. napus lines. We identified eight low-WLR and six high-WLR accessions, which were regarded as drought-tolerant and drought-sensitive, respectively. Further validated these selected accessions at the seedling stage under drought-stress conditions. The drought-tolerant accessions had significantly greater fresh and dry weights under drought stress than the drought sensitive accessions. Using RT-qPCR, we showed that a set of previously reported drought-adaptive marker genes were expressed at higher levels in the drought-tolerant lines than in the drought-sensitive lines. These results indicated that the drought-tolerant genotypes could be identified from natural populations using WLR. Then, we performed a genome-wide association study to identify loci harboring single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). A total of 139 SNPs were significantly associated with the WLR, of which chromosome A10 harbored the largest number. Furthermore, four putative candidate genes were selected by combining the SNP–WLR association results and transcriptional expression data with the changes in drought tolerance. Thus, we have identified two drought-tolerant B. napus cultivars and uncovered genome-wide variation differentiating B. napus lines related to WLR, in addition to providing insights for further research into WLR-related drought mechanisms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0155.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: electrical machine; field weakening; IEM-formula; wind energy; iron loss; synchronous generator; equivalent circuit; harmonic loss
Online: 24 October 2017 (04:52:15 CEST)
During flux weakening operation time (FWOT), the total iron loss rises and affects the accuracy of loss prediction and efficiency especially if a large range of FWOT exists. Iron loss prediction is widely employed in investigations for a fast electrical machine analysis using 2-D FEA. This paper studies harmonic loss analytically by a steady-state equivalent circuit. Consideration of skin effects and iron saturation are utilized in order to examine the accuracy through the relative error distribution in the frequency domain of each model from 50 to 700 Hz. Additionally, this comparative study presents a torque-frequency-flux density calculation over each single term of the modified IEM-formula. The analytical calculation is performed using 2-D FEA for a classic and modified IEM-formula along with experimental verifications on a surface-mounted PMSG for a wind generation application.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0094.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Phyllanthaceae; Phyllanthus; Leptopus; transition and transversion substitutions; chloroplast genome; phylogenetic; polymorphic loci; rps16 loss; atpF intron loss
Online: 5 July 2021 (12:03:13 CEST)
Family Phyllanthaceae is one of the largest segregates of the eudicot order Malpighiales and its species are herb, shrub, and tree, which are mostly distributed in tropical regions. Certain taxonomic discrepancies exist at genus and family level. Here, we report chloroplast genomes of three Phyllanthaceae species—Phyllanthus emblica, Flueggea virosa, and Leptopus cordifolius— and compare them with six others previously reported Phyllanthaceae chloroplast genomes. The species of Phyllanthaceae displayed quadripartite structure, comprising inverted repeat regions (IRa and IRb) that separate large single copy (LSC) and small single copy (SSC) regions. The length of complete chloroplast genome ranged from 154,707 bp to 161,093 bp; LSC from 83,627 bp to 89,932 bp; IRs from 23,921 bp to 27,128 bp; and SSC from 17,424 bp to 19,441 bp. Chloroplast genomes contained 111 to 112 unique genes, including 77 to 78 protein-coding, 30 transfer RNA (tRNA), and 4 ribosomal RNA (rRNA) that showed similarities in arrangement. The number of protein-coding genes varied due to deletion/pseudogenization of rps16 genes in Baccaurea ramiflora and Leptopus cordifolius. High variability was seen in number of oligonucleotide repeats while analysis of guanine-cytosine (GC) content, codon usage, amino acid frequency, simple sequence repeats analysis, synonymous and non-synonymous substitutions, and transition and transversion substitutions showed similarities in all Phyllanthaceae species. We detected a higher number of transition substitutions in the coding sequences than non-coding sequences. Moreover, the high number of transition substitutions was determined among the distantly related species in comparison to closely related species. Phylogenetic analysis shows the polyphyletic nature of the genus Phyllanthus which requires further verification. We also determined suitable polymorphic coding genes, including rpl22, ycf1, matK, ndhF, and rps15 which may be helpful for the reconstruction of the high-resolution phylogenetic tree of the family Phyllanthaceae using a large number of species in the future. Overall, the current study provides insight into chloroplast genome evolution in Phyllanthaceae.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0191.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: stocks portfolio; loss risk; heteroscedastic; VaR; backtesting
Online: 9 October 2020 (09:04:18 CEST)
Stocks portfolio is a form of investment that can be used to minimize the risk of loss. In a stock portfolio, the value at risk (VaR) can be predicted through the portfolio return. If portfolio return variance is heteroscedastic risk prediction can be done by using VaR with ARIMA-GARCH or Ensemble ARIMA-GARCH model approach. Furthermore, the accuracy of VaR is tested through backtesting test. In this study, the portfolio formed from Astra Agro Lestari Ltd (AALI) and Indofood Ltd (INDF) stocks from 10/02/2012 to 10/01/2019. The results showed that the best model is ARIMA(0,0,)-GARCH(1,2) with AIC of -5.604 and MSE 1.874e-07.At confidence level of 95% and 1 day holding period, the VaR of the ARIMA(0,0,)-GARCH(1,2) was -0.3464. Based on the backtesting test, it is proven to be very accurate to predict the value of loss risk because the value of the violation ratio (VR) is equal to 0.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0368.v8
Subject: Keywords: gravity; hidden variables; information loss problem; completeness, cosmological constant problem
Online: 6 May 2020 (15:43:39 CEST)
We study a localization of gravity through the matching point between non-inertial frames and local inertial frames. This localization of gravity is done through defining relative gravitational red-shift. This lead to an emergence of a timeless state in a mathematically consistent way. In this timeless state of gravity, we find a geometric interpretation of the speed of light and mass. The experimental support of the timeless state is the quantum entanglement and internal symmetries that are independent of time. Therefore gravity would be responsible for measurements independent of time including quantum entanglement. Timeless state in that sense explain why do we have gravity/gauge correspondence. We conjecture that the universe emerged from a black hole with a global $SU(3)\times SU(2)\times U(1)$ symmetry on its event horizon that produces gauge fields Electromagnetism, weak and strong nuclear force through localization of this global symmetry. Through the localization in the gravity field, the timeless measurements such as spin will be correlated with the varying of timeless measurement which is relative gravitational red-shift. We present a gravitational or geometric interpretation of spin-0, spin-1, and spin-1/2 states. We present an interpretation of why do we measure matter rather than anti-matter. We found that the Higgs scalar field is represented by the gravitational red-shift at every point in the space around the black hole. We derive the numerical value of the cosmological constant that agrees with experimental observations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0200.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: vitamin D; obesity; weight-loss; body composition
Online: 12 April 2020 (16:44:13 CEST)
Background: Vitamin D was studied in regards to its possible impact on body mass reduction and metabolic changes in adults and children with obesity yet there were no studies assessing the impact of vitamin D supplementation during a weight management programme in children and adolescence. The aim of our study was to assess the influence of 26 weeks of vitamin D supplementation in overweight and obese children undergoing an integrated 12-months’ long weight loss programme on body mass reduction, body composition and bone mineral density. Methods: A double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial. Vitamin D deficient patients ( <30 ng/ml level of vitamin D) aged 6-14, participating in multidisciplinary weight management programme were randomly allocated to receiving vitamin D (1200 IU) or placebo for the first 26 weeks of the intervention. Results: Out of the 152 qualified patients, 109 (72%) completed a full cycle of four visits scheduled in the programme. There were no difference in the level of BMI change. Although the reduction was greater in the vitamin D vs. placebo group (-4.28 ± 8.43 vs. -2.53 ±6.10) the difference was not statistically significant (p=0.319). Similarly the reduction in fat mass – assessed both using bioimpedance and DEXa was achieved, yet the differences between the groups were not statistically significant. Conclusions: Our study ads substantial results to support the thesis on no effect of vitamin D supplementation on body weight reduction in children and adolescents with vitamin D insufficiency undergoing a weight management programme. Trial registration no: NCT 02828228; trial registration date: 8 June 2016 registered in: ClinicalTrials.gov.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0505.v1
Subject: Biology, Animal Sciences & Zoology Keywords: mitochondria dysfunction; reactive oxygen species; hypoxic; D-galactose; high fat diet; aging; hearing loss; mechanisms of hearing loss
Online: 22 July 2020 (07:58:12 CEST)
Age-related hearing loss (ARHL) is the most common sensory disorder in the elderly. It is associated with aging and hair cell death due to oxidative stress-induced mitochondrial dysfunction. Although transgenic mice and long-term cultures for induction of aging have been used to study ARHL, there are presently no ARHL animal models stimulated by intermittent environmental change for aging. In this study, an ARHL animal model was established by inducing continuous oxidative stress to promote short-term aging of cells, determined based on the expression of the hearing loss-induced phenotype and aging related factors in the short term. The incidence of hearing loss was significantly different among the groups subjected to intermittent hypoxic environment, high-fat diet (HFD), and injection with D-galactose. Continuous oxidative stress and HFD were factors that accelerated cellular aging. Increase in UCP2 affected oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. CDH23, SLC26A4, KCNQ4, Myo7a, and Myo6, which are ARHL-related factors, were modified by oxidative stress in cells of the hearing organ. We found that intermittent hypoxic, HFD, and galactose injection accelerated cellular aging in the short term. Thus, we anticipate that the development of this hearing loss animal model, which reflects intermittent environmental changes, will benefit future research on ARHL.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0401.v1
Subject: Keywords: PV array configurations; Partial shading conditions; Performance assessment; Maximum Power Generation; Mismatch power loss; Relative power loss; Fill factor
Online: 27 October 2021 (11:32:30 CEST)
Partial shading on solar photovoltaic (PV) arrays is a prevalent problem in photovoltaic systems that impair the performance of PV modules and is responsible for reduced power output as compared to that in standard irradiance conditions thereby resulting in the appearance of multiple maximas on panel output power characteristics. These maxims contribute to mismatch power losses among PV modules. The mismatch losses depend on shading characteristics together with different interconnected configuration schemes of PV modules. The research presents a comparative analysis of partial shading effects on a 4 x4 PV array system connected in series(S), parallel (P), serries-parallel (SP),total-cross-tied (TCT),central-cross-tied(CCT),bridge-linked(BL),bridge-linked total cross-tied (BLTCT) ,honey-comb(HC), honey-comb total-cross-tied (HCTCT) and ladder (LD) configurations using MATLAB/Simulink. The PV module SPR-X20-250-BLK was used for modeling and simulation analysis. Each module is comprised of 72 number of PV cells and a combination of 16 PV modules was employed for the contextual analysis. Accurate mathematical modeling for the HCTCT configuration under partial shading conditions (PSCs) is provided for the first time and is verified from the simulation. The different configuration schemes were investigated under short-narrow,short-wide,long-narrow,long-wide, diagonal, entire row distribution, and entire column distribution partial shading condition patterns with mathematical implementation and simulation of passing clouds. The performance of array configurations is compared in terms of maximum power generated ), mismatch power loss (∆), relative power loss ) and the fill factor (FF). It was inferred that on average, TCT configuration yielded maximum power generation under all shading patterns among all PV modules interconnection configurations with minimum mismatch power losses followed by hybrid and conventional PV array configurations respectively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0185.v2
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: desert locusts; control; crop loss; pastureland; land cover
Online: 6 December 2021 (15:29:48 CET)
The desert locust remains a major threat to global food security. Control operations are a crucial tool to manage crisis; this research investigated the nature of control operations conducted between 2019-2021. Historical data on desert locust and control operations were obtained from the survey reports at the FAO Locust Hub and analysed with respect to survey reports, land cover types, cropland/rangeland extent and crop productivity data. We found that 16.1% of the grid cells with locust presence and 14.9% of the grid cells with control operations had a proportion of rangeland higher than 0.75; while 13.3% of the grid cells with locust presence and 13.2% of the grid cells with control operations had a proportion of croplands higher than 0.75, highlighting that locust presence and control operations were reported in both rangeland and cropland. Control operations continue to be used both to reduce overall locust numbers and to protect crops. Furthermore, through identifying which crops were most at risk, our analyses indicate that wheat production was under the highest strain during periods of increased locust infestations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0030.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Genetics Keywords: Meniere Disease; cytokines; WGBS; Hearing Loss; DNA methylation
Online: 1 October 2021 (16:03:48 CEST)
Meniere Disease (MD) is a multifactorial disorder of the inner ear characterized by vertigo attacks associated with sensorineural hearing loss and tinnitus with a significant heritability. Although MD has been associated with several genes, no epigenetic studies have been performed in MD. Here we performed whole genome bisulfite sequencing in 14 MD patients and 6 healthy controls, with the aim of identifying a MD methylation signature and potential disease mechanisms. We observed a high number of differentially methylated CpGs (DMC) when comparing MD patients to controls (N= 9,545), several of them in hearing loss genes such as PCDH15, ADGRV1 and CDH23. Bioinformatic analyses of DMCs and cis-regulatory regions predicted phenotypes related to abnormal excitatory postsynaptic currents, abnormal NMDA-mediated receptor currents and abnormal glutamate-mediated receptor currents when comparing MD to controls. Moreover, we identified various DMCs in genes previously associated with cochleovestibular phenotypes in mice. We have also found 12 undermethylated regions (UMR) that were exclusive to MD, including 2 UMR in an inter CpG island in the PHB gene. We suggest that the DNA methylation signature allows to distinguish between MD patients and controls. The enrichment analysis confirms previous findings of a chronic inflammatory process underlying MD.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0162.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Clinical Neurology Keywords: vertigo; migraine; cytokines; inflammation; vestibular disorders; hearing loss
Online: 6 August 2021 (12:29:43 CEST)
Background: Meniere disease (MD) is an inner ear disorder associated with comorbidities such as autoimmune diseases or migraine. This study describes clinical and cytokine profile in MD according to the age of onset of the condition. Methods: A cross-sectional study including 83 MD patients: 44 with early onset MD (EOMD, <35 years old), and 39 with late onset MD (LOMD, > 50 years old), 64 patients with migraine and 55 controls was carried out. Clinical variables and cytokines levels of CCL3, CCL4, CCL18, CCL22, CXCL1 and IL-1β were compared among the different groups. Results: CCL18 levels were higher in patients with migraine or MD than in controls. Elevated levels of IL-1β were observed in 11.4% EOMD and in 10.3% LOMD patients and these levels were not dependent on the age of individuals. EOMD had a longer duration of the disease (p=0.004) and a higher prevalence of migraine than LOMD (p=0.045). Conclusions: Patients with EOMD have a higher prevalence of migraine than LOMD, but migraine is not associated with any cytokine profile in patients with MD. The levels of CCL18, CCL3 and CXCL4 were different between patients with MD or migraine and controls.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0712.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: Pricing, loss networks, Markov decision processes, blocking probability.
Online: 27 April 2021 (12:32:37 CEST)
Congestion pricing has received lots of attention in the scientific discussion. Congestion pricing means that the operator increases prices at the time of congestion and the traffic demand is expected to decrease. In a certain sense, shadow prices are an optimal way of congestion pricing: users are charged shadow prices, i.e., the expectations of future losses because of blocked connections. The shadow prices can be calculated exactly from Howard’s equation, but this method is difficult. The paper presents simple approximations to the solution of Howard’s equation and a way to derive more exact approximations. If users do not react by lowering their demand, they will receive higher bills to pay. Many users do not react to increased prices but would want to know how the congestion pricing mechanism affects the bills. The distribution of the price of a connection follows from knowing the shadow prices and the probability of a congestion state. There is another interesting distribution. The network produces profit to the operator, or equivalently, blocked connections produce a cost to the operator. The average cost rate can be calculated from Howard’s equation, but the costs have some distribution. The distribution gives the risk that the actual costs exceed the average costs, and the operator should include this risk to the prices. The main result of this paper shows how to calculate the distribution of the costs in the future for congestion pricing by shadow prices and for congestion pricing with a more simple pricing scheme that produces the same average costs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0357.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: Striga infestation; Striga damage; yield loss; nitrogen application
Online: 17 August 2020 (10:08:51 CEST)
Low soil nitrogen status of savanna soils in Nigeria contributes to the persistent Striga hermonthica (Del.) Benth. infestation that limits maize production. The application of nitrogen fertilizer to Striga-resistant hybrids may reduce Striga infection and increase grain yields. This study assessed the performance of maize hybrids at low (30 kg ha-1) and high (120 kg ha-1) nitrogen application under natural infestation with Striga at Kafin Madaki and Tudun Wada in 2014 and 2015. Results showed that the application of nitrogen at 120 kg ha-1 reduced number of Striga plants by 59% compared to application at 30 kg N ha-1 in Kafin Madaki and by 21% in Tudun Wada. Compared to 30 kg N ha-1, the 120 kg N ha-1 rate also reduced Striga damage rating by 22% in Kafin Madaki and by 33% in Tudun Wada across the hybrids. Hybrids 8338-1 (5.3) and OBASUPER 1 (4.3) were the only entries with Striga damage rating greater than 4.5 (SDR > 4.5) when averaged across the nitrogen levels at both locations. Grain yield was 86 and 98% higher in Kafin Madaki and Tudun Wada, respectively when N was applied at 120 kg N ha-1 than at 30 kg N ha-1. The hybrids M1124-3 and M1227-14 produced grain yields that were significantly higher than those of the other hybrids in all locations. The hybrid 8338-1 produced the lowest grain yield across locations. Our results showed that, the application of 120 kg N ha-1 to Striga resistant maize hybrids will reduce Striga infection and increase grain yield.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0057.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Obstetrics & Gynaecology Keywords: miscarriage; fetal loss; risk factor; ethnicity; maternal race
Online: 4 April 2019 (15:52:25 CEST)
In last decades, growing migration flows have modified the obstetric clinical care, requiring specific attention by health care systems. The aim was to describe the phenomenon focusing on miscarriage (pregnancy loss at <20 weeks). Patients admitted for care at miscarriage in a six-year period (2012-17) were revised. Miscarriage rates in all ethnic groups, dichotomized in early (within the first 12 weeks of gestation) and late (at <20 weeks) pregnancy loss. Associations between women's characteristics (age, parity, inter-pregnancy interval (IPI)) were explored to elucidate any differences. A total of 1,940 patients were included, segregated in early (n = 1769, 91.2%) and late (n = 171, 8.8%) pregnancy losses. Caucasian ethnicity was the most common (87.9%), leaving the minority groups to 12.1%. Maternal age was higher among Caucasians women than other subgroups, in contrast to Asiatic patients. Nulliparity was observed in 1045 (53.9%) patient, more widespread among Caucasian and Maghrebins. A positive obstetric history counting at least one miscarriage was frequent, ranging from 22.2% to 75%, in particular among Asiatic women, while the recurrence in Caucasians. In Afro-Carribeans the most relevant rate of late miscarriage was found. By multiple regression modelling, maternal age, nulliparity and Afro-Carribean were identified as determinants. Maternal ethnicity should be considered in the management of pregnancy losses in combination with already well-defined risk factors, including age at miscarriare and nulliparity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0098.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Numerical Analysis & Optimization Keywords: Adaptive; Tuning; Modelling; Estimation parameters; Propagation loss; NLOS; LOS
Online: 11 April 2022 (13:53:30 CEST)
Wireless cellular communication technology has developed into a very resourceful commodity worldwide. Today, people of all races can hardly live without means of voice and data cellular communication technology. Imprecise propagation loss estimation leads to high power waste, high co-channel interference and poor service quality in cellular communication system networks. This paper proposes a realistic adaptive fine-tuning method for distinctive propagation loss estimation over a microcellular communication radio links based on signal power measurements from Long Term Evolution radio broadband networks, taking non-line of sight (NLOS) and line of sight (LOS) environments into consideration. The methodology is verified by measurements taken in non-line of sight and line of sight signal propagation scenarios. The results showed that the estimated propagation losses using the proposed realistic adaptive tuning models were more accurate than the existing Cost -231 modelling estimation approach
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0095.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: Adaptive; Tuning; Modelling; Estimation parameters; Propagation loss; NLOS; LOS
Online: 11 April 2022 (11:03:43 CEST)
Wireless cellular communication technology has developed into a very resourceful commodity worldwide. Today, people of all races can hardly live without means of voice and data cellular communication technology. Imprecise propagation loss estimation leads to high power waste, high co-channel interference and poor service quality in cellular communication system networks. This paper proposes a realistic adaptive fine-tuning method for distinctive propagation loss estimation over a microcellular communication radio links based on signal power measurements from Long Term Evolution radio broadband networks, taking non-line of sight (NLOS) and line of sight (LOS) environments into consideration. The methodology is verified by measurements taken in non-line of sight and line of sight signal propagation scenarios. The results showed that the estimated propagation losses using the proposed realistic adaptive tuning models were more accurate than the existing Cost -231 modelling estimation approach.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0502.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Clinical Neurology Keywords: Stem Cell; Embryo; Zebrafish; Neurosensory Hearing Loss; Tissue Regeneration
Online: 26 November 2021 (10:52:49 CET)
Hearing dysfunctions can be classified by type, degree, configuration, time of onset, aetiology, and finally, consequences on speech development. They can be divided into conductive, mixed, central types and sensorineural. Conductive hearing loss (CHL) results from interference with the mechanical transmission of sound through the external and middle ear; it can be congenital, as a consequence of anatomic abnormalities, but it can commonly be acquired following middle ear inflammatory pathologies. Sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) results from failure to transduce vibrations to neural impulses in the cochlean and is a consequence of an irreversible damage to the differentiated cells which make up the organ of hearing and the acoustic paths at various levels. Mixed hearing loss involves a combination of these two types in the same ear. Studies in neuroscience field have shown that the prevention of cell degeneration is only possible if all the factors taken at the different stages of stem cells’ multiplication and differentiation are administered together. We have demonstrated this in a recent study on the ability of SCDSFs to prevent neurodegeneration in hippocampal cells of the CA1 zone in mice. This study confirms previous findings demonstrating that early developmental zebrafish embryo extracts could act as a modulator of senescence in human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) isolated from many adult tissues. These findings have open a promising way for the approaches promoting the rejuvenation and regeneration of different tissues, by-passing stem cell transplantation. In the present clinical trial we have used SCDSFs to study the possible reversion of neurosensory hearing loss, until now considered an irreversible condition.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0256.v3
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: germination; Leucadendron; seed storage; seed viability estimation; viability loss
Online: 17 November 2021 (13:15:02 CET)
Seed viability is routinely measured on seeds that fail to germinate at the end of an experiment. Together with the number of germinants, this is used to estimate viability of the seeds at start of the experiment (i.e., initial viability) and provides the comparative basis on which germination success is determined. Perusal of the literature shows that sometimes (perhaps often, as the problem has yet to be recognized or reported) prolonged duration in the treatment, especially the control where little germination occurs, can lead to loss of viability. This results in underestimation of initial viability if that treatment is used. I caution against the routine use of end-of-trial germination and viability of ungerminated seeds as an estimate of initial viability in determining germination success of various treatments. I explore ways to deal with the problem but the preference is for estimates of initial viability to be undertaken on a separate sample of seeds concurrently with the experiment as this avoids the risk of seed death during the trial.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0356.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Land-use change; forest conversion; species loss; fragmentation; deforestation
Online: 17 August 2021 (10:10:09 CEST)
Remote sensing/GIS techniques are a versatile tool for x-raying serial forest structural changes in retrospect. It would be impossible to evaluate past occurrences and changes in forest extents in past decades at Effan Forest Reserve without non-conventional means. Therefore, we adopted remote sensing technology using Landsat images to evaluate land-use change and degradation rates in the area with a view to ascertaining causal factors for possible minimization of forest degradation in Effan Forest Reserve. Land-use/land-cover changes were analyzed using USGS-Landsat TM and ETM images of 1987, 2002, 2014 and 2019. Field-data were collected using handheld GPS receiver and spatial statistical analyses were conducted using the ground control points (GCPs). For inventory data, a systematic sampling technique was adopted using ten 1.05 km-transects at 500 m intervals. A total of 50 sample plots of 50 × 50 m were used. All tree species with Dbh ≥10 cm were enumerated. Nineteen tree species in ten families were encountered with Vitellaria paradoxa as the most-frequently occurring species in the area. IUCN-listed endangered Pterocarpus erinaceus, hitherto abundant in the area, was rarely encountered during the survey, while Vitellaria paradoxa is gradually shrinking, going the relative abundance in the area. The result further showed that primary and secondary forests decreased considerably by 258.03 ha (46.72%) and 9.18 ha (3.63%), respectively, with a total forest loss of 50.3% in 32 years (8.4 hayr-1, 1.6% per annum). While forest plantation size doubled by 369.72 ha within the period. This is worrisome as the remaining fragmented forests appeared to be on the decline, except the riparian vegetation, due to inaccessibility to the riparian by loggers. It thus appeared that forest protection approaches were ineffective. Increased protection efforts could save this forest reserve, and the concerned authority should consider a focused-enrichment planting involving indigenous species for ecosystem-repair.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0217.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Endoscopic Endonasal Transphenoid (EET); Blood Loss Measurement; Electrochemical Measurement
Online: 9 July 2021 (11:11:51 CEST)
Surgeries that take place in medicine and dentistry or during any form of childbirth results in a significant amount of blood loss. The prevalent measurement methods that surgeons and anesthesiologists utilize as the “gold - standard” has several drawbacks. There are numerous other methods to measure blood loss, which, however, due to their impracticality and limitations, are not ideal either. This paper focuses on minimally invasive neurosurgery in particular, by taking into account a surgical technique known as Endoscopic Endonasal Transphenoidal surgery (EETS), which is used to treat pituitary tumors and adenomas. Along with the review of the existing literature pertaining to blood loss management, this paper proposes a modified electrode probe method along with the concept of usage, computer interface, and the system of integration. The probe is intended to measure the hematocrit count from the collected blood under all circumstances, such that the medical practitioner is assisted to improve the blood loss management technique for better patient recovery.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0526.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: RUSLE; Quantification; Severity; Significant Factors; Soil Erosion; Soil Loss
Online: 23 February 2021 (15:54:25 CET)
The quantity of soil loss as a result of soil erosion is dramatically increasing in catchment where land resources management is very weak. In this paper, a RUSLE model-based soil loss quanti-fication technique is presented to estimate the annual soil loss and identify the severity of the erosion in the catchment. This study uses Fincha catchment in Abay river basin as the study area to quantify the annual soil loss by implementing Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) model developed in ArcGIS version 10.4. Digital Elevation Model (12.5 x 12.5), LANDSAT 8 of Operational Land Imager (OLI) and Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS), Annual Rainfall of 10 stations and soil maps of the catchment were used as input parameters to generate the significant factors. Rainfall erosivity factor (R), soil erodibility factor (K), cover and management factor (C), slope length and steepness factor (LS) and support practice factor (P) were used as soil loss quantification significant factors. A model builder for the RUSLE model was developed and raster map calcula-tion algebra was applied in ArcGIS version 10.4 to quantify the total annual soil loss. It was found that the quantified average annual soil loss ranges from 0.0 to 76.5 t ha-1 yr-1 was obtained in the catchment. The area coverage of soil erosion severity with 55%, 35% and 10% as low to moderate, high and very high respectively were identified. The information about the spatial variation of soil loss severity map generated in RUSLE model has a paramount role to alert land resources man-agers and all stakeholders in controlling the effects via implementation of both structural and non-structural mitigations. The results of the RUSLE model can also be further considered along with the catchment for practical soil loss quantification that can help for protection practices.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0212.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: Photonic crystal cavity; High Q-factor; loss reduction; SOI
Online: 8 February 2021 (13:25:38 CET)
Increasing the quality factor (Q) of an optical resonator device has been a research focus to be utilized in various applications. Higher Q-factor means light is confined in a longer time which will produce a shaper peak and higher transmission. In this paper, we introduce a novel technique to increase further the Q-factor of a one-dimensional photonic crystal (1D PhC) cavity device by using an end loop-mirror (ELM). The technique utilizes and recycles the light transmission from the conventional 1D PhC cavity design. The design has been proved to work by using the 2.5D FDTD simulation with Lumerical FDTD and MODE softwares. By using the ELM technique, the Q- factor of a 1D PhC design has been shown to have increased up to 79.53 % from the initial Q value without the ELM. This novel design technique can be combined with any high Q-factor and very high Q-factor designs to increase more the Q-factor value of a photonic crystal cavity devices or any other suitable optical resonator devices. The experimental result shows that the device is measurable by adding a Y-branch component to the one-port structure and able to get the high-Q result.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0405.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics Keywords: quantum loss limit; broadband signal recycling; optomechanical filter cavity
Online: 16 November 2020 (09:10:41 CET)
Quantum noise limits the sensitivity of laser interferometric gravitational-wave detectors. Given the state-of-the-art optics, the optical losses define the lower bound of best possible quantum-limited detector sensitivity. In this work, we come up with the configuration which allows to saturate this lower bound by converting the signal recycling cavity to be a broadband signal amplifier using an active optomechanical filter. We will show the difference and advantage of such a broadband signal recycling scheme compared with the previous white-light-cavity scheme using the optomechanical filter in [Phys.Rev.Lett.115.211104 (2015)]. The drawback is that the new scheme is more susceptible to the thermal noise of the mechanical oscillator. To suppress the radiation pressure noise which rises along with the signal amplification, squeezing with input/output filter cavities and heavier test mass are used in this work.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0072.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: indoor positioning; access point placement; path loss model; optimization
Online: 5 October 2020 (11:34:03 CEST)
Indoor Positioning Systems (IPSs) are designed to provide solutions for location-based services. Wireless local area network (WLAN)-based positioning systems are the most widespread around the globe and are commonly found to have a ready-to-use infrastructure composed mostly of access points (APs). They provide useful information on signal strength to be processed by adequate location algorithms, which are not always capable of achieving the desired localization error only by themselves. In this sense, this paper proposes a new method to improve the accuracy of IPSs by optimizing some of their most relevant infrastructure components. Included are the arrangement of APs over the environment, the number of reference points (RPs), and the number of samples per location estimation test. A simulation environment is also proposed, in which the impact of key influencing factors on system accuracy is analyzed. Finally, a case study is simulated to validate an optimal combination of design parameters and its compliance with the requirements of localization error and the limited number of access points. Our simulation results clearly show that the desired localization accuracy, which is set as a goal, can be achieved while maintaining the factors already mentioned at minimal levels, which decreases both system deployment costs and computational effort.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0009.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: visual search; vision loss; incidental learning; macular degeneration; fovea
Online: 1 October 2020 (09:12:00 CEST)
Foveal vision loss has been shown to reduce efficient visual search guidance due to contextual cueing by incidentally learned contexts. However, previous studies used artificial (T among L-shape) search paradigms that prevent the memorization of a target in a semantically meaningful scene. Here, we investigated contextual cueing in real-life scenes that allow explicit memory of target locations in semantically rich scenes. In contrast to the contextual cueing deficits in artificial scenes, contextual cueing in patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) did not differ from age-matched normal-sighted controls. We discuss this in the context of visuospatial working memory demands for which both eye-movement control in the presence of central vision loss and for memory-guided search may compete. Memory-guided search in semantically rich scenes may depend less on visuospatial working memory than search in abstract displays, potentially explaining intact contextual cueing in the former but not the latter. In a practical sense, our findings may indicate that Patients with AMD are less deficient than expected after previous lab experiments. This shows the usefulness of realistic stimuli in experimental clinical research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0273.v2
Subject: Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: amyloid; virus; nucleation; loss-of-function; Alzheimer's; Parkinson's; prion; protein-only
Online: 19 November 2019 (03:53:09 CET)
Amyloids are fibrillar protein aggregates that are associated with diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, type II diabetes and Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease. The process of amyloid aggregation involves three pathological protein transformations; from natively-folded conformation to the cross-β conformation, from biophysically soluble to insoluble, and from biologically functional to non-functional. While amyloids share a similar cross-β conformation, the biophysical transformation can either take place spontaneously via a homogeneous nucleation mechanism (HON) or catalytically on an exogenous surface via a heterogeneous nucleation mechanism (HEN). Here, we postulate that the different nucleation pathways can serve as a mechanistic basis for an etiological classification of amyloidopathies, where hereditary forms generally follow the HON pathway, while sporadic forms follow surface-induced (including microbially-induced) HEN pathways. Furthermore, the conformational and biophysical amyloid transformation results in loss-of-function (LOF) of the original natively-folded and soluble protein. This LOF can, at least initially, be the mechanism of amyloid toxicity even before amyloid accumulation reaches toxic levels. By highlighting the important role of non-protein species in amyloid formation and LOF mechanisms of toxicity, we propose a generalized mechanistic framework that could help better understand the diverse etiology of amyloid diseases and offer new opportunities for therapeutic interventions including replacement therapies.
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: hearing impairment; hearing loss; ontology; data harmonization; meta-analysis
Online: 19 September 2019 (11:37:08 CEST)
Hearing impairment (HI) is a common sensory disorder that is defined as the partial or complete inability to detect sound in one or both ears. This diverse pathology is associated with a myriad of phenotypic expressions and/or syndromes. HI can be caused by various intrinsic, environmental and/or unknown factors. Some ontologies capture some relevant HI forms, phenotypes and syndromes, but there is no comprehensive knowledge portal which includes aspects specific to the HI disease state. This hampers inter-study comparability, integration and interoperability within and across disciplines. This work describes the HI Ontology (HIO) that was developed based on the Sickle Cell Disease Ontology (SCDO) model. This is a collaboratively developed resource built around the 'Hearing Impairment' concept by a group of experts in different aspects of HI and ontologies. HIO is the first comprehensive, standardized, hierarchical and logical representation of existing HI knowledge. HIO allows researchers and clinicians alike to readily access standardized HI-related knowledge in a single location and promote collaborations and HI information sharing, including epidemiological, socio-environmental, biomedical, genetic and phenotypic information. Furthermore, this ontology illustrates the adaptability of the SCDO framework for use in developing a disease-specific ontology.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0160.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: Siamese neural network, appearance model, contrastive loss, cross entropy.
Online: 13 May 2019 (13:32:25 CEST)
An appearance model plays a crucial rule in multi-target tracking. In traditional approaches, the two steps of appearance modeling i.e visual representation and statistically similarity measure are modeled separately. Visual representation is achieved either through hand-crafted features or deep features and statically similarity is measure through a cross entropy loss function. A loss function based on cross-entropy (KL-divergence, mutual information) find closely related probability distribution for the targets. However, if the targets have similar visual representation, it ends up mixing the targets. To tackle this problem, we come up with a synergetic appearance model named Single Shot Appearance Model based on Siamese neural network. The network is trained with a contrastive loss function for finding the similarity between different targets in a single shot. The input to the network is two target patches and based on their similarity, a contrastive score is output by the network. The proposed model is evaluated on accumulative dissimilarity metric on three datasets. Quantitatively, promising results are achieved against three baseline methods.
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: forgery detection; GAN; contrastive loss; deep learning; pairwise learning
Online: 5 May 2019 (11:13:55 CEST)
Recently, generative adversarial networks (GANs) can be used to generate the photo-realistic image from a low-dimension random noise. It is very dangerous that the synthesized or generated image is used on inappropriate contents in social media network. In order to successfully detect such fake image, an effective and efficient image forgery detector is desired. However, conventional image forgery detectors are failed to recognize the synthesized or generated images by using GAN-based generator since they are all generated but manipulation from the source. Therefore, we propose a deep learning-based approach to detect the fake image by combining the contrastive loss. First, several state-of-the-art GANs will be collected to generate the fake-real image pairs. Then, the contrastive will be used on the proposed common fake feature network (CFFN)to learn the discriminative feature between the fake image and real image (i.e., paired information). Finally, a smaller network will be concatenated to the CFFN to determine whether the feature of the input image is fake or real. Experimental results demonstrated that the proposed method significantly outperforms other state-of-the-art fake image detectors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0096.v1
Subject: Engineering, General Engineering Keywords: Wind tunnel, Prandtl’s configuration, corners, vortex, turbulence, pressure loss
Online: 14 December 2018 (10:44:37 CET)
Wind tunnels are devices that enable researchers to study the flow over objects of interest, the forces acting on them and their interaction with the flow, which is nowadays playing an increasingly important role due to noise pollution. Since the first closed circuit wind tunnel with variable cross-section was built in G¨ottingen, its Prandtl configuration has little change. The wind tunnel with Prandtl configuration has four corners and vanes, more than 50% of the total pressure loss are caused by the corners and vanes. How to reduce the total pressure loss is a world class problem in the wind tunnel design. This study attempts to propose a novel configuration of wind tunnel, where the corners have been replaced by semi-circular tunnel. Sun wind tunnel 2 has only two corners and vanes, while Sun wind tunnel 1 has no corners and vanes at all. It is expected the new wind tunnel can reduce the total pressure loss from 50% to 10%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0340.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: damaged area; direct economic loss; disaster; drought; extreme precipitation
Online: 15 November 2018 (04:26:41 CET)
Understanding the distribution in drought and floods plays an important role in disaster risk management. The present study aims to explore the trends in the standardized precipitation index and extreme precipitation days in China, as well as to estimate the economic losses they cause. We found that in the Northeast China, northern of North China and northeast of Northwest China were severely affected by drought disasters (average damaged areas were 6.44 million hectares) and the most severe drought trend was located in West China. However, in the north of East China and Central China, the northeastern of the Southwest China was severely affected by flood disasters (average damaged areas were 3.97 million hectares) and the extreme precipitation trend is increasing in the northeastern of the Southwest China. In the Yangtze River basin, there were increasing trends in terms of drought and extreme precipitation, especially in the northeastern of the Southwest China, where accompanied by severe disaster losses. By combining the trends in drought and extreme precipitation days with the distribution of damaged areas, we found that the increasing trend in droughts shifted gradually from north to south, especially in the Southwest China, and the increasing trend in extreme precipitation gradually shifted from south to north.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0529.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: extracellular vesicles, EVs , traumatic brain injury, bone loss, TBI
Online: 23 October 2018 (08:56:08 CEST)
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major source of worldwide morbidity and mortality. Patients suffering from TBI exhibit a higher susceptibility to bone loss and an increased rate of bone fractures; however, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly defined. Herein, we observed significantly lower bone quality and elevated levels of inflammation in bone and bone marrow niche after controlled cortical impact-induced TBI in in-vivo CD-1 mice. Further, we identified dysregulated NFB signaling, an established mediator of osteoclast differentiation and bone loss, within the bone marrow niche of TBI mice. Ex vivo studies revealed increased osteoclast differentiation in bone marrow-derived cells from TBI mice, as compared to sham injured mice. Finally, we found bone marrow derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) from TBI mice enhanced the colony forming ability and osteoclast differentiation efficacy of bone marrow cells and activated NFB signaling genes in bone marrow-derived cells. Taken together, we provide evidence that TBI-induced inflammatory stress on bone and the bone marrow niche may activate NFB leading to accelerated bone loss. Targeted inhibition of these signaling pathways may reverse TBI-induced bone loss and reduce fracture rates.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0053.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Surfaces, Coatings & Films Keywords: 1,10-Phenanthroline-5,6-diamine; corrosion inhibitor; weight loss method
Online: 8 January 2018 (09:08:46 CET)
The inhibition impacts of 1,10-Phenanthroline-5,6-diamine (PTDA) on mild steel in 1 M HCl solution were investigated through weight loss method. The inhibition efficiencies of PTDA increase with increase in PTDA concentration at the temperature 303. Weight loss method indicate that PTDA is an excellent inhibitor the inhibition efficiency of 81.5% at the maximum PTDA concentration of 0.5 g/L at the temperature 303K.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0036.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: conservation; governance; habitat loss; livelihood; eco-tourism; carbon credits
Online: 7 December 2016 (11:13:38 CET)
Establishment of protected areas (PAs) is one of the key global conservation strategies that currently cover approximately 15% of the earth’s land surface. Globally, PA networks are designed to curb the growing anthropogenic pressures in areas with high biological diversity. Despite the importance of PAs in conserving the vanishing biodiversity and unique habitats, many of them are in critical condition due to poor governance thus functioning below the expected level. Moreover, in many developing countries, the PA coverage is below the global standard. Recognizing their contemporary role in conservation, governments have recently agreed to expand the global PA coverage to 17% by the year 2020 (Aichi target 11). This book with eight chapters from different regions of the world provides an overview of the PAs governance, institutional mechanisms, conservation benefits, limitations and challenges associated with their respective policy discourse, integrated management, and functional attributes. Protected areas expect to to play an important role in the long rn in conservation and protection of biodiversity and ecosystems particularly in countries where population pressure and habitat loss are high. Regular intervention, political commitment, and effective governance are essential for the sustainability of PAs across the world. Here, we also attempted to shed some light on future development clues for the sustainable management and monitoring of PAs worldwide.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0206.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Physical Chemistry Keywords: Nanobelts; PAH; polyaromatics; cyclic polymers; hydrogen loss; fullerenes; carbon chains
Online: 16 May 2022 (10:57:33 CEST)
We explore the importance of curvature in carbonaceaous species transformation and stability, using laser-induced vaporisation to evaporate and ionise a source of curved polyaromatic hydrocarbons: carbon nanobelts. Collision impacts between species cause mass loss and the resultant ions are catalogued via mass-spectrometry. To interpret the mass spectra, we perform a series of “in-silico” simulated systematic hydrogen-loss studies using density functional theory (DFT) modelling, sequentially removing hydrogen atoms using thermodynamic stability as a selection for subsequent dehydrogenation. In an initial sequence of H2 removal, the rings are maintained through stable carbyne chain and pentagon-chain formation, giving rise to circular strained dehydrobenzoannulene species. The chains subsequently break, releasing CH and C2. While theoretical closed-cage routes are identified, they are not observed experimentally. The results can serve as a useful guide to high-energy impact conditions observed in some astrochemical environments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0161.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: SAGIN; packet loss ratio; transaction size; transmission power; throughput/goodput
Online: 12 January 2022 (10:56:04 CET)
The purpose of this article is to simulate data transmission and calculate traffic parameters in SAGIN air segment for which Ad Hoc network of flying drones is considered as a model. Traffic modeling is based on the manet-routing-compare example from the ns3 simulator library, which has been supplemented with the code for calculation packet losses, throughput/goodput, and message transmission delays. The program allowed considering drones movement at both low and high speeds from 3.6 km/h to 72 km/h. The dependences of traffic losses on data transmission power, transaction sizes and data transmission rate are obtained and analyzed. The distribution of the average effective arrival rate λ and the throughput/goodput for drones has been studied. Comparing traffic characteristics in models with different numbers of drones allows judging how the required quality of service can be achieved by choosing the right transmission parameters.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0411.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Organizational Economics & Management Keywords: Fresh Agricultural Produce Supply Chain; Coordination; Discount Contract; Quantity Loss
Online: 24 December 2021 (15:56:11 CET)
This paper explores the coordination of the agricultural cooperative to supermarket or E-commerce sup-ply chain, under the condition of quantity loss with a mixed decay function of exponential and logistical distribution. The nature of this process is analyzed, and the corresponding demand and supply functions with single- and multi-stage discount strategies are constructed respectively to create a working model. The optimal discount ratios for supermarkets and agricultural cooperatives in decentralized and central-ized decision-making modes coupled with single- and multi-stage discounts are calculated respectively. Finally, a universal optimal strategy is designed, which can be applied to various quantity decay scenarios and makes the discount strategy more generalized. The results show that discounts can coordinate supply chains more effectively; not only is fresh agricultural produce sold before it starts to rot, but the benefit conflicts arising from both supermarkets vs. cooperatives and traditional vs. E-commerce channels are equilibrated. Further, multi-stage discounts are more effective than single-stage ones, but optimal discount ratios rely on the initial quantity of fresh agricultural produce in the supply chain; its market share in the traditional distribution channel; the potential market size; retail price; the price sensitivity coefficient of the channel; the cross-elasticity coefficient of prices between different channels; and the properties of the quantity loss.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0345.v1
Subject: Engineering, General Engineering Keywords: Cold Sensation; Heat Loss; Cold Related Risks; Real Feel Temperature
Online: 21 December 2021 (14:06:58 CET)
Abstract: Windtech device is a novel tool for measuring the sensation of the ‘cold’. Cold poses numerous challenges for industrial operations, human survival, and living convenience. The impact of the cold is not possible to be quantified just based on temperatures; however other factors such as wind speed, humidity, irradiance have to be taken into consideration. Efforts have been made to develop combined indices such as wind chill temperature (WCT), AccuWeather RealFeel®, and others. The presented article discusses these along with the industrial standards that emphasize on the quantification of the ‘cold’. The following article introduces the Windtech device and its operating principle involving ‘heated temperature’, where the ‘heated temperature’ is affected by environmental parameters including ambient temperature, humidity, wind velocity, and irradiance. The discussed Windtech device is calibrated for operation according to the ISO 11079:2007 standard.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0094.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: Siamese networks; Ensemble of classifiers; Loss function; Discrete cosine transform
Online: 3 August 2021 (15:49:22 CEST)
In this paper, we examine two strategies for boosting the performance of ensembles of Siamese networks (SNNs) for image classification using two loss functions (Triplet and Binary Cross Entropy) and two methods for building the dissimilarity spaces (FULLY and DEEPER). With FULLY, the distance between a pattern and a prototype is calculated by comparing two images using the fully connected layer of the Siamese network. With DEEPER, each pattern is described using a deeper layer combined with dimensionality reduction. The basic design of the SNNs takes advantage of supervised k-means clustering for building the dissimilarity spaces that train a set of support vector machines, which are then combined by sum rule for a final decision. The robustness and versatility of this approach are demonstrated on several cross-domain image data sets, including a portrait data set, two bioimage and two animal vocalization data sets. Results show that the strategies employed in this work to increase the performance of dissimilarity image classification using SNN is closing the gap with standalone CNNs. Moreover, when our best system is combined with an ensemble of CNNs, the resulting performance is superior to an ensemble of CNNs, demonstrating that our new strategy is extracting additional information.
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: athletes; eating disorders; weight loss; body dissatisfaction; body image disorders
Online: 27 May 2021 (08:50:10 CEST)
TThe passion of bodybuilding athletes for a symmetric, lean, heavily muscled body leads them to carry out exhausting exercise programs and restrictive eating regimens, sometimes resulting in disordered eating behaviors. This study investigates potential exacerbators on the development of disordered eating in bodybuilding and strength athletes. The study involved 103 Cypriot bodybuilding athletes of both sexes, performing at three levels: professional, recreational and strength athletes. The Eating Attitude Test 26 (EAT-26) and The Three Factor Eating Question-naire (TFEQ-R21) were used to evaluate disordered eating and eating behaviors respectively. The current study was performed under the auspices of the Hellenic Center of Education & Treatment of Eating Disorders (KEADD). The degree of deviation between the perceived ideal body weight and the actual body weight was associated with increased risk of eating disorder. Athletes who desired a lower body weight recorded higher scores on EAT-26 overall, (p=0.001), and the subscales of dieting (p=0.01) and bulimia. (p=0.001). Cognitive restraint and emotional eating scales of TFEQ-R21 were more pronounced in the non-professional athletes. (p=0.01). The emotional eating score was higher in women. There is a need for appropriate sport-specific, gender-specific preventive intervention to deescalate the risk of eating disorder, in both profes-sional and non-professional bodybuilding athletes.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0471.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: Athletes; eating disorders; weight loss; body dissatisfaction; body image disorders
Online: 19 April 2021 (12:10:51 CEST)
The passion of bodybuilding athletes for a symmetric, lean, heavily muscled body leads them to carry out exhausting exercise programs and restrictive eating regimens, sometimes resulting in disordered eating behaviors. This study investigates potential exacerbators on the development of disordered eating in bodybuilding and strength athletes. The study involved 103 Cypriot bodybuilding athletes of both sexes, performing at three levels: professional, recreational and strength athletes. The Eating Attitude Test 26 (EAT-26) and The Three Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ-R21) were used to evaluate disordered eating and eating behaviors respectively. The current study was performed under the auspices of the Hellenic Center of Education & Treatment of Eating Disorders (KEADD). The degree of deviation between the perceived ideal body weight and the actual body weight was associated with increased risk of eating disorder. Athletes who desired a lower body weight recorded higher scores on EAT-26 overall, and the subscales of dieting and bulimia. Cognitive restraint and emotional eating scales of TFEQ-R21 were more pronounced in the non-professional athletes. The emotional eating score was higher in women. There is a need for appropriate sport-specific, gender-specific preventive intervention to deescalate the risk of eating disorder, in both professional and non-professional bodybuilding athletes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0071.v1
Subject: Biology, Horticulture Keywords: Browning; Modified atmosphere packaging; Moisture loss; Oriental melon; Relative humidity
Online: 3 September 2020 (11:51:34 CEST)
Oriental melons have a relatively short shelf life as they are harvested during the summer season and susceptible to cold-induced injuries. Typical chilling injury when stored at 4℃ is expressed as browning of the fruit suture. To prolong the shelf life and reduce browning of the fruit, the effects of modified atmosphere packaging (MAP), X-tend modified atmosphere (MA)/modified humidity (MH) bulk packaging (XF), and polyethylene (PE) packaging, on oriental melons were investigated during storage at 4℃ and 10℃ for 14 days and under retail display conditions at 20℃. The O2 concentrations in PE packages stored at 4℃ and 10℃ ranged from 17.4–18.5%, whereas those in XF packages were reduced to 16.3–16.6%. The CO2 content of XF package (4.2–4.6%) was higher than that of PE package (1.4–1.9%) stored at 4℃ or 10℃. Relative humidity (RH) saturated in the PE packages but not in the XF packages after seven days of storage. Furthermore, PE packages performed better at maintaining melon weight and firmness than XF packages during storage at 10℃ for 14 days and under retail display conditions at 20℃. PE and XF packages effectively reduced the browning index of the peel and white linear sutures of oriental melons compared with the unpackaged control during cold storage at 4℃, and this observation was maintained at the retail display condition at 20℃. The enhanced CO2 levels, reduced O2 levels, and optimal RH values that were provided by the MAP, prevented the browning symptoms and improved the marketability and shelf life of oriental melons.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0208.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: turbine generator; stator ventilation duct; transient heat transfer; pressure loss
Online: 10 July 2020 (08:34:07 CEST)
Turbine generator operates with complex cooling system due to the challenge in controlling the peak temperature of the stator bar caused by ohm loss, which is unavoidable. Therefore, it is important to characterise and quantifies the thermal performance of the cooling system. The focus of the present research is to investigate the heat transfer and pressure loss characteristics of typical cooling system, so-called stator ventilation duct. A real scale model was built at its operating conditions for the present study. The direction of cooling air is varied to consider its operation condition, so that there are (1) outward flow and (2) inward flow cases. In addition, the effect of (3) cross flow (inward with cross flow case) is also studied. The transient heat transfer method using thermochromic liquid crystals is implemented to measure full surface heat transfer distribution. A series of Computational Fluid Dynamics analysis is also conducted to support the observation from the experiment. For the inward flow case, the results suggest that the average Nusselt number of the 2nd duct is about 30% higher than the 3rd duct. The trend is similar with the effect of cross flow. The CFD results are in good agreement with the experimental data.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0436.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: obesity; meal frequency; hypocaloric diet; energy expenditure; ghrelin; weight loss
Online: 27 May 2020 (04:27:43 CEST)
Dietary approach is essential to obesity control, but the effectiveness of changes in meal frequency (MF) as strategies for loss and maintenance of body mass remain unclear. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of MF on a hypocaloric diet on weight loss, active ghrelin levels and metabolic indicators of women with obesity. This is a randomized, parallel clinical trial, including forty women, randomized in two groups, both following a hypocaloric diet, according to MF (G1 – six meals/day; G2 – three meals/day). Dietary, laboratory, anthropometric and body composition indicators were assessed, as well as energy expenditure (EE), before and after the 90 days of intervention. After intervention, both groups decreased body weight, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, fat mass (FM), insulin and HOMA-IR. G1 increased insulin sensitivity and G2 reduced triglyceride and FM and increased fat-free mass (FFM). MF increased ghrelin levels. There were no differences in EE variables. Hypocaloric diet with different MF promoted a reduction in total weight, BMI, WC and FM and an improvement in glycidic metabolism. However, the accomplishment of the three meals/day increased the FFM and active ghrelin and reduced triglyceride, while six meals/day was more beneficial in increasing insulin sensitivity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0324.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: corrosion; prestressed concrete bridge; prestressing steel; section loss; strength; ductility
Online: 20 May 2020 (10:00:30 CEST)
The corrosion of prestressing steel in prestressed concrete bridges is a critical issue for bridge maintenance. To assess structures with corroded strands, it is necessary to define the mechanical properties of the strands and their influence on the structural behavior. In this study, corroded strands are taken from external tendons in existing bridges and tested to define the effects of corrosion on the tensile properties of the strand. Empirical equations for the tensile strength and ductility of the corroded strand are proposed using test results. The most corroded wire governs the mechanical properties of the strand. Experiments on prestressed concrete beams with a single corroded strand are conducted to investigate the structural behavior. A reduction in the flexural strength and maximum deformation is observed from the experiment. According to the section loss of a wire in a strand and its location in a beam, the flexural capacity can be evaluated using the proposed equation. The reduced ultimate strain of the corroded strand can be the governing factor of the flexural strength.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0357.v1
Subject: Biology, Ecology Keywords: biodiversity loss; climate change; ecosystems; exotic species; agriculture; forestry; fisheries
Online: 25 February 2020 (05:06:15 CET)
Bangladesh has a history of species introduction from different geographic regions. The country was a major trade route during the early-modern era and was under British colonial rule until 1947s. Many species of plants and animals are either domesticated or cultivated at different times that were brought into the country by the settlers, seamen, and traders. The deliberate preferences of fast-growing, high-yielding exotics in recent decades also threaten the existence of native species and their genetic resources in the country. Here we provide an overview of the invasive alien species in Bangladesh, likely pathways of their introduction, their impacts on ecosystem and people, and strategies for their effective management and regulation. Many exotic plants and animals both terrestrial and aquatic have found to be invasive in the country with negative impacts on local ecosystems, biodiversity, and livelihoods. Collectively, those species possess serious threats to country’s agriculture, forestry, and fisheries sector. Although initially introduced to favor primary productivity or other environmental benefits, many of these are now regarded as obnoxious pest or weed in Bangladesh. A comprehensive list of invasive species both for native and exotics and a framework to characterize them is also absent in the country. We recommend a separate statutory body and appropriate rules and policies for the introduction, monitoring, and management of alien species in the country. Community awareness, advocacy, surveillance, capacity building of relevant government staff and agreement with neighboring countries for transboundary management of invasive alien species is also necessary.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0125.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: image inpainting; image completion; attention; pyramid structure loss; deep learning
Online: 10 February 2020 (10:16:37 CET)
This paper develops a multi-task learning framework that attempts to incorporate the image structure knowledge to assist image inpainting, which is not well explored in previous works. The primary idea is to train a shared generator to simultaneously complete the corrupted image and corresponding structures --- edge and gradient, thus implicitly encouraging the generator to exploit relevant structure knowledge while inpainting. In the meantime, we also introduce a structure embedding scheme to explicitly embed the learned structure features into the inpainting process, thus to provide possible preconditions for image completion. Specifically, a novel pyramid structure loss is proposed to supervise structure learning and embedding. Moreover, an attention mechanism is developed to further exploit the recurrent structures and patterns in the image to refine the generated structures and contents. Through multi-task learning, structure embedding besides with attention, our framework takes advantage of the structure knowledge and outperforms several state-of-the-art methods on benchmark datasets quantitatively and qualitatively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0241.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: energy piles; validation; floor slab heat loss; energy; computer simulations
Online: 23 January 2019 (14:04:51 CET)
As the energy efficiency demands for future buildings become increasingly stringent, preliminary assessments of energy consumption are mandatory. These are possible only through numerical simulations, whose reliability crucially depends on boundary conditions. We therefore investigate their role in numerical estimates for the usage of geothermal energy, performing annual simulations of transient heat transfer for a building employing a geothermal heat pump plant and energy piles. Starting from actual measurements, we solve the heat equations in 2D and 3D using COMSOL Multiphysics and IDA-ICE, and discover a negligible impact of the multiregional ground surface boundary conditions. Moreover, we verify that the thermal mass of the soil medium induces a small vertical temperature gradient on the piles surface. We also find a roughly constant temperature on each horizontal cross-section, with nearly identical values if the average temperature is integrated over the full plane or evaluated at one single point. Calculating the yearly heating need for an entire building we then show that the chosen upper boundary condition affects the energy balance dramatically. Using directly the pipes’ outlet temperature induces a 54% overestimation of the heat flux, while the exact ground surface temperature above the piles reduces the error to 0.03%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0422.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Other Keywords: awareness; education; hearing loss; mineworkers; occupational health; health literacy; audiologists
Online: 18 October 2018 (12:04:09 CEST)
The aim of this study was to explore perspectives of occupation health personnels (OHPs) regarding education and training of mineworkers on occupational noise induced hearing loss (ONIHL) and its impact on mineworkers’ hearing. Qualitative, in-depth telephonic and face-to-face interviews were conducted with 16 OHPs comprising representatives from the state, employer and labour as well as audiologists and occupational health hygienists. Purposive and snowball sampling were utilized to recruit participants. Data were analysed using inductive thematic analysis. Findings revealed that mineworkers have a superficial awareness and knowledge of the impact of noise on their hearing and health. Moreover, OHPs are not knowledgeable on how mineworkers are educated on ONIHL and its latent consequences. Furthermore, language, low levels of education and literacy as well as the financial constraints were factors that had a negative impact on raising awareness and training mineworkers. There is a need to prioritize health literacy among mineworkers. Additionally, audiologists need to play an active role in educating mineworkers about the effects of excessive exposure to noise. There is a need to take into account literacy levels and language barriers in planning training material for mineworkers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0150.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: radiation; skin barrier; sebaceous gland; transepidermal water loss; skin pH
Online: 23 November 2017 (08:33:29 CET)
Abstract: Radiation-induced skin injury can be a serious cutaneous damage and have specific characteristics. Asymptomatic periods are classified as the latent stage. The skin barrier plays a critical role in the modulation of skin permeability and hydration and protects the body against a harsh external environment. However, an analysis on the skin barrier dysfunction against radiation exposure in the latent stage has not been conducted. Thus, we investigated whether skin barrier is impaired by irradiation in the latent stage and aimed to identify the molecules involved in skin barrier dysfunction. We analyzed skin barrier function and its components in SKH-1 mice that received 20 and 40 Gy local irradiation. Increased transepidermal water loss and skin pH were observed in the latent stage of the irradiated skin. Skin barrier components, such as structural proteins and lipid synthesis enzymes in keratinocyte, increased in the irradiated group. Interestingly, we noted sebaceous gland atrophy and increased serine protease and inflammatory cytokines in the irradiated skin during the latent period. This finding indicates that the main factor of skin barrier dysfunction in the latent stage of radiation-induced skin injury is sebaceous gland deficiency, which could be an intervention target for skin barrier impairment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0111.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: energy storage systems; charging profile; capacity loss; data-driven modeling
Online: 17 October 2017 (04:29:19 CEST)
Energy storage systems (ESS) are penetrating into various sections of power system through different applications. ESS can be used either as a buffer for intermittent renewable energy sources or as a stand-alone distributed storage for load shifting. ESS use different types of storage devices such as lead-acid batteries, lithium ion batteries, flow batteries, and super-capacitors. Hybrid ESS consisting of few types of storage devices are also common in practice. Determining the load demand of such ESSs at various instances (charging profile) accurately is indispensable in most of the cases. Capacity loss is common phenomenon that occurs in all types of storage devices because of ageing. Capacity loss has to be accounted while determining the charging profile of storage devices for better accuracy. Data-driven modeling is an attractive approach for determining the load demand of ESS due to the availability of valuable data from smart grid technologies. In this paper, the application of different types of data-driven models to predict the current charging profile of the ESS based on previous charging profiles is examined. The proposed method can leverage on the existing data from smart grid and is a black box modeling approach.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: Drug-induced hearing loss; cochlea; outer hair cells; hearing protection; SIRT3
Online: 9 August 2021 (07:50:36 CEST)
A single paragraph of about 200 words maximum. For research articles, abstracts should give a pertinent overview of the work. We strongly encourage authors to use the following style of structured abstracts, but without headings: (1) Background: Place the question addressed in a broad context and highlight the purpose of the study; (2) Methods: briefly describe the main methods or treatments applied; (3) Results: summarize the article's main findings; (4) Conclusions: indicate the main conclusions or interpretations. The abstract should be an objective representation of the article and it must not contain results that are not presented and substantiated in the main text and should not exaggerate the main conclusions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0233.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Concentrated plasticity; damping; rotational stiffness; seismic performance; collapse capacity; loss estimation
Online: 9 July 2021 (16:18:12 CEST)
In order to alleviate the problems regarding conventional damping modeling techniques in nonlinear structural simulations, using concentrated plasticity formulation including rotational end springs with no damping plus middle elastic parts with modified assigned damping has recently been proposed. However, a proper selection for springs’ stiffness is a source of contention. In this paper, the effect of choosing different ratios for springs’ rotational stiffness to the elastic part of the elements on the seismic performance of RC moment frames was investigated. Incremental Dynamic Analysis (IDA) was performed and the derived responses were used for seismic performance assessment methodology. The results demonstrate that using flexible springs may lead to a greatly conservative estimation of collapse capacity, annual losses, and repair costs compared to a rigid one. Due to lack of experimental data, it is not possible to certainly assert the most appropriate ratio. However, such variation in the seismic performance of a building model with different stiffness modification necessitates more investigation on this modeling strategy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0455.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: NHANES; periodontal diseases; periodontitis; tooth loss; inflammation; diet; nutrition; oral health
Online: 17 November 2020 (14:44:20 CET)
Background: We aimed to assess the association between DII and PD and the mediation effect of DII in the association of PD with systemic inflammation. Using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2009-2010, 2011-2012 and 2013-2014, participants that received periodontal exam and provided dietary recall data were included. The inflammatory potential of diet was calculated via DII. Periodontitis was defined according to the 2012 case definition. The clinical outcomes of interest were mean periodontal probing (PPD), mean clinical attachment loss (CAL) and thresholds of PPD and CAL. White blood cells (WBC), segmented neutrophils and C-reactive protein (CRP) were used as proxies for systemic inflammation. The periodontal measures were regressed across DII values using adjusted multivariate linear regression. Adjusted mediation analysis appraised the influence of DII in the association of periodontitis and systemic inflammation. 10,178 participants were included. DII was significantly correlated with mean PPD, mean CAL, thresholds of PPD and CAL, WBC, segmented neutrophils and DII (p<0.01). A linear regression logistic adjusted for multiple confounding variables confirmed the association between DII and mean PPD (B = 0.02, Standard Error [SE]: 0.02, p<0.001) and CAL (B = -0.02, SE: 0.01, p<0.001). The association of mean PPD and mean CAL with both white blood cells and segmented neutrophils were mediated by DII (from 2.1 to 3.5%, p<0.001). In the 2009-2010 subset, the association of mean CAL with serum CRP was mediated by DII (52.0%, p<0.01). In conclusion, inflammatory diet and PD may be associated. Also, the inflammatory diet significantly mediated the association of leukocyte counts and systemic inflammation with periodontitis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0415.v1
Subject: Biology, Ecology Keywords: seagrass; anthropogenic disturbance; boat anchoring; meadow traits; habitat loss; island ecosystem
Online: 18 September 2020 (04:03:57 CEST)
Seagrass ecosystems are lost due to habitat disturbance, coastal development and human pressure. We assessed the impact of boat anchors from traditional fishing and recreational activities on the seagrass Halophila ovalis from the Andaman and Nicobar Isalnds of India. The plant density, biomass, morphometrics, canopy height and percentage cover were estimated from two sites of Govind Nagar beach of Andaman and Nicobar Islands. The shoot density of H. ovalis was reduced by physical damage caused by boat anchors. The morphometrics of H. ovalis, such as number of leaves per ramet, leaf length, width and horizontal rhizome length were significantly reduced when impacted by boat anchors. Seagrass canopy height and percentage cover were reduced by 41% and 47% respectively. Though the impact of boat anchors reported here is on small-scale, it may impact feeding grounds of locally endangered dugongs. Therefore, proper management and preventive measures should be implemented to prevent the loss of dugong grass habitats from tourism, recreational and fishing activities.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0233.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Astronomy & Astrophysics Keywords: black holes; information paradox; Hawking radiation; information loss; gravitational waves; entropy
Online: 10 September 2020 (10:04:12 CEST)
The black hole information paradox is one of the most puzzling paradoxes in physics. Black holes trap everything that falls into them, while their mass may leak away through purely thermal Hawking radiation. When a black hole vanishes, all the information locked inside, if any, is just lost, thus challenging the principles of quantum mechanics. However, some information does have a way to escape from inside the black hole, that is, through gravitational waves. Here, a concise extension of this notion is introduced. When a black hole swallows something, whether it is a smaller black hole or an atom, the system emits gravitational waves carrying the information about the “food”. Although most of the signals are too weak to be detected, the information encoded within them will persist in the universe. This speculation provides an explanation for a large part, if not all, of the supposed “information loss” in black holes, and thus reconciles the predictions of general relativity and quantum mechanics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0271.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: geographic information system; land demand; land use; universal soil loss erosion
Online: 12 August 2020 (05:09:55 CEST)
The information on the land use and soil conservation practice based on year 2006, 2010 and 2014, hence offering an opportunity to model the impacts of land use change on erosion, deposition and surface water runoff. Limitation in the use of hydrological models had been their inability to handle the large amount of input data that describe the heterogeneity of the natural system. In this study, a procedure that takes into account soil conservation practice based on the land use change, the response of soil erosion and sediment export from the George Town Conurbation catchment area, and average annual sediment yields were estimated for each grid cell of the watershed to identify the critical erosion areas of rural and urban planning proposes. Average annual sediment yield and data on a grid basis estimated using Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) and an emerging technology represented by Geographic Information System (GIS) used as a tool to produce a map for erosion rate. The changing of the land use from forest to agriculture and then to an urban area is a challenging task to research on land use demand for population, and environmental impact assessment is important for the planning of natural resources management, allowing research the modification of land use properly and implement more sustainable for long term management strategies. The challenge is to formulate strategies that would promote an integrated approach to the land use planning at an appropriate level as to address the issues that arose. Modelling for creating urban growth boundary for the George Town Conurbation must have to be controlled surface runoff and soil loss and sediment export from land use of the George Town Conurbation catchment.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Dentistry Keywords: tissue-level; bone-level; dental implants; transmucosal; marginal bone loss; review
Online: 13 July 2020 (03:18:26 CEST)
Purpose: to assess any differences on marginal bone loss between bone-level or tissue-level dental implants through a review of literature until September 2019. Materials and methods: MEDLINE, Embase and other database were searched by two independent authors. The search was limited to articles in English. Results: The search provided 1028 records and, after removing the duplicates through titles and abstracts screening, 45 full-text articles were assessed for eligibility. For qualitative analysis 20 articles were included, 17 articles of them for quantitative analysis. A total of 1161 patients (mean age 54,4 years) and 2933 implants were observed, 1427 (Tissue-level) and 1506 (Bone-level). The survival rate and the success rate were more than 90%, except for 2 studies with a success rate of 88% and 86.2%. No studies reported any differences between groups in term of success and survival rates. Three studies showed that BL-implants had statistically less marginal bone loss (P< 0.05). Only one study reported statistically less marginal bone loss in TL-implants (P< 0.05). In the most part of the studies, differences between implant types in marginal bone loss were not statistically significant. Conclusion: Despite to the peri-implant tissue around transmucosal implants has been reported to be inﬂammation-free because of the absence of bacterial infiltration in the micro-gap between the fixture and abutment, no clinical and radiological differences were highlighted between groups from the included studies after a variable period of follow-up ranged between 1 to 5 years.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0151.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: climate change; adaptation; loss & damage; damage function; return period; tropical cyclone
Online: 13 May 2019 (10:07:41 CEST)
This paper constructs a model of climate-related damage for small island developing states (SIDS). We focus on the loss of private productive capital stocks through extreme climate events. In contrast to most economic analyses of climate impacts, which assume temperature-dependent damage functions, we draw on the engineering literature to allow for a greater or lesser degree of anticipation of climate change when designing capital stocks and balancing current adaptation expenditure against future loss & damage. We apply the model to tropical storm damage in the small island developing state of Barbados and show how anticipatory behavior changes the damage to infrastructure for the same degree of climate change. Thus, in the model, damage depends on behavior as well as climate variables.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0025.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Probability And Statistics Keywords: Bayes estimator, Bregman divergence, Density ratio, Exponential family, Log--Huber loss.
Online: 4 March 2019 (09:43:12 CET)
This paper considers estimating the ratio of two distributions with different parameters and common supports. We consider a Bayesian approach based on the Log--Huber loss function which is resistant to outliers and useful to find robust M-estimators. We propose two different types of Bayesian density ratio estimators and compare their performance in terms of Bayesian risk function with themselves as well as the usual plug-in density ratio estimators. Some applications such as classification and divergence function estimation are addressed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0263.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics Keywords: CO2 lasers; negative curvature fibers; chalcogenide glass; fiber loss; mid-IR
Online: 16 July 2018 (08:40:16 CEST)
We study impact of geometry on leakage loss in negative curvature fibers made with As2Se3 chalcogenide and As2Se3 chalcogenide glasses for carbon dioxide (CO2) laser transmission. The minimum leakage loss decreases when the core diameter increases both for fibers with six and for fibers with eight cladding tubes. The optimum gap corresponding to the minimum loss increases when the core diameter increases for negative curvature fibers with six cladding tubes. For negative curvature fibers with eight cladding tubes, the optimum gap is always less than 20 μm when the core diameter ranges from 300 μm to 500 μm. The influence of material loss on fiber loss is also studied. When material loss exceeds 102 dB/m, it dominates the fiber leakage loss for negative curvature fiber at a wavelength of 10.6 μm.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0122.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: electric vehicle; Nissan Leaf; lithium-ion battery; capacity loss; battery degradation
Online: 15 March 2018 (07:19:52 CET)
Analysis of 1382 measures of battery State of Health (SoH) from 283 Nissan Leafs (“Leaf/s”), manufactured between 2011 and 2017, has detected a faster rate of decline in this measure of energy-holding capacity for 30 kWh variants. At two years of age, the mean rate of decline of SoH of 30 kWh Leafs was 9.9% per annum (95% uncertainty interval of 8.7% to 11.1%; n = 82). This was around three times the rate of decline of 24 kWh Leafs which at two years averaged 3.1% per annum (95% uncertainty interval of 2.9% to 3.3%; n = 201). For both variants there was evidence for an increasing rate of decline as they aged, although this was much more pronounced in the 30 kWh Leafs. Higher use of rapid DC charging was associated with a small decrease in SoH. Additionally, while 24 kWh cars with greater distances travelled showed a higher SoH, in 30 kWh cars there was a reduction in SoH observed in cars that had travelled further. The 30 kWh Leafs sourced from United Kingdom showed slower initial decline than those from Japan, but the rate of decline was similar at two years of age. Improvements in the battery health diagnostics, continuous monitoring of battery temperatures and state of charge, and verification of a fundamental model of battery health are needed before causes and remedies for the observed decline can be pinpointed. If the high rate of decline in battery capacity that we observed in the first 2.3 years of a 30 kWh Leaf’s lifetime were to continue, the financial and environmental benefits of this model may be significantly eroded. Despite 30 kWh Leafs accounting for only 14% of all light battery electric vehicles registered for use on New Zealand roads at the end of February 2018, there is also the potential for the relatively poor performance of this specific model to undermine electric vehicle uptake more generally unless remedies can be found.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0014.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: corona loss; helical charge; 3-D calculation model; stranded conductor; sag
Online: 1 November 2017 (17:03:45 CET)
Corona loss generated from conductors is one of the important design factors on ac transmission lines. Based on helical charge simulation method, the 3-D corona loss calculation model considering the conductors’ outer strands in the corona cage is established. With regard to 2-D corona-loss calculation method, the calculation model proposed in this paper can take the electric field strength’s nonuniformity along the axial direction of stranded conductor into consideration, furthermore, it can also calculate the corona loss when the conductor has sag. The calculation results of the LGJ-300/40 and LGJ-400/35 in the small corona cage well coincide with the measurement results, which indicates that the corona-loss calculation model is appropriate. In addition, the corona loss of the bundle conductors 4 × LGJ720 with sag in UHV corona cage is also analyzed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201707.0026.v2
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: agavins; prebiotics; microbiota; overweight; body weight loss; short chain fatty acids
Online: 25 July 2017 (04:52:34 CEST)
Agavins consumption has lead to accelerate body weight loss in mice. We investigated the changes on cecal microbiota and short chain fatty acids (SCFA) associated to body weight loss in overweight mice. Firstly, mice were fed with standard (ST5) or high fat (HF5) diet for 5 weeks. Secondly, overweight mice were shifted to standard diet alone (HF-ST10) or supplemented with agavins (HF-ST+A10) or oligofructose (HF-ST+O10), five more weeks. Cecal contents were collected before and after supplementation to determine microbiota and SCFA concentrations. At the end of first phase, HF5 mice showed a significant increase of body weight, which was associated with reduction of cecal microbiota diversity (PD whole tree; non-parametric t-test, P < 0.05), increased Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio and reduced SCFA concentrations (t-test, P < 0.05). After diet shifted, HF-ST10 normalized its microbiota, increase its diversity and SCFA levels, whereas agavins (HF-ST+A10) or oligofructose (HF-ST+O10) led to partial microbiota restoration, with normalization of the Firmicutes/Bacteroides ratio as well as higher SCFA levels (P < 0.1). Moreover, agavins noticeably enriched Klebsiella and Citrobacter (LDA > 3.0); this enrichment has not been reported previously under a prebiotic treatment. In conclusion, agavins or oligofructose modulated cecal microbiota composition, reduced extent of diversity and increased SCFA. Furthermore, identification of bacteria enriched by agavins, opens opportunities to explore new probiotics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0330.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: crack severity; strain energy loss; beam deflection; frequency shift; hill-climbing method
Online: 24 June 2022 (04:46:40 CEST)
Evaluating the integrity of structures is an important issue in engineering applications. The use of vibration-based techniques has become a common approach to assessing cracks, which are the most often occurring damage in structural elements. When involving an inverse method, it is necessary to know the influence of the position and the geometry of the crack on the modal parameter changes. The geometry of the crack, both in size and shape, defines the damage severity (DS). In this study, we present a method (DS-SHC) used for estimating the DS for closed and open transverse cracks in beam-like structures by using the intact and damaged beam deflections under its weight and a Stochastic Hill Climbing (SHC) algorithm. After describing the procedure of applying DS-SHC, we calculate for a prismatic cantilever beam the severities for different crack types and depths. The results are tested by comparing the DS obtained with DS-SHC with those acquired from dynamic tests made using professional simulation software. We obtained a good fit between the severities determined in these two ways. Afterward, we performed laboratory experiments and find out that the severities obtained with the DS-SHC method can accurately predict the frequency changes due to the crack. Hence, these severities are a valuable tool for damage detection.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0075.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biotechnology Keywords: Algae; wet anaerobic storage; dry matter loss; organic acid; lactic acid bacteria
Online: 4 March 2022 (08:45:40 CET)
Wet anaerobic storage of algal biomass is a promising preservation approach which can ensure continuous supply of these feedstocks to biorefineries year-round. An effective solution to preservation must ensure minimal dry matter loss and change in biochemical composition during storage. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the preservation of Nannochloropsis gaditana biomass through wet anaerobic storage and its impact on biomass quality. Prior to storage, algae sample was inoculated with two different strains of lactic acid bacteria and thereafter stored for 30 and 180 days. Each inoculant limited dry matter loss to <10% (dry basis) after the storage durations. Final pH values (4.3 - 4.8) indicate that the biomass samples were properly ensiled, achieving the acidic conditions necessary for preservation. Compositional analysis of the biomass after storage showed a reduction in carbohydrate content, a relative increase in lipid content, and no significant change to the protein fraction. Glucose and galactose were the prevalent sugar monomers. The low dry matter loss and minimal compositional change indicates that wet anaerobic storage is an effective means of preserving algal biomass, ensuring a constant supply of algal biomass feedstock to a biorefinery.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0156.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: circulating thymidine kinase 1; cell loss; biomarker; early treatment response; breast cancer
Online: 8 September 2021 (16:25:39 CEST)
Complete pathologic response (pCR) predicts the long-term outcome of neoadjuvant treated (NAC) breast cancer (BC) but is reached in <10% of hormone-receptor-positive patients. Biomarkers able to guide adjustment or interruption of an ineffective therapy are desired. Here, we evaluated whether shifts in the serum concentration of thymidine kinase 1 (sTK1) during NAC could be utilized as a biomarker. In the PROMIX trial, women with localized HER2- BC received neoadjuvant epirubicin/docetaxel in six cycles. sTK1 was measured with an ELISA in 54 patients at cycles 1-4 and in a total of 131 patients before and 48h after cycle 1. The prognostic significance of the results was evaluated by log-rank tests of Kaplan–Meier estimates. Treatment resulted in a 2-fold increase of sTK1 before and 3-fold increase 48h after the cycles, except for the first cycle, where half of patients reacted with a decrease (post/pre sTK1- ratio <1.12) and the other half reacted with an increase (ratio >1.12). OS rates in ER+ patients with ratios of >1.12 and <1.12 were 97.7% and 78% (p=0.005), respectively, and DFS rates were 90.7% and 68% (p=0.006), respectively. Thus, response of sTK1 at the first cycle of chemotherapy could be used both as an early biomarker for guidance of chemotherapy and for the study of inherent tumor chemo-sensitivity, which could predict long-term outcome prior to therapy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0279.v1
Subject: Keywords: Glaucoma; Diabetic Retinopathy; Convolution Neural Network (CNN); Vision Loss; Blindness; Machine Learning
Online: 12 August 2021 (15:36:51 CEST)
In the last few decades, glaucoma became the second biggest leading cause of irreversible vision loss. Because of its asymptotic growth, it is not properly diagnosed until the relatively late stage. To stop the severe damage by glaucoma it is needed to detect glaucoma in its early stages. Surprisingly diabetes also be the greatest cause of glaucoma. In the modern era, artificial intelligence makes great progress in the medical image processing field. Image analysis based on machine learning gives a huge success in diagnosis glaucoma without any misdiagnosis. The aim of this proposed paper is to create an automated process that can detect glaucoma and diabetic retinopathy. Here various Machine Learning models are used and results of these methods are presented.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0502.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: KARS gene; aminoacylation; leucodistrophy; epilepsy; hearing loss developmental delay; whole exome sequencing
Online: 24 August 2020 (03:10:45 CEST)
The KARS gene encodes the aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase (aaRS) which activates and joins the lysin with its corresponding transfer RNA (tRNA), through the ATP-dependent aminoacylation of the amino acid. The KARS gene mutations have been linked to diverse neurologic phenotypes such as: neurosensorial hearing loss, leukodistrophy, microcephaly, developmental delay or regression, peripheral neuropathy, cardiomyopathy, impairment of the mitochondrial respiratory chain, hyperlactatemia, among others. This article presents the case of a Colombian pediatric patient with two pathological missense variants in a compound heterozygous state in the KARS gene.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0147.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: gut microbiota; obesity; weight-loss; Mediterranean diet; 16S rRNA; High-throughput sequencing
Online: 8 July 2020 (11:07:10 CEST)
Although it is known that the gut microbiota (GM) can be modulated by diet, the efficacy of specific dietary interventions in determining its composition and diversity in obese patients remains to be ascertained. The present work aims to evaluate the impact of a moderately hypocaloric Mediterranean diet on the GM of obese and overweight patients (OB). The GM of 23 OB patients (F/M= 20/3) was compared before (T0) and after 3 months (T3) of the nutritional intervention (NI). Fecal samples were analyzed by Illumina MiSeq sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. At baseline, the GM characterization confirmed the typical obesity-associated dysbiosis. After 3 months of NI, patients presented a statistically significant reduction of the body weight and fat mass, along with changes in the relative abundance of many microbial patterns. In fact, we observed an increased abundance in several Bacteroidetes taxa (i.e. Sphingobacteriaceae, Sphingobacterium, Bacteroides spp., Prevotella stercorea) and depletion of many Firmicutes taxa (i.e. Lachnospiraceae members, Ruminococcaceae and Ruminococcus, Veillonellaceae, Catenibacterium, Megamonas). In addition, the phylum Proteobacteria showed an increased abundance, while the genus Sutterella, within the same phylum, decreased after the intervention. Metabolic pathways, predicted by bioinformatic analyses, showed a decrease in membrane transport and cell motility after NI. The present study extends our knowledge of the GM profiles in OB, highlighting the potential benefit of a moderate caloric restriction in counteracting the gut dysbiosis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0057.v2
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: birefringence; confinement loss; photonic crystal fibre; relative dispersion slope; single mode operation
Online: 22 April 2020 (05:45:04 CEST)
This article reveals a best possible design for hybrid dispersion compensating fiber (HyDCF) with high birefringence established on modified broadband compensating structure through S, C and L telecommunication bands. The simulation outcome exhibits relatively higher birefringence of 3.76×10-2 at wavelength of 1550 nm. The suggested fiber also has dispersion compensation characteristics in an inclusive series of wavelengths which covers 1400-1625 nm. The reported design can achieve dispersion quantity of – 606 ps/ (nm.km) at 1550 nm effective wavelength. The reported fiber design matches the relative dispersion slope (RDS) 0.003694 nm-1 similar to single mode fiber at 1550 nm operating wavelength. This fiber demonstrates negatively flattened effective dispersion of – 2.703 ± 0.734 ps/ (nm.km) within 180 nm flat band ranging from 1460-1640 nm wavelength. It is also convenient to optical high bit rate communication systems. The low confinement loss is found 3.756×10-10 dB/m at the operating wavelength. This design also achieves highly nonlinear coefficient of 50.34 W-1km-1. In some cases, it can also be used in sensing applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0217.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: swirling flow; lobed nozzle; stream-wise vortex; mixing efficiency; total pressure loss
Online: 19 November 2019 (03:03:48 CET)
Influence of core flow inlet swirl angle on aerodynamic performances of an exhaust nozzle with scarfed lobed mixer was studied by the validated computational approach. The computational simulation was conducted by resolving the steady form of discretized three-dimensional Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes equations with the shear stress transport k-Ω turbulence model. Simulation results depict that swirling motions have ignorable influence on the flow field of the top part in the cross sections slightly downstream of the lobed trailing edge. Besides, for the flow field downstream of the L/D=0.1 cross section, the swirling motions are suggested to cause the clockwise stream-wise vortex to stretch into several smaller-scale vortexes. When the case with a bigger swirling angle is investigated, the induced smaller-scale vortexes are more strengthened by the swirling motions. Concerning the 15° swirling case, the loss caused by the destroyed vortex pattern and the benefit induced by the improved smaller-scale vortexes almost counteract with each other with respect to the thermal mixing efficiency. In the last studied cross section as compared with the baseline case, the case with a maximum swirling angle of 30° has increased 6.94% for the thermal mixing efficiency and decreased 0.42% for the total pressure recovery coefficient.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0280.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: nutrition; plant-based diet; vegan diet; lifestyle; obesity; body composition; weight-loss
Online: 24 October 2019 (15:30:39 CEST)
Failure of various weight-loss programs and long-term maintenance of favorable body composition in all kinds of people is high, since the majority go back to old dietary patterns. Many studies have documented the efficacy of a plant-based diet (PBD) for body mass management, but there are opinions that maintaining a PBD is difficult. We aimed to evaluate the long-term success of a whole-food plant-based (WFPB) lifestyle program. We investigated the differences in the obesity indices and lifestyle of 151 adults (39.6 ± SD 12.5 years), who were on our program for short (0.5–<2 years), medium (2–<5 years), or long term (5–10 years). Body-composition changes were favourable for all three groups, both genders and all participants. There were no differences in relative body-composition changes (BMI, body fat percentage and muscle mass index (MMI)) between the three groups. All participants improved their BMI (baseline mean pre-obesity BMI range (kg/m2): 26.4 ± 5.6 to normal 23.9 ± 3.8, p < 0.001), decreased body mass (–7.1 ± 8.3 kg, p < 0.001) and body fat percentage (–6.4 ± 5.6 % points, p < 0.001). Those with the highest BMI at baseline lost the most of: a) BMI units, b) total body mass and c) body fat (a) (kg/m2) (–5.6 ± SD 2.9, –2.4 ± 1.8 and –0.9 ± 1.5), b) (kg) (–16.1 ± SD 8.8, –7.1 ± 5.4 and –2.5 ± 4.5) and c) (% points) (–9.5 ± SD 5.7, –6.6 ± 4.6 and –4.7 ± 5.3) for participants who had baseline BMI in obese, overweight and normal range, respectively; pbaseline vs. current < 0.001 for all). 85.6% (101 out of 118) of parents of underage children (< 18 years), introduced WFPB lifestyle to their children. WFPB lifestyle program provides long-term lifestyle changes for reversal of obesity and is effective transferred to the next generation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0131.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: phase-shifted full-bridge; resonant converter; photovoltaics; zero voltage switching; power loss
Online: 14 June 2019 (10:01:32 CEST)
This paper presents the design of a high frequency zero voltage switching (ZVS) full-bridge converter with a phase-shifted driving signal for photovoltaic applications. The resonant power converter can provide high-power capacity under high-frequency operation. The proposed power converter can also reduce the size of the transformer under the same power rating. The high-frequency transformer was developed by using the resonant and switching frequencies of the power converter to reduce the switching loss and to improve the system efficiency. Phase-shifted modulation was selected to drive the switches of a full-bridge power converter based on the switching loss minimization method. The desired output voltage was controlled using a closed-loop controller under a loop gain stability margin. The simulation results showed that the output voltage can be controlled to the desired constant when the input voltage changes from 30 VDC to 60 VDC. The desired output voltage of power converter is constant at 400 VDC. The power converter can transfer the DC supply to a 220 VAC household via grid-connected inverter. Therefore, the proposed study showed the effectiveness of the phase-shift ZVS full-bridge power converter with high-frequency transformer. This power converter can control the operation of the desired voltage system and has a small sizing of power converter system, low switching loss, and high system efficiency.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0137.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: eddy current loss; multi-objective optimization (MOO); electromagnetic analysis; equivalent hierarchical method
Online: 11 April 2018 (05:45:35 CEST)
The eddy current loss should be optimized to be as less as possible for the stability of permanent magnet in high speed permanent magnet synchronous motor (HSPMSM) rotor and ensure the high efficiency and low temperature of the motor. This paper analyzes the eddy current distribution in rotor, with consideration of the conflict of the thickness of sleeve and diameter of the rotor, calculating the eddy current loss (ECL) and the thermal distribution via Separation of variables method for solving Maxwell's equations with analytical hieratical model of ECL constructed. The optimization result of ECL of the HSPMSM whose power and rated speed is 30kw 48000r/min can be got by multi-objective optimization method, combined weighting coefficient method and traversal algorithm based on chaotic local search particle swarm optimization (CLSPSO), utilizing ECL analytical model and other analytical constraints. Related experiment and measurement has been implemented with new approach of loss separation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0121.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: REBF; protection levels; agricultural economic loss; Baoji section of the Weihe River
Online: 18 December 2017 (11:36:05 CET)
Many agricultural water uses crowd the river ecology of the river water, thus leading to irreversible habitat damage. This paper presents an agricultural economic loss calculation model that is based on river ecological basic flow (REBF) protection by introducing a typical crop water requirement coefficient. First, the water balance equation is used according to a set of REBF protection values to compute the agricultural water shortage that results in the REBF. Second, the agricultural water shortage that results in REBF protection and a typical crop water requirement coefficient are used to determine the food production generated by REBF protection. Finally, the loss of food production and the food market prices are used to determine the agricultural economic loss caused by the different protection levels of REBF. A case study of the Weihe River in China is conducted. The calculation model is used to compute the agricultural economic loss on the basis of REBF protection in the Baoji section of the Weihe River, and the change law of the agricultural economic loss that results in different levels of the REBF is discussed. In addition, changes in the canal water use coefficient and the crop structure that affect agricultural economic loss are analyzed. Results show that the spatial and temporal variations in the runoff affect the changes in time and space of the agricultural economic loss. The higher the REBF protection level, the higher the agricultural economic loss. In addition, agricultural economic loss can provide a quantitative basis for reasonable REBF protection. The size of agricultural economic loss helps the government sector in decision-making on REBF protection.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0081.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Cable ferrite; electromagnetic interferences; low frequency emissions; nanocrystalline; relative permeability; insertion loss
Online: 13 December 2017 (13:37:22 CET)
The gap of standardization for conducted and field coupled electromagnetic interferences (EMI) in the 2–150 kHz frequency range can lead to Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) problems. This is caused by power systems such as PWM controlled rectifiers, photovoltaic inverters or charging battery units in electric vehicles. This is a very important frequency spectral due to interferences generate in a wide range of dives and, specifically, communication problems in the new technologies and devices incorporated to the traditional grid to convert it into Smart Grid. Consequently, it is necessary to provide new solutions to attenuate this kind of interferences, which involve finding new materials able to filter the electromagnetic noise. This contribution is focused on characterizing the performance of different cable ferrite compositions in order to determine the effectiveness of most common materials such as MnZn and NiZn and a new range based on nanocrystalline solutions. This analysis procedure is carried out through two methods: theoretical method by determining the insertion loss through measuring impedance parameter and proposing a new empirical technique based on measuring directly the insertion loss parameter. Therefore, the main aim of this characterization process is to determine the performance of these cable ferrites to reduce the interferences in this controversial frequency range. From the results obtained, it is possible to deduce that nanocrystalline cable ferrites provide the best performance to filter the electromagnetic noise in the 2-150 kHz frequency range.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0039.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: autoimmune sensorineural hearing loss; age-related sensorineural hearing loss; inflammation, immune senescence; interleukin 1 receptor type II -positive T cells; naturally occurring regulatory T cells; immune rejuvenation; thymus
Online: 4 January 2019 (11:37:31 CET)
Although congenital sensorineural hearing loss (SHL) in the bilateral cochleae mainly results from genetic abnormalities, chronic SHL progressing in later life is often influenced by systemic immune disturbances, including autoimmunity, chronic inflammation, and immunosenescence. We have investigated the relationship between the inner ear and systemic immunity and reviewed the possibilities to prevent SHL, including autoimmune SHL and age-related SHL. We also demonstrated two lymphocyte populations, interleukin 1 receptor type II (IL-1R2)-positive T cells (T1R2) and naturally occurring regulatory T cells (nTregs) in CD4+ T cells, which increase with aging, suppress host immune function and promote organ degeneration. Alterations in systemic immunity by fewer microbial antigen challenges in the living environment, elimination of immune suppressive lymphocytes, or immune rejuvenation with a reconstituted thymus may contribute not only to renew the cochlear function in SHL, but also to extend the healthy life of functional organs in a vigorous and youthful body, one of humanity’s greatest dreams.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0517.v3
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Robust Design, Taguchi Method, Product Design, Manufacturing Systems, Quality Engineering, Quality Loss Function.
Online: 25 August 2022 (08:36:39 CEST)
One of the main technological and economic challenges for an engineer is designing high-quality products in manufacturing processes. Most of these processes involve a large number of variables included the setting of controllable (design) and uncontrollable (noise) variables. Robust Design (RD) method uses a collection of mathematical and statistical tools to study a large number of variables in the process with a minimum value of computational cost. Robust design method tries to make high-quality products according to customers’ viewpoints with an acceptable profit margin. This paper aims to provide a brief up-to-date review of the latest development of RD method particularly applied in manufacturing systems. The basic concepts of the quality loss function, orthogonal array, and crossed array design are explained. According to robust design approach, two classifications are presented, first for different types of factors, and second for different types of data. This classification plays an important role in determining the number of necessity replications for experiments and choose the best method for analyzing data. In addition, the combination of RD method with some other optimization methods applied in designing and optimizing of processes are discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0055.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: Food reward; Liking; Wanting; Food preferences; Bariatric surgery; Eating behavior; Total Weight Loss
Online: 6 January 2022 (09:49:34 CET)
Changes in food preferences after bariatric surgery may alter its effectiveness as a treatment for obesity. We aimed to compare food reward for a comprehensive variety of food categories between patients who received a sleeve gastrectomy (SG) or a Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and to explore whether food reward differs according to weight loss. In this cross-sectional exploratory study, food reward was assessed using the Leeds Food Preference Questionnaire (LFPQ). We assessed liking and wanting of eleven food categories. Comparisons were done regarding type of surgery and Total Weight Loss (TWL; based on tercile distribution). Fifty-six patients (30 SG and 26 RYGB) were included (women: 70%; age: 44.0 (11.1) y). Regarding the type of surgery, scores were not significantly different between SG and RYGB, except for ‘non-dairy products – without color’ explicit liking (p = 0.04). Regarding TWL outcomes, explicit liking, explicit wanting and implicit wanting, scores were significantly higher for Good responders than Low responders for ‘No meat – High fat’ (post-hoc corrected p-value: 0.04, 0.03 and 0.04, respectively). Together, our results failed to identify major differences in liking and wanting regarding the type of surgery and tended to indicate that higher weight loss might be related to a higher reward for high protein-content food. Rather to focus only on palatable foods, future studies should also consider a broader range of food items, including protein reward.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0035.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, General Humanities Keywords: biodiversity loss; Venda; cultural landscape; myths; legends; Thathe forest; Lake Fundudzi; Phiphidi waterfalls
Online: 2 September 2021 (11:59:07 CEST)
Human-driven biodiversity destruction are responsible for significant and sustained heritage losses in Africa. In Venda, northern South Africa, biodiversity losses are eroding the existence of sacred places. Such places define the essence of indigenous people’s identity and well-being. We highlight how developments in Venda such as mining and agricultural expansion since apartheid times have destroyed biodiversity in the broader landscape, undermining efforts to reduce hunger and poverty. Thathe forest, Lake Fundudzi and Phiphidi waterfalls are central to Venda mythology and legends, origins and identity and are key towards conserving current biodiversity and heritage losses.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0563.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: sandblasted implants; acid-etched implants; taper connection; marginal bone remodeling; marginal bone loss
Online: 26 July 2021 (10:25:54 CEST)
Aim: the purpose of the present prospective, case series study were to report implant survival rate and marginal bone remodeling expected five years after loading using dental implants placed in in the daily practice. Material and Methods: this research was designed as an open-cohort, prospective case series study. Any completely or partially edentulous patients scheduled to receive at least one bone leve were considered eligible for this study. Primary outcomes were: cumulative implant (ISR) and prosthetic (PSR) survival rates, and any complications experienced up the five years follow-up. Secondary outcomes were: marginal bone remodeling, implant insertion torque, implant stability quotient (ISQ), and thickness of gingival biotype. Results: ninety consecutive patients (34 males and 56 females; mean age 53.2±15.4 years; range of 24–81 years), 243 implants were placed and followed for at least five years after loading (mean of 65.4±3.1 months; range of 60–72 months). The mean implant insertion torque was 42.9±4.8 Ncm (range from 15 to 45 Ncm). Overall, 83.5% of the implants (n=203) were placed with an insertion torque between 35 and 45 Ncm. At the one year follow-up, no drop-outs were recorded, but 17 patients (18.9%) with 18 restorations (12.6%) delivered on 34 implants (14%) were lost at the five years examination. At the five-year examination, six implants failed in six patients, resulting in a cumulative ISR of 97.5%. At the five-year follow-up, four prostheses failed (2.8%) resulting in a cumulative PSR of 97.2%. At the five-year examination, five complications were reported by five different patients, resulting in a prosthetic success rate of 96.5%, measured at patient level. Five years after loading, mean MBL was 0.41 ± 0.30 mm (95% CI: 0.26–0.34). Difference from the one year data was 0.04 ± 0.19 mm (95% CI: 0.01–0.07). The mean ISQ value at implant placement was 71.6 ± 5.5 (range of 45–88). Six months later, the mean ISQ was 76.7 ± 4.4 (range of 66–89). The difference was statistically significant (P=0.0001). Statistically significant higher MBL was found for smokers, and patient with thin gingival biotype. Conclusions: High implant survival and success rates could be expected with stable marginal bone remodeling up to five years after loading. Smoking and thin tissue biotype were the most important variabilities associated with higher MBL. Further research are needed to confirm these results.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0352.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense; Panama disease; epidemiology; disease impact; loss; yield; management.
Online: 15 July 2021 (10:12:43 CEST)
The effective management of Fusarium wilt of bananas (FW) depends on the knowledge of the disease dynamics in time and space. The objectives of this work were: To estimate disease intensity and impact, and to investigate the spatial and temporal dynamic of FW. Fields planted with Silk (n = 10), Pome (n = 17) or Cavendish (n = 3) banana subgroups were surveyed in Brazil, totaling 95 ha. In each field, all plants were visually assessed and diseased plants were georeferenced. The incidence of FW and the impact of the disease on yield on a regional scale were estimated. Spatial patterns were analyzed using quadrat- and distance-based methods. FW incidence ranged from 0.09 to 41.42%, being higher in Silk fields (median = 14.26%). Impacts of epidemics on yield ranged from 18.4 to 8,192.5 kg.ha-1.year-1, with a median of 935.2 kg.ha-1.year-1. The higher economic impact of the disease was observed on Silk cultivar with a median loss of US$ 910.5 ha-1.year-1. Overall, estimated losses increased on average by US$ 109.8 ha-1.year-1 at each 1% of incidence. Aggregation of FW was detected by all analytical methods in 13 fields (1 of Cavendish, 11 of Pome and 1 of Silk). In the other 17 fields, at least one analytical method did not reject the null hypothesis of randomness. One field (5 ha), composed of six plots, was selected for spatial and temporal studies during two years with bi-monthly assessments. A sigmoidal curve represented the FW progress and the Gompertz model best fitted disease progress. The level of aggregation varied over time, and evidence of secondary infection to neighboring and distant plants were detected. FW is a widespread problem in Brazil and yield losses can be of high magnitude. Epidemiology-based management strategies can now be better established.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0547.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: obesity; irisin; whole-body vibration; exercise; weight loss; rehabilitation; weight management; muscle strength
Online: 26 January 2021 (16:27:26 CET)
The use of whole-body vibration (WBV) for therapeutic purposes is far from being standardized and only very recently an empirical foundation for reporting guidelines for human WBV studies has been published. Controversies about safety and therapeutic dosage stll exist. The present study aimed to investigate the metabolic and mechanical effects of low-intensity WBV in according to the ISO 2631 norm on subjects with obesity. 41 obese subjects (BMI≥ 35 kg/mˆ2) were recruited to participate in a 3-week multidisciplinary inpatient rehabilitation program including fitness training and WBV training. During WBV the posture was monitored with an optoelectronic system with 6 infrared cameras (Vicon, Vicon Motion System, Oxford, UK). The primary endpoints were: variation in body composition, factors of the metabolic syndrome, functional activity (sit-to-stand and 6-min walking test), muscle strength, and quality of life. Secondary endpoints were: modification of irisin, testosterone, growth hormone, IGF1 levels. We observed significant changes in salivary irisin levels, Group 2 (p<0.01) as compared to the control group, while muscle strength, function, and other metabolic and hormonal factors did not change after a 3-week low-intensity WBV training respect control group. Future studies are needed to deeper investigate the potential metabolic effect of low-intensity WBV in managing weight.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0071.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: aero-fuel centrifugal pump; combination impeller; flow loss; flow characteristics; head and efficiency
Online: 9 January 2020 (05:22:18 CET)
Aero-fuel centrifugal pumps are important power plants in aero-engines. Unlike most of the existing centrifugal pumps, a combination impeller is integrated with the pump to improve its performance. First, the critical geometrical parameters of combination impeller and volute are given. Then, the effects of combination impeller on flow characteristics inside the impeller and volute are clarified by comparing simulation results with that of the conventional impeller, where the effectiveness of selected numerical method is validated by an acceptable agreement between simulation and experiment. Finally, the experiment is performed to test the external performance of studied pump. A significant feature of this study is that the flow characteristics are significantly ameliorated by reducing the flow losses emerged in impeller inlet, impeller outlet and volute tongue. Correspondingly, the head and efficiency of combination impeller are higher with comparison to conventional impeller. Consequently, it is a promising approach in ameliorating flow field and improving external performance by applying a combination impeller to an aero-fuel centrifugal pump.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0339.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: distributed generator; load balancing; network reconfiguration; optimization; power loss minimization; soft open points
Online: 30 September 2019 (04:58:28 CEST)
In this paper, a recent meta-heuristic optimization algorithm called the discrete-continuous hyper-spherical search algorithm is used to solve the mixed-integer nonlinear problem of soft open points (SOPs) and renewable distributed generators allocation along with new network reconfiguration methodology under different loading conditions to minimize the total power loss in balanced distribution systems. Multi-scenario studies, which aim to improve the investigation of the overall performance of the strategies, are conducted on IEEE 33-node and 83-node balanced distribution systems. The contributions of SOP losses to the total active losses, as well as the effect of increasing the number of SOPs connected to the system, are investigated to determine the real benefits gained from their allocation. The results obtained validate, with proper justifications, the effectiveness of allocating both SOPs and renewable distributed generators with the proposed network reconfiguration methodology to provide the best operation of distribution networks with minimum losses and enhanced power quality performance. It was also shown that SOPs successfully assist the growing integration plans of the renewable distributed generators units and can address issues related to voltage violations and network losses efficiently.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0119.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics Keywords: lithium niobate; waveguide; photonic integrated circuit; propagation loss; optical lithography; chemo-mechanical polishing
Online: 7 October 2018 (10:34:27 CEST)
We develop a technique for realizing lithium niobate on insulator (LNOI) waveguides of a multi-centimeter-length with a propagation loss as low as 0.027 dB/cm. Our technique relies on patterning a chromium (Cr) thin film coated on the top surface of LNOI into a hard mask with a femtosecond laser followed by the chemo-mechanical polishing for structuring the LNOI into the waveguides. The surface roughness on the waveguides is determined to be 0.452 nm with an atomic force microscope (AFM). The approach is compatible with other surface patterning technologies such as optical and electron beam lithographies or laser direct writing, enabling high-throughput manufacturing of large-scale LNOI-based photonic integrated circuits.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0069.v1
Subject: Materials Science, General Materials Science Keywords: Fe–6.5 wt.% Si; ribbon; melt spinning; ac iron loss prediction; magnetic properties
Online: 9 March 2018 (05:07:06 CET)
Ultra-thin Fe–6.5wt.%Si ribbons with 35 μm in thickness were prepared by melt-spinning. The magnetic properties were investigated before and after annealing 1000 ºC. DC properties and low-frequency (400 Hz ~ 10 kHz) iron losses have significantly improved after heat treatment. A simplified formula based on Steinmetz law which can be used to predict the AC iron loss is presented. According to the results of some iron losses data, a simplified formula has been determined, and the extent of AC iron losses can be predicted. The results obtained from the formula predict AC iron loss to a good degree. The method developed in this work could be extended to other magnetic materials for predicting AC iron loss with greater ease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0115.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Controlled drainage; Water content; Salinity (EC); Mineral nitrogen; Nitrogen loss; Yield of oilseed sunflower
Online: 5 July 2021 (16:06:58 CEST)
Controlled drainage (CD) is an important agricultural measure for maintaining soil moisture and nutrients, controlling groundwater level, and increasing crop yield. In arid regions, CD can be used to improve the water supply in agriculture and reduce environmental pollution. In this study, we investigated the effect of CD, including a drainage depth of 40 cm (CWT1) and 70 cm (CWT2) during the plant growth period, free drainage (FD), and open ditch drainage (OD) on the migration of water, nutrients, and salts in the soil; the dynamics of groundwater level; the loss of soil nitrogen; and the growth of oilseed sunflower plants. Compared with FD, CD increased the water and nutrient content in the soil, reduced nitrogen loss, and enhanced the ability of the soil to continuously supply nitrogen to the oilseed sunflower plants, which benefited plant growth at later growth stages and reduced environmental pollution. During the period between irrigation at the budding stage and harvest stage, the average soil water content in the 0–20 cm soil layer in CWT1 increased by 3.67%, 4.78%, and 0.55%, respectively, compared with that in CWT2, FD, and OD. The soil mineral content in CWT1 was 25.17%, 35.05%, and 17.78% higher than that in CWT2, FD, and OD, respectively, indicating that higher soil salinity occurred at the later stage of plant growth in CWT1, which actually had little effect on the plants due to their enhanced salt tolerance and increased need for water and nutrients at that stage. In addition, CD delayed the decline in groundwater level, which allowed the plants to use groundwater at later growth stages, and as a result the yield and water use efficiency were improved. CWT1 significantly increased oilseed sunflower yield by 4.52–11.14% and increased water use efficiency by 1.16–10.8%. Moreover, CWT1 also increased the survival rate of the oilseed sunflower plants by 2.62–2.92%, and the plants demonstrated good growth. Therefore, under CD conditions, plants used soil water and nitrogen more efficiently and, as a result, their productivity was increased, and the water quality was improved.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0204.v1
Subject: Keywords: One Health; Planetary Health; Pandemics; Ecology; Evolution; Environment; Climate change; Biodiversity loss; Emergence; Pathogen
Online: 8 June 2021 (09:34:57 CEST)
The implementation of One Health/EcoHealth/Planetary Health approaches has been identified as key (i) to address the strong interconnections between risk for pandemics, climate change and biodiversity loss, and (ii) to develop and implement solutions to these interlinked crises. As a response to the multiple calls of scientists in that direction, we have put forward seven long term research questions regarding COVID-19 and emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) that are based on an effective integration of environmental, ecological, evolutionary, and social sciences to better anticipate and mitigate EIDs. Research needs cover the social-ecology of infectious disease agents, their evolution, the determinants of susceptibility of humans and animals to infections, and the human and ecological factors accelerating infectious disease emergence. For comprehensive investigation, they include the development of nature-based solutions to interlinked global planetary crises, addressing ethical and philosophical questions regarding the relationship of humans to nature and regarding transformative changes to safeguard the environment and human health. In support of this research, we propose the implementation of innovative multidisciplinary facilities embedded in social-ecosystems locally: the “ecological health observatories” and the “living laboratories”. This work has been carried out in the frame of the EC project HERA (www.HERAresearchEU.eu) that aims to set the priorities for an environment, climate and health research agenda in the EU by adopting a systemic approach in the face of global environmental change.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0433.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Climate change; loss and damage; human well-being; marginal salt farmers; adaptation; vulnerability; Bangladesh
Online: 19 May 2021 (07:58:13 CEST)
In recent years in Bangladesh, there has been regular cyclonic event, flooding and erratic pre-monsoons precipitation that has hampered production greatly and forced Bangladesh to import salt from abroad to manage market deficiency. There is much uncertainty about the effects of climate change on the frequency and intensity of small-scale, sudden onset weather phenomena such as heavy rainfall and subsequent loss and damage (L&D). But, several studies indicate that an obvious strong relationship exists between irregular rainfall and associated L&D. Nowadays, severe changing rainfall patterns are observed in Bangladesh, which is rapid-onset in nature, but low exposed in terms of response. The current study explored a ‘double-exposed’ burden combined of both climatic (e.g., uneven rainfall) and non-climatic governance factors (e.g., imperfect trade policy, the absence of risk transfer mechanisms) which are hindering salt production and pushing the country from the aspiration of salt exporting to the net buyer. This chapter mainly assesses the impacts of L&D due to climatic events that are causing overwhelming effects on the well-being of marginal salt farmers at Kutubdia Upazila of Bangladesh. Data were mainly collected through Participatory Vulnerability Analysis (PVA), Key informant interviews (KII), and Sample Surveys (SS). This study would provide insights for improved disaster management policy and an appropriate adaptive measure to address such extreme events as well as to initiate a further study for understanding the nexus of ‘nature and market’ in building resilience among the marginal salt farmers.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0438.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: conversion efficiency; GaAs substrate; light absorption; nano-grating structures; reflection loss; simulation; solar cells
Online: 21 October 2020 (13:28:28 CEST)
At present, the world is now passing a very far different time than normal situation due to the COVID-19 pandemic crisis. The global life-style and human civilization is currently progressing with down-stream that affecting almost every sectors necessary for human civilizations except the current environmental situation. To control the COVID-19 spreading, most of the countries are following lockdown process that reduces human mobility, thus reducing the CO2 emission to the environment. Though the COVID-19 pandemic is a blessing for the present environment, however, the post-COVID world will face a massive thrust of energy and only conventional energy resources may not be enough to mitigate the energy demands. Solar power generation technology mainly the photovoltaic (PV) systems and their advancement can be the leading possibilities to minimize the gap between the power demand and generation. It is now time to think how we can improve the PV power generation in future and the post-COVID world. In this encyclopaedia communication, we report on Nano-technological approach to improve the conversion efficiency of GaAs solar cells. We have designed and optimized several types of nano-structured assemblies that can be implemented to reduce the front surface incident light reflection losses thus can assist to improve the conversion efficiency of GaAs solar cells.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0198.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Clinical Neurology Keywords: loss of taste and smell; dysgeusia; anosmia; chemosensory dysfunction; SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19
Online: 16 June 2020 (07:46:15 CEST)
Early detection, isolation, and management of COVID-19 patients are crucial to contain the current pandemic. The CDC in USA recently included "sudden loss of taste (dysgeusia/ageusia) and smell (anosmia/hyposmia)” as symptoms of COVID-19. If these symptoms are reliable forerunner symptoms of COVID-19, then it may facilitate early detection and containment of the disease. Hence, we systematically evaluated the contemporary evidence on dysgeusia and anosmia as trigger symptoms in COVID-19. Ovid MEDLINE, EBSCO host, and Web of Science databases were searched between December 25, 2019-May 30, 2020.Of the 13 identified records, eight (totaling 11,054 COVID-19 patients), were included, as per the selection criteria. The studies emanated mostly from the European community, as well as China, the USA, and Iran. In total, anosmia and dysgeusia symptoms were present in 74.9 % and 81.3% ambulatory as well as hospitalized, mild-to-severe cases of COVID-19 patients, respectively. The European, US, and Iran data indicate that olfactory, and gustatory symptoms appear prior to general COVID-19 symptoms in a majority of the patients. To our knowledge, this is the first systematic review analyzing the prevalence of chemosensory dysfunction in COVID-19. Further, studies are essential to evaluate their utility as harbingers of COVID-19 onset, and to establish clinical practice guidelines.