Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Deep Learning; Reducing Training Annotations per Image; Object Detection; Object Counting; Asymmetric Loss Function
Online: 15 January 2021 (15:44:51 CET)
Annotating training data is a time consuming and labor intensive process in deep learning, especially for images with many objects present. In this paper, we propose a method to allow deep networks to be trained on data with reduced numbers of annotations (per image) in heatmap regression tasks (e.g. object detection and counting), by applying an asymmetric loss function. In a real scenario, this reduction of annotations can be imposed by the researchers (e.g. ask the annotators to label only 50% of what they see in each image), or can potentially counteract unintentionally missing labels from the annotators. To demonstrate the effectiveness of our method, we conduct experiments in two domains, crowd counting and wheat spikelet detection, using different deep network architecture. We drop various percentages of instance annotations per image in training. Results show that an asymmetric loss function is effective across different models and datasets, even in very extreme cases with limited annotations provided (e.g. 90% of the original annotations reduced). Whilst tuning of the key parameters are required, we find that setting conservative parameter values can help more realistic situations, where only small amounts of data have been missed by annotators.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0222.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Probability And Statistics Keywords: Maximum likelihood estimate; Bayes estimate; Gamma distribution; Squared error loss function; Posterior distribution
Online: 10 August 2021 (09:54:48 CEST)
The power function distribution is a flexible waiting time model that may provide better fit for some failure data. This paper presents the comparison of the maximum likelihood estimates and the Bayes estimates of two-parameter power function distribution. The Bayes estimates are obtained, using conjugate priors, under five loss functions consist of square error, precautionary, weighted, LINEX and DeGroot loss function. The Gibbs sampling algorithm is proposed to generate samples from posterior distributions and in result the Bayes estimates are computed. The comparison of the maximum likelihood estimates and the Bayes estimates are done through the root mean squared errors. One real-life data set is analyzed to illustrate the evaluation of proposed methods of estimation. Finally, results from the simulation are discussed to assess the performance behavior of the maximum likelihood estimates and the Bayes estimates.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0194.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: general taste status; taste loss; supervised learning regression; random forest regressor
Online: 4 July 2023 (10:26:21 CEST)
In healthy humans, taste sensitivity varies widely, influencing food selection and nutritional status. Chemosensory reductions have been associated with numerous pathological disorders or pharmacological interventions. Reliable psychophysical methods are crucial resources to analyze the taste function during routine clinical assessment. However, in the daily clinical routine, they are often considered to be too time-consuming. We used the Supervised Learning (SL) regression method to analyze with high precision the overall taste status of healthy controls (HC) and patients with chemosensory loss and to characterize the combination of responses that best can predict the overall taste status of two groups. Random Forest regressor allowed us to achieve our objective. The analysis of the order of importance and impact of each parameter on the prediction of overall taste status in the two groups showed that salty (low concentration) and sour (high concentration) stimuli specifically characterized healthy subjects, while bitter (high concentration) and astringent (high concentration) stimuli identified patients with chemosensory loss. The identification of these distinctions appears to be of interest to the health system since they may allow the use of specific stimuli during routine clinical assessments of taste function reducing the commitment in terms of time and costs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0818.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Other Keywords: dynamic phase transition; alternating magnetic field; magnetic nanoparticle; hyperthermia; specific loss power
Online: 24 April 2023 (04:16:54 CEST)
Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) have attracted a great interest in nanomedical research. MNPs exhibit many important properties, particularly, magnetic hyperthermia for selective killing of cancer cells is one of them. In hyperthermia treatment, MNPs act as nano-heaters when they are under the influence of an alternating magnetic field (AMF). In this work, micromagnetic simulations have been used to investigate the magnetization dynamics of a single-domain nanoparticle of magnetite in an external AMF. Special attention is paid to the circumstances dealing with a dynamic phase transition (DPT). Besides, we focus on the influence of the orientation of the magnetic easy-axis of the MNP on the dynamic magnetic properties. For amplitudes of the external AMF above certain critical value, the system is not able to follow the magnetic field and it is found in a dynamically ordered phase; whereas for larger amplitudes, the state corresponds to a dynamically disordered phase and the magnetization follows the external AMF. Our results suggest that the way how the order-disorder DPT takes place, and both the metastable lifetime as well as the specific loss power (SLP), are strongly dependent on the interplay between the orientation of the magnetic easy-axis and the amplitude of the external AMF.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0341.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geography Keywords: population loss; wetland loss; land cover
Online: 5 May 2023 (10:01:07 CEST)
Despite increased hurricane intensity, the U.S. Gulf of Mexico coast has experienced dramatic coastal population increase of 24.5% from 2000 to 2016. However, in coastal Louisiana areas with dramatic wetland loss, parishes have experienced population declines and lower rates of population growth. Therefore, understanding the magnitude of the effect of wetland loss as a main driver in population loss in coastal Louisiana is critical. Using regression analysis, this study finds that wetland loss has a significant and persistent negative effect on population growth in coastal Louisiana. This effect resulted in a reduction in the population growth rate in coastal parishes over time. A counterfactual simulation was conducted to estimate the potential population size in the absence of wetland loss from 1990 to 2021. On average, the effect of 1 hectare of wetland lost causes a reduction of approximately 1000 persons. This indicates that for the year 2021, the population was approximately 18% lower than the population that would have existed in the absence of wetland loss. This research underscores the role of wetlands in providing direct and indirect benefits to people in coastal Louisiana that are ultimately reflected in its population levels.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0891.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: hearing loss; pure tone audiometry; structural changes in the optic nerve; RNFL; C/D ratio
Online: 12 May 2023 (05:18:02 CEST)
Background. In the last decade, it was concluded that glaucomatous optic neuropathy is part of the neurodegenerative diseases in which destructive neuronal lesions are located not only in the structure of the retina, but they are also present at the level of the central visual and nervous pathways. Patients with Primitive Open Angle Glaucoma may have experienced changes such as sensorineural hearing loss as well as balance changes. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the degree of involvement of the auditory system in patients with glaucoma, the structural changes in the optic nerve and, to establish correlation between the hearing loss and structural changes in the optic nerve. The subjects included in the study are grouped as follows: a group of patients with glaucoma that will be compared to a group of patients without glaucoma only as well as identi-fy-ing the evolution of structural changes in optic nerve to patients with glaucoma and to normal patients. Material and methods. It is a prospective, cross-sectional study on 32 eyes of 16 subjects with Primitive Open Angle Glaucoma in a study group and 24 eyes of 12 healthy subjects in con-trol group with a mean age of 62 years in both groups. Both groups underwent ophthalmo-logical, audiological and radio imaging evaluation: Pure-tone audiometry (PTA) were recorded, oph-thalmologic evaluations according to a standardized protocol and MRI cerebral examination was performed. Results: In the Study group patients, compared to the Control group, the average lev-els of the left PTA, the cup/disc (C/D) area in both eyes, the C/D ratio in both eyes are in-creased. The mean level of Retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) mean thickness was slightly lower in patients with glaucoma. Multivariate analysis demonstrates that gender can be a good predictor of C/D area, gender and age can be good predictors of PTA both eyes and C/D ratio in the right eye, and gender, age and background can be good predictors of disc area in the left eye. Conclu-sions: Pa-tients with Primitive Open Angle Glaucoma show changes in audiometry test in correla-tion with ophthalmological parameters demonstrating that the auditory system can be affected in Primitive Open Angle Glaucoma. This study emphasizes the problem of interdisciplinarity in medicine with the aim of ensuring the quality of life of patients with glaucoma. A good collabora-tion between ophthalmologist and otolaryngologist will be very useful for these patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1201.v1
Subject: Engineering, Bioengineering Keywords: Finite Element Analysis; Periodontium; Bone Loss; Attachment Loss; Maxilla; Mandible; Teeth
Online: 18 September 2023 (19:13:59 CEST)
The purpose of this study was to investigate the functional load capacity of the periodontal ligament (PDL) in a full arch maxilla and mandible model using numerical simulation. The goal of was to determine the functional load pattern in multi- and single rooted teeth with full and reduced periodontal support. CBCT data were used to create 3D-models of a maxilla and mandible. The DICOM dataset was used to create a CAD-model. For a precise description of the surfaces of each structure (enamel, dentin, cementum, pulp, PDL, gingiva, bone), each tooth was segmented separately, and the biomechanical characteristics were considered. A Finite-Element-Analysis (FEA) software computed the biomechanical behavior of stepwise increased force of 700N in cranial and 350N in ventral direction of the muscle approach of the Masseter muscle. The periodontal attachment (cementum-PDL-bone contact) was subsequently reduced in 1mm increments and the simulation repeated. Quantitative (pressure, tension, and deformation) and qualitative (color-coded images) data were recorded and descriptively analyzed. The teeth with the highest load capacities were the upper and lower molars (0.4-0.6MPa), followed by the premolars (0.4-0.5MPa) and canines (0.3-0.4MPa) when vertically loaded. Qualitative data showed that the area with the highest stress in the PDL were for single rooted teeth the cervical and apical area and for molars additionally the furcation roof. In both, single- and multi rooted teeth the gradual reduction of the bone levels caused an increase of the load on the remaining PDL. Cervical and apical areas as well as the furcation roof are the zones with the highest functional stress. The more bone loss, the higher the mechanical load on the residual periodontal supporting structures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0280.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: loss function; deep learning
Online: 6 September 2023 (03:29:46 CEST)
When training deep neural networks tasks, the most popular choices are cross-entropy loss. On the other hand, in general speaking, a decent loss function can take on shapes that are considerably more flexible and ought to be adapted for different activities and datasets. In most of the classification tasks, generally if the true class is not correctly recognized by the network (top1), that class is placed among the five classes with the highest probability (top5). This shows that the network does not necessarily recognize the correct class with a low probability, but a class similar to it (such as 3 vs. 8 in mnist) assigns a higher probability and this causes a mistake in that task. Accordingly, we proposed a loss function deals with the error of class that the neural network incorrectly recognized as correct, in addition to the correct class error. We call our proposed loss as False Positive Loss (FPL), with the intention of viewing and designing loss functions not only through the utilization of true class but also through the utilization of the value of false positive classes. One of the core properties of our proposed loss is full adaptability, which makes False Positive Loss be fully capable of getting reformulated by using other widely used loss functions formulas based on the task or the need of the users. Extensive experimental results demonstrate that our suggested loss function outperforms other well-known losses on a variety of tasks and datasets. As can be observed, the performance of our False Positive Loss is superior to that of the cross-entropy loss when it comes to tasks involving 2D picture classification. We have compared our loss with cross entropy as the most common classification loss function on some models (such as ResNet-18, ResNet-50 and Efficientnet-V2) through classification known as a basic computer vision task. with both random or pre-trained initial weights. As a result, in some cases the models with our loss outperform the same tasks with cross entropy from the viewpoint of some metric (i.e. accuracy and FP). For example, the resnet-50 on cifar-10 dataset with random initialization indicated a top1 accuracy of 94.93 with cross entropy and 95.25 with our loss, while for top5 accuracy the results are 99.86 and 99.87, respectively.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0748.v1
Online: 10 May 2023 (11:20:49 CEST)
Virus infection is one of the most common etiologies of hearing loss. Hearing loss associated with viral infection can be unilateral or bilateral, mild or severe, sudden or progressive, and permanent or recoverable. Many viruses cause hearing loss in adults and children; however, the pathogenesis of hearing loss caused by viral infection is not fully understood. This review describes cytomegalovirus, the most common virus causing hearing loss, and other reported hearing loss-related viruses, along with their pathogenic characteristics and research progress on their pathology, hearing phenotypes, possible associated mechanisms, treatment and prevention measures, aiming to provide diagnostic and treatment assistance to clinical workers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0093.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Polymers And Plastics Keywords: unidirectional fibrous composites, interphase, storage/loss modulus, loss factor, frequency, glass transition.
Online: 7 December 2018 (17:07:22 CET)
Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) is a versatile technique that complements the information given by the more traditional thermal analysis techniques such as differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and thermal mechanical analysis (TMA). Dynamic constants such as storage modulus, loss modulus, and loss factor are temperature dependent and provide information about interfacial bonding between reinforced fibre and polymer matrix of composite material. To study the above mentioned properties at the glass transition region, for unidirectional fibrous composites reinforced with continuous fibers a reliable model was applied. In particular, the composite material was considered as composed of three phases with the intermediate phase between matrix and fibres, the interphase, to have variable properties depending on those of main phases and the mode of preparation of the overall material. The glass transition temperature is defined as the point at which the specific volume versus temperature curve changes abruptly slope marking the region between rubbery polymer and glassy polymer nature. Hence, the behaviour of unidirectional fibrous composites was investigated at this region. Examination of the glass transition temperature, which constitutes an upper limit for the structurally important glassy region through the loss factor, was performed by its consideration as a combination of glass transition temperature of matrix and interphase.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0522.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: vehicle; anti-force brake testing platform; friction loss; influence factor; friction loss model
Online: 9 October 2023 (11:35:05 CEST)
A friction loss model for brake testing platform is constructed to revise the braking force test results, which can largely improve the accuracy of automotive brake performance testing. Specifically, the influence of tire pressure, vehicle axle load, placement angle and vehicle speed on the friction loss is tested and analyzed on a wheelbase adjustable automotive anti-force brake testing platform. The friction loss model for the platform is constructed based on the defined relative slip and placement angle, which is validated through actual tests on four types of vehicles. The results showed that the maximum relative error between the values of the model calculated simulation and the measured was 2.2%, indicating the friction loss model is valid and can provide a basis for revising the braking force of automotive brake. Meanwhile, the maximum braking force increases from 3982 N to 4772 N, increased by 19.8%, when the placement angle increased from 36.9° to 47.0°. Accordingly, in order to improve the accuracy of detection results of the automotive anti-force rolling brake testing platform, the friction loss caused by the change in the placement angle should be revised, and then braking rate of the vehicle should be judged according to GB 7258-2017 and GB 38900-2020.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0456.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Mediterranean Diet; weight loss; determinants of health; healthy lifestyle; clinically significant weight loss
Online: 29 July 2022 (09:52:36 CEST)
Evidence indicates that unhealthy eating habits constitute multilevel obstacles threatening our health and well-being—studies suggesting that consumer choices turn irremovably towards Western diets. Mediterranean diets (MD) have been identified as one of the most effective in preventing and treating overweight and obesity. Considering this scientific substantiation in prevention and treatment activity, the purpose of this investigation is to verify this evidence. In our prospective interventional study, we examined the effect of MD on body weight in a female cohort sample. The analyzed group consisted of (n=181) females divided into three distinct groups based on their age (tricenarian, quadragenarian, and quinquagenarian). Anthropometric (weight, BMI, FATP, VFATL, FFM, TBW, and BMR), biochemical examinations (urea, creatinine, uric acid, ALT, AST, GGT, CHOL, HDL-CH, non-HDL, LDL-CH, TAG, GLU, and CRP) and comprehensive, personalized three months MD program was completed on the examined subjects. We didn’t establish convincing evidence of MD on weight reduction and its magnitude of correlation with a positive correspondence on selected determinants in all groups combined. There is a challenge to construct more robust prospective cohort studies that will incorporate add-on critical integrands that will be appropriate to monitor, evaluate and predict weight management in experimenting.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1597.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: RAM-PnC; resonator; anchor loss
Online: 24 November 2023 (11:31:53 CET)
This paper proposes a radial alternating materials phononic crystal (RAM-PnC). By simulating the band gap structure of the phononic crystal, it is verified that there is a complete acoustic band gap at the resonant frequency of 175.14 MHz, which can prevent the propagation of elastic waves in a specific direction. The proposed alternately arranged radial phononic crystal structure is applied to the thin-film piezoelectric-on-silicon (TPOPS) MEMS resonator. The finite element simulation method increases the anchor quality factor (Qanchor) from 60596 to 659536011 at the operating frequency of 175.14 MHz, which is about 10,000 times higher. The motion resistance of the RAM-PnC resonator is reduced from 156.25 Ω to 48.31 Ω compared with the traditional resonator. At the same time, the insertion loss of the RAM-PnC resonator is reduced by 1.1 dB compared with the traditional resonator.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0064.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Fasting; weight loss; obese; ketones.
Online: 3 March 2023 (09:08:53 CET)
This case study features an observation of an obese female (body mass index ≥ 30 kgm-2) who undertook a 10-day water and electrolyte fast with the aim of reducing body fat and improving physiological markers of health. A comprehensive range of physiological measures (body mass, girths, blood pressure, body fluid balance, urine osmolarity, and resting oxygen consumption), mood indicators, metabolic markers (blood ketones, blood glucose, breath ketones, urine ketones), and measurement of intake and expenditure (fluid intake, food intake, nutritional macros, steps taken, and estimated movement caloric expenditure) were measured before, during and after the fasting period to determine the effectiveness of undertaking extended therapeutic fasting for improving markers of health and weight loss. Body mass on the first day of the fast was 95.1 kg and on the tenth and final day of the fast it was 88.1 kg representing a loss of 7 kg at a rate of 0.7 kg·day1. Mean body mass in the 15 days after the fast was 88.3 ± 0.4 kg. This case study is novel in reporting key physiological and psychological markers over a 10-day fast, and in pre- and post-fast periods. A 10-day fast appears to be a safe and effective method of weight loss, mood is positively affected by fasting and weight loss from fasting can be sustained providing care is taken in the approach to post-fasting nutrition.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201702.0045.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: biodiversity loss; conservation; deforestation; Bangladesh
Online: 14 February 2017 (03:08:37 CET)
Biodiversity has become an issue of global anxiety over the past decades due to its rapid decline worldwide. Bangladesh as one of the most densely populated countries in the world is no more exception. The country, although, was once very rich in biodiversity, during the last few decades as a consequence of the rapid reduction in forest area, urbanisation, habitat modification, unsustainable natural resources use and collection and overall climate change it has decreased alarmingly. Of late, the government, as a signatory of various regional and international conservation treaties, has taken various initiatives to improve country’s dwindling biodiversity. This paper reviews the present situation of biodiversity in Bangladesh, management trends and major causes of biodiversity loss. A separate statutory body is fundamental to ensure conservation, sustainable use and equitable sharing of benefits arisen from biodiversity in the country.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: hearing loss; aging; hyperactivity; excitability; loss of inhibition; neurophysiology; auditory perception; neural plasticity; speech processing
Online: 15 April 2021 (13:34:54 CEST)
Many aging adults experience some form of hearing problems that may arise from auditory peripheral damage. However, it has been increasingly acknowledged that hearing loss is not only a dysfunction of the auditory periphery but results from changes within the entire auditory system, from periphery to cortex. Damage to the auditory periphery is associated with an increase in neural activity at various stages throughout the auditory pathway. Here, we review neurophysiological evidence of hyperactivity, auditory perceptual difficulties that may result from hyperactivity, and outline open conceptual and methodological questions related to the study of hyperactivity. We suggest that hyperactivity alters all aspects of hearing – including spectral, temporal, spatial hearing – and, in turn, impairs speech comprehension when background sound is present. By focusing on the perceptual consequences of hyperactivity and the potential challenges of investigating hyperactivity in humans, we hope to bring animal and human electrophysiologists closer together to better understand hearing problems in older adulthood.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1294.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Probability And Statistics Keywords: Generalized Bayes; learning rate parameter; exponential distribution; joint type-II censoring; point predictor; prediction intervals; squared-error loss; Linex loss; general entropy loss.
Online: 19 June 2023 (05:12:04 CEST)
In this paper, the problem of predicting future failure times based on a jointly type-II censored sample from k exponential populations is considered. The Bayesian prediction intervals and point predictors were then obtained. Generalized Bayes is a Bayesian study based on a learning-rate parameter. This study investigated the effects of the learning rate parameters on the prediction results. The loss functions of squared error, Linex, and general entropy were used as point predictors. Monte Carlo simulations were performed to show the effectiveness of the learning rate parameter in improving the results of prediction intervals and point predictors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0409.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Probability And Statistics Keywords: Generalized Bayes; learning rate parameter; exponential distribution; joint hybrid censoring; Linex loss; general entropy loss.
Online: 4 August 2023 (08:43:11 CEST)
Generalized Bayes is a Bayesian approach based on the learning rate parameter η. In this study, we examine the effect of parameter η on the estimation results considering joint type-I and type-II hybrid censored samples from k exponential populations. In addition to the learning rate parameter, we consider two loss functions, the Linex and general entropy loss functions in the Bayesian approach. Monte Carlo simulations are performed to compare the performances of the estimation results under losses and different values of η. An illustrative example is performed to study the effect of the learning rate parameter and the different losses with different parameters.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1428.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: Rehabilitation; Tooth Loss; Surgery; Computer-Assisted.
Online: 23 October 2023 (10:05:31 CEST)
The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical and radiographic outcomes of the All-on-4 technique in fully edentulous maxilla using R2GATE software for flapless, computer-guided surgery and immediate loading. Ten adult patients with fully edentulous maxilla, aged between 35 and 60 years, were included in the study between April 2021 and April 2022. The surgical procedure was performed under local anesthesia and followed the All-on-4 approach with immediate loading of implants using a screw-retained provisional acrylic resin prosthesis on the same day. Final prosthesis was delivered four months after the surgery. Clinical and radiographic outcomes were evaluated at four- and twelve-months post-operation. The study reported a 95% implant survival rate using the All-on-4 technique. The mean marginal bone level was recorded at 0.35 mm and 0.66 mm during the 4 and 12-month follow-up periods, respectively. Fixed provisional prosthesis fracture, abutment, and prosthesis screw loosening were the most frequent mechanical complications reported. Within the limitations of this study, the use of computer-guided surgery in the All-on-4 technique seemed to be a promising treatment option with high implant survival rates that may help reduce post-surgical discomfort and mechanical complications in the rehabilitation of the edentulous maxilla.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0310.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: olfactory loss; parosmia; food liking; cooking
Online: 24 May 2022 (02:59:57 CEST)
Olfactory dysfunction affects often has severe consequences on patients’ quality of life. The most common complaint in these patients is their reduced enjoyment of food in both patients with olfactory loss and parosmia. How the different types of olfactory dysfunction differ in relation to food and cooking habits, sensory awareness, and food-related quality of life has not yet received much attention. By applying questionnaires on cooking, food, olfactory function, weight changes, sensory awareness, and food-related quality of life, we investigate how various aspects of eating differ between participants with olfactory loss (n=271), parosmia(n=251), and normosmic controls(n=166). Cooking habits in olfactory dysfunction revealed pronounced differences as compared with normosmic controls. Cooking with olfactory dysfunction was associated with e.g., a lack of comfort and inspiration for cooking and an inability to make new foods successfully. Significant differences in cooking were also found between olfactory loss and parosmia. Food items were less familiar in participants with olfactory loss and parosmia, while the ratings of liking food items differed between olfactory loss and parosmia, indicating the importance of adapting ingredients in meals separately for olfactory loss and parosmia. Parosmia was associated with a higher incidence of weight loss, but we found no difference in the food-related quality of life between participants with olfactory loss and parosmia. While olfactory loss and parosmia have wide-ranging consequences on patients’ cooking and food habits, adapting meals to include ‘safer food items’ and integrating multisensory stimulation may be a possible avenue for improving the enjoyment of food.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: GWAS; drought; rapeseed; water loss ratio
Online: 26 September 2020 (14:20:53 CEST)
Rapeseed (Brassica napus) is one of the most important oil crops in the world; however, drought significantly curtails its growth and productivity. Identifying drought-tolerant germplasm is an efficient and low-cost strategy for addressing water shortages. Using water loss ratio (WLR) as an index of drought tolerance, we screened a panel of 265 B. napus lines. We identified eight low-WLR and six high-WLR accessions, which were regarded as drought-tolerant and drought-sensitive, respectively. Further validated these selected accessions at the seedling stage under drought-stress conditions. The drought-tolerant accessions had significantly greater fresh and dry weights under drought stress than the drought sensitive accessions. Using RT-qPCR, we showed that a set of previously reported drought-adaptive marker genes were expressed at higher levels in the drought-tolerant lines than in the drought-sensitive lines. These results indicated that the drought-tolerant genotypes could be identified from natural populations using WLR. Then, we performed a genome-wide association study to identify loci harboring single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). A total of 139 SNPs were significantly associated with the WLR, of which chromosome A10 harbored the largest number. Furthermore, four putative candidate genes were selected by combining the SNP–WLR association results and transcriptional expression data with the changes in drought tolerance. Thus, we have identified two drought-tolerant B. napus cultivars and uncovered genome-wide variation differentiating B. napus lines related to WLR, in addition to providing insights for further research into WLR-related drought mechanisms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0155.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: electrical machine; field weakening; IEM-formula; wind energy; iron loss; synchronous generator; equivalent circuit; harmonic loss
Online: 24 October 2017 (04:52:15 CEST)
During flux weakening operation time (FWOT), the total iron loss rises and affects the accuracy of loss prediction and efficiency especially if a large range of FWOT exists. Iron loss prediction is widely employed in investigations for a fast electrical machine analysis using 2-D FEA. This paper studies harmonic loss analytically by a steady-state equivalent circuit. Consideration of skin effects and iron saturation are utilized in order to examine the accuracy through the relative error distribution in the frequency domain of each model from 50 to 700 Hz. Additionally, this comparative study presents a torque-frequency-flux density calculation over each single term of the modified IEM-formula. The analytical calculation is performed using 2-D FEA for a classic and modified IEM-formula along with experimental verifications on a surface-mounted PMSG for a wind generation application.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0967.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: climate grief; solastalgia; bereavement; eco-anxiety; chronic sorrow; nonfinite loss; sadness; disenfranchised grief; anticipatory mourning; ambiguous loss
Online: 15 November 2023 (16:34:05 CET)
Ecological changes evoke many felt losses and types of grief. These affect sustainability efforts in profound ways. Scholarship on the topic is growing, but the relationship between general grief research and ecological grief has received surprisingly little attention. This interdisciplinary article applies theories of grief, loss, and bereavement to ecological grief. Special attention is given to research about “non-death loss” and other broad frameworks about grief. Dynamics related to both local and global ecological grief are discussed. Kinds of potential losses arising out of ecological issues are clarified with the frameworks of tangible/intangible loss, ambiguous loss, nonfinite loss, and shattered assumptions. Various possible types of ecological grief are illuminated by discussing the frameworks of chronic sorrow and anticipatory grief/mourning. Earlier scholarship about disenfranchised ecological grief is augmented by further distinctions about various forms it may take. The difficulties in defining complicated or prolonged grief in ecological context are discussed, and four types of “complicated ecological grief” are explored. Based on the findings, three special forms of ecological loss and grief are named and discussed: transitional loss and grief, lifeworld loss, and shattered dreams. The implications of the results for ecological grief scholarship, counselling and coping are briefly discussed. The results can be used by psychological and healthcare professionals and researchers, but also by members of the public who wish to reflect on their eco-emotions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0094.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Phyllanthaceae; Phyllanthus; Leptopus; transition and transversion substitutions; chloroplast genome; phylogenetic; polymorphic loci; rps16 loss; atpF intron loss
Online: 5 July 2021 (12:03:13 CEST)
Family Phyllanthaceae is one of the largest segregates of the eudicot order Malpighiales and its species are herb, shrub, and tree, which are mostly distributed in tropical regions. Certain taxonomic discrepancies exist at genus and family level. Here, we report chloroplast genomes of three Phyllanthaceae species—Phyllanthus emblica, Flueggea virosa, and Leptopus cordifolius— and compare them with six others previously reported Phyllanthaceae chloroplast genomes. The species of Phyllanthaceae displayed quadripartite structure, comprising inverted repeat regions (IRa and IRb) that separate large single copy (LSC) and small single copy (SSC) regions. The length of complete chloroplast genome ranged from 154,707 bp to 161,093 bp; LSC from 83,627 bp to 89,932 bp; IRs from 23,921 bp to 27,128 bp; and SSC from 17,424 bp to 19,441 bp. Chloroplast genomes contained 111 to 112 unique genes, including 77 to 78 protein-coding, 30 transfer RNA (tRNA), and 4 ribosomal RNA (rRNA) that showed similarities in arrangement. The number of protein-coding genes varied due to deletion/pseudogenization of rps16 genes in Baccaurea ramiflora and Leptopus cordifolius. High variability was seen in number of oligonucleotide repeats while analysis of guanine-cytosine (GC) content, codon usage, amino acid frequency, simple sequence repeats analysis, synonymous and non-synonymous substitutions, and transition and transversion substitutions showed similarities in all Phyllanthaceae species. We detected a higher number of transition substitutions in the coding sequences than non-coding sequences. Moreover, the high number of transition substitutions was determined among the distantly related species in comparison to closely related species. Phylogenetic analysis shows the polyphyletic nature of the genus Phyllanthus which requires further verification. We also determined suitable polymorphic coding genes, including rpl22, ycf1, matK, ndhF, and rps15 which may be helpful for the reconstruction of the high-resolution phylogenetic tree of the family Phyllanthaceae using a large number of species in the future. Overall, the current study provides insight into chloroplast genome evolution in Phyllanthaceae.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0195.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Other Keywords: biological profile; radiology; bone loss; forensic anthropology
Online: 3 November 2023 (11:14:46 CET)
Estimating age at death is essential to establish a biological profile from human skeletal remains in both forensic and archeological settings. Imaging studies of skeletal age changes in adults have described metamorphosis of trabecular bone structure and bone loss in the proximal femur , as well as changes in morphology during different stages of life. This study aims to assess the utility of a digital representation of conventional X-ray films of the proximal femur for the estimation of age at death in a sample of 91 adult individuals (47 females and 44 males) of the Coimbra Identified Skeletal Collection. The proposed approach showed a root mean squared error (RMSE) of 17.32 years (and mean absolute error of 13.47 years) for females and an RMSE of 14.06 years (mean absolute error of 11.08 years) for males. The main advantage of this approach is the consistency in the feature detection and extraction, as X-ray images projected on the femora space will always produce the same set features to be analyzed for age estimation while more traditional methods rely heavily on operator experience which can lead to inconsistent age estimates among experts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1814.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: MEMS; TPoS; anchor loss; quality factor; tether
Online: 27 September 2023 (04:22:14 CEST)
This article presents a new design of supporting tethers through the concept of force distribution. The transmitted force applied on tethers will be distributed on the new tether design area resulting in low acoustic energy transferred to anchor boundaries and stored energy enhancement. This technique achieves an anchor quality factor of 175,000 compared to 58,000 obtained from con-ventional tether design representing 3-fold enhancement. Also, the unloaded quality factor of the proposed design improved from 23,750 to 27,442 representing 1.2-fold improvements.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0738.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Turbine; profile loss; organic Rankine cycle (ORC)
Online: 12 September 2023 (07:23:16 CEST)
Results of profile loss measurements, including trailing edge flow details, are presented for the flow of an organic vapor through a linear turbine cascade. The so-called VKI-I blade profile from the open literature was chosen for the cascade, and the working fluid was NOVEC 649. Pitot probes and hot wire anemometry were employed to measure the flow field up and downstream of the cascade. Details of the unsteady flow caused by the trailing edge of the blades and the turbulent spectrum were investigated using hot-wire anemometry. The new organic vapor flow results were compared with literature data obtained for air and with the prediction of conventional literature loss models. It was found that under certain thermodynamic conditions, specific traditional loss models can reasonably predict organic Rankine cycle (ORC) turbines' profile loss. Still, significant deviations between the loss models and the experimental data can also occur.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2103.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: ESV; estimated; change; induced; loss; western Ethiopia
Online: 29 June 2023 (11:32:49 CEST)
Land use/land cover (LULC) changes have a substantial influence on ecosystem services. The objective of this study is to estimate LULC dynamics induced ecosystem service values (ESV) changes in Western Ethiopia. Data were acquired from Landsat images of the area for four periods (1990-2020), and 221 sample households. The areas of LULC classes and the improved ESV coefficients of Costanza et al (1997) were used estimate ESV changes in 1990-2020. Forest provides diverse provisions, regulatory, supportive and cultural services. Analysis of the Landsat images showed that forest, farmland, settlement, water body and bare-land were the major LULC classes in the study area. While forest ESV had accounted 46.1% (US$ 4.95 million) of the ESV of Wayu-Tuka district in 1990, farmland ESV constituted the largest share (63.3%, US$ 5.21 million) of the ESV of the area after 30 years (2020). The ESV of forest and bare-land showed decreasing trends in three decades (1990-2020) but the farmland service value revealed an increasing trend in the same periods. Forest ecosystem exhibited the largest service value loss (US$ 3.91 million) in 1990-2020; whereas, the service value gain of farmland was only US$ 2.2 million although farmland was responsible for the conversion of the largest area size (9,766.5 ha) from other land covers in 30 years. LULC change induced net ESV loss of the district in three decades (1990-2020) was 23.4% (US$ 2.51 million). Land conversion due to expansion of farmland (by 9,766.5 ha) and settlement (by 4,061.3 ha) was the main cause for the LULC dynamics and the significant ESV loss in 1990-2020. Thus, the government and local people should cooperate so as to curb the steady degradation of forest and its ecosystem services in Wayu-Tuka district, Western Ethiopia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0097.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Vision And Graphics Keywords: Vision loss; Diabetic retinopathy; Image enhancement; APTOS
Online: 6 February 2023 (09:50:58 CET)
Vision loss can be avoided if diabetic retinopathy (DR) is diagnosed and treated promptly. Following are the main 5 DR stages: none, moderate, mild, proliferate, and severe. In this study, a deep learning (DL) model is presented that diagnoses all 5 stages of DR with more accuracy than previous methods. The suggested method presents two scenarios: case 1 with image enhancement using contrast limited adaptive histogram equalization (CLAHE) filtering algorithm in conjunction with an Enhanced Super-resolution generative adversarial network (ESRGAN), and case 2 without image enhancement; augmentation techniques are then performed to generate a balanced dataset utilizing the same parameters for both cases. Using Inception-V3 applied to the Asia Pacific Tele-Ophthalmology Society (APTOS) datasets, the developed model achieved an accuracy of 98.7% for case 1 and 80.87% for case 2, which is greater than existing methods for detecting the five stages of DR. It was demonstrated that using CLAHE and ESRGAN improves a model's performance and learning ability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0191.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: stocks portfolio; loss risk; heteroscedastic; VaR; backtesting
Online: 9 October 2020 (09:04:18 CEST)
Stocks portfolio is a form of investment that can be used to minimize the risk of loss. In a stock portfolio, the value at risk (VaR) can be predicted through the portfolio return. If portfolio return variance is heteroscedastic risk prediction can be done by using VaR with ARIMA-GARCH or Ensemble ARIMA-GARCH model approach. Furthermore, the accuracy of VaR is tested through backtesting test. In this study, the portfolio formed from Astra Agro Lestari Ltd (AALI) and Indofood Ltd (INDF) stocks from 10/02/2012 to 10/01/2019. The results showed that the best model is ARIMA(0,0,)-GARCH(1,2) with AIC of -5.604 and MSE 1.874e-07.At confidence level of 95% and 1 day holding period, the VaR of the ARIMA(0,0,)-GARCH(1,2) was -0.3464. Based on the backtesting test, it is proven to be very accurate to predict the value of loss risk because the value of the violation ratio (VR) is equal to 0.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0368.v8
Subject: Physical Sciences, Theoretical Physics Keywords: gravity; hidden variables; information loss problem; completeness, cosmological constant problem
Online: 6 May 2020 (15:43:39 CEST)
We study a localization of gravity through the matching point between non-inertial frames and local inertial frames. This localization of gravity is done through defining relative gravitational red-shift. This lead to an emergence of a timeless state in a mathematically consistent way. In this timeless state of gravity, we find a geometric interpretation of the speed of light and mass. The experimental support of the timeless state is the quantum entanglement and internal symmetries that are independent of time. Therefore gravity would be responsible for measurements independent of time including quantum entanglement. Timeless state in that sense explain why do we have gravity/gauge correspondence. We conjecture that the universe emerged from a black hole with a global $SU(3)\times SU(2)\times U(1)$ symmetry on its event horizon that produces gauge fields Electromagnetism, weak and strong nuclear force through localization of this global symmetry. Through the localization in the gravity field, the timeless measurements such as spin will be correlated with the varying of timeless measurement which is relative gravitational red-shift. We present a gravitational or geometric interpretation of spin-0, spin-1, and spin-1/2 states. We present an interpretation of why do we measure matter rather than anti-matter. We found that the Higgs scalar field is represented by the gravitational red-shift at every point in the space around the black hole. We derive the numerical value of the cosmological constant that agrees with experimental observations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0200.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: vitamin D; obesity; weight-loss; body composition
Online: 12 April 2020 (16:44:13 CEST)
Background: Vitamin D was studied in regards to its possible impact on body mass reduction and metabolic changes in adults and children with obesity yet there were no studies assessing the impact of vitamin D supplementation during a weight management programme in children and adolescence. The aim of our study was to assess the influence of 26 weeks of vitamin D supplementation in overweight and obese children undergoing an integrated 12-months’ long weight loss programme on body mass reduction, body composition and bone mineral density. Methods: A double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial. Vitamin D deficient patients ( <30 ng/ml level of vitamin D) aged 6-14, participating in multidisciplinary weight management programme were randomly allocated to receiving vitamin D (1200 IU) or placebo for the first 26 weeks of the intervention. Results: Out of the 152 qualified patients, 109 (72%) completed a full cycle of four visits scheduled in the programme. There were no difference in the level of BMI change. Although the reduction was greater in the vitamin D vs. placebo group (-4.28 ± 8.43 vs. -2.53 ±6.10) the difference was not statistically significant (p=0.319). Similarly the reduction in fat mass – assessed both using bioimpedance and DEXa was achieved, yet the differences between the groups were not statistically significant. Conclusions: Our study ads substantial results to support the thesis on no effect of vitamin D supplementation on body weight reduction in children and adolescents with vitamin D insufficiency undergoing a weight management programme. Trial registration no: NCT 02828228; trial registration date: 8 June 2016 registered in: ClinicalTrials.gov.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0505.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: mitochondria dysfunction; reactive oxygen species; hypoxic; D-galactose; high fat diet; aging; hearing loss; mechanisms of hearing loss
Online: 22 July 2020 (07:58:12 CEST)
Age-related hearing loss (ARHL) is the most common sensory disorder in the elderly. It is associated with aging and hair cell death due to oxidative stress-induced mitochondrial dysfunction. Although transgenic mice and long-term cultures for induction of aging have been used to study ARHL, there are presently no ARHL animal models stimulated by intermittent environmental change for aging. In this study, an ARHL animal model was established by inducing continuous oxidative stress to promote short-term aging of cells, determined based on the expression of the hearing loss-induced phenotype and aging related factors in the short term. The incidence of hearing loss was significantly different among the groups subjected to intermittent hypoxic environment, high-fat diet (HFD), and injection with D-galactose. Continuous oxidative stress and HFD were factors that accelerated cellular aging. Increase in UCP2 affected oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. CDH23, SLC26A4, KCNQ4, Myo7a, and Myo6, which are ARHL-related factors, were modified by oxidative stress in cells of the hearing organ. We found that intermittent hypoxic, HFD, and galactose injection accelerated cellular aging in the short term. Thus, we anticipate that the development of this hearing loss animal model, which reflects intermittent environmental changes, will benefit future research on ARHL.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0401.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: PV array configurations; Partial shading conditions; Performance assessment; Maximum Power Generation; Mismatch power loss; Relative power loss; Fill factor
Online: 27 October 2021 (11:32:30 CEST)
Partial shading on solar photovoltaic (PV) arrays is a prevalent problem in photovoltaic systems that impair the performance of PV modules and is responsible for reduced power output as compared to that in standard irradiance conditions thereby resulting in the appearance of multiple maximas on panel output power characteristics. These maxims contribute to mismatch power losses among PV modules. The mismatch losses depend on shading characteristics together with different interconnected configuration schemes of PV modules. The research presents a comparative analysis of partial shading effects on a 4 x4 PV array system connected in series(S), parallel (P), serries-parallel (SP),total-cross-tied (TCT),central-cross-tied(CCT),bridge-linked(BL),bridge-linked total cross-tied (BLTCT) ,honey-comb(HC), honey-comb total-cross-tied (HCTCT) and ladder (LD) configurations using MATLAB/Simulink. The PV module SPR-X20-250-BLK was used for modeling and simulation analysis. Each module is comprised of 72 number of PV cells and a combination of 16 PV modules was employed for the contextual analysis. Accurate mathematical modeling for the HCTCT configuration under partial shading conditions (PSCs) is provided for the first time and is verified from the simulation. The different configuration schemes were investigated under short-narrow,short-wide,long-narrow,long-wide, diagonal, entire row distribution, and entire column distribution partial shading condition patterns with mathematical implementation and simulation of passing clouds. The performance of array configurations is compared in terms of maximum power generated ), mismatch power loss (∆), relative power loss ) and the fill factor (FF). It was inferred that on average, TCT configuration yielded maximum power generation under all shading patterns among all PV modules interconnection configurations with minimum mismatch power losses followed by hybrid and conventional PV array configurations respectively.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0494.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Behavioral Sciences Keywords: eating disorders; weight loss; diet; mother; father; adolescence
Online: 7 July 2023 (11:51:18 CEST)
Adolescents’ eating disorders and disordered eating behaviours appear to be a growing public health concern. The aetiology of these conditions is complex, as many different factors interact for their development. Among them, family factors such as parenting styles and comments regarding weight from family members are considered critical and are extensively researched. However, the impact of parental dieting has received less attention. A literature review was conducted in order to examine the relationship between parental engagement in weight-reduction dieting and their adolescent offspring’s disordered eating behaviours. The review was conducted in three databases (PubMed, Scopus and Google Scholar). A number of studies indicated that adolescents whose parents were engaged in dieting in order to lose weight are more likely to showcase disordered eating behaviours. However, research about this relationship is very scarce. More studies on the link between parental eating and dieting habits and the risk of disordered eating in adolescents are needed. Moreover, parents should be informed regarding the possible risks when they choose to follow weight-loss diets and the importance of adopting healthy eating and weight-control habits for the whole family.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0257.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: metabolism; fat oxidation; weight loss; adiposity; fasting; obesity
Online: 14 March 2023 (12:49:24 CET)
Overweight and Obesity (Ow/Ob) is a risk factor for developing cardiometabolic disease, and metabolic dysfunction. Dietary interventions, such as caloric restriction (CR), have been explored but little is known about the acute effects of CR and often such diets are not standardized. PURPOSE: To assess the impact of a standardized 3-day CR diet (~590kcal/d) on cardiometabolic health and fat metabolism in Ow/Ob individuals. METHODS: Fifteen Ow/Ob men and women were assessed pre-post 3-day CR using standardized diet; specifically, body weight/composition (% body fat, visceral fat score (Vfs), waist-hip circumferences, blood pressure and vascular stiffness, resting energy expenditure (REE), substrate utilization (respiratory quotient, RQ), and blood glucose/lipid profile. RESULTS: CR induced changes in body weight (93.1±15.2 to 90.67±14.4 kg, p<0.001, d=1.9), body mass index (32.9±4.0 to 32.0±3.7 kg/m2, p<0.001, d=1.4), body fat (37.2±7.5 to 35.8±7.5%, p=0.002, d=1.1) and Vfs (13.1±4.5 to 12.2±3.9 a.u., p=0.002, d=1.1), but not body water (46.3±3.6 to 46.0±3.6%, p=0.29, d=0.3). CR had no effect on peripheral (86±5 to 89±5 mmHg, p=0.23, d=0.3) or central mean arterial pressure (86±5 to 87±6 mmHg, p=0.44, d=0.2), but lowered augmentation index (29.8±17.5 to 21.5±14.5%, p=0.05, d=0.6). Blood glucose (86±7 to 84±11 mg/dl, p=0.33, d=0.3) and blood lipids (total cholesterol (196±49 to 203±54 mg/dl, p=0.16, d=0.4) and TC/HDL (4.9±2.4 to 6.1±4.7, p=0.13, d=0.4)) were unchanged. RQ decreased with CR (0.84±0.01 to 0.76±0.00, p<0.001, d=1.9), though REE was unchanged (1718±274 to 1722±317 kcal/d, p=0.83, d=0.1). CONCLUSION: The 3-day CR significantly improved body weight and composition and fat metabolism, with minimal cardiovascular effects.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0133.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics And Photonics Keywords: Photonic crystal fiber; Gas; Sensitivity; Confinement loss; Characteristic
Online: 7 March 2023 (09:43:50 CET)
A total internal reflection photonic crystal fiber (PCF) based on hexagonal core is proposed for gas sensing in a specific wavelength range. The higher sensitivity and lower confinement loss were realized by the structure of the proposed PCF consists of two layers with circular holes rotated hexagonally around a core region and six slotted air-hole in the cladding based on numerical analysis. The simulation results show that the enhancement of the relative sensitivity has been done by enhancing the diameter of the hexagonal shape air-hole cladding (d1) and the hexagonal arranged holes around the central solid core (d0) in this design. Also, the confinement loss has been reduced by enhancing the ratio of length to width of slotted holes (l/w) and decreasing the cladding air-hole diameters (d1). As the refractive index increases, the wavelength shifts toward the long wavelength. And in a certain temperature range, the transmission characteristics of the device does not change with the temperature. The results are helpful for designing high performance PCF for gas sensing applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0218.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: diabetic retinopathy; Vision loss; Deep learning; CLAHE; ESRGAN
Online: 13 February 2023 (14:33:05 CET)
Sometimes when diabetic retinopathy (DR) is found and treated quickly, vision loss can indeed be spared. This study deploys a deep learning (DL) model that can discover all 5 stages of DR more accurately than other methods. The proposed methodology shows two cases scenarios: case 1 with image enhancement using CLAHE and ESRGAN, and case 2 without image enhancement. Augmentation techniques are then employed to produce a balanced dataset with the identical criteria for both scenarios. The generated model using DenseNet-121 on the APTOS dataset outperformed other approaches for locating the 5 stages of DR, with an accuracy of 98.7 percent for case 1 and 81.2 percent for case 2. Using CLAHE and ESRGAN was shown to improve a model's performance and ability to learn.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0214.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: community transformations; species loss; geospatial classification; Spartina patens
Online: 12 January 2023 (07:20:07 CET)
Salt marshes are globally important ecosystems, but many have been lost or transformed due to the impacts of global change. There have been attempts to broadly quantify salt marsh communities, especially the ubiquitous grasses which serve as foundation species such as Spartina alterniflora and Spartina patens, the latter of which is being lost due to sea level rise. However, few researchers have used high-resolution geospatial imagery to quantify fine-scale changes in the distribution of grasses or to track losses of S. patens. To address this issue, we utilized a simple and rapid method of classifying geospatial marsh imagery with cloud-based machine learning in Google Earth Engine (>92% accuracy for S. patens regardless of imagery age). Our methods allowed us to characterize full landscapes (two geospatially proximal areas, >7,000 ha each) of critical salt marshes on the New Jersey coast and to evaluate fine-scale (1-m) community transformations in response to global change with imagery from 2006 to 2019. Notably, one marsh experienced very little change while the other experienced an 81.17% (1,087 ha) loss of S. patens, illuminating disparate patterns of change for two geographically proximal ecosystems. Further exploration revealed an association in the loss of S. patens with increases in streamflow and total nitrogen content in the rivers that run through each marsh. These results signify the importance of broad-scale ecological studies that evaluate fine-scale community transformations and for management strategies that do not generalize across landscapes of an ecosystem-type.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0430.v3
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: cat; Tehran; weight loss; food access; waste reduction
Online: 13 October 2022 (11:34:42 CEST)
This study aimed to investigate the effect of reducing the amount of organic waste on the weight of cats in Tehran. The weight of 4192 cats was measured from spring 2016 to the end of winter 2020. They were classified into 6 age groups, 2 gender groups, and 13 geographical areas. Their weight was measured for 48 months (16 seasons). The statistical parameters analysis showed no weight loss in 2017, but since 2018, cats have been losing weight every year. They had lost about 178g of their weight in 2018. The sharpest annual decrease was observed in 2019 when about 301g of weight loss was recorded. In the winter of 2020, 115g of weight loss took place. In the spring of 2017, no weight change was observed, but in the spring of 2018, the cats lost 155g of their weight. Their weight loss intensified in the spring of 2019 and about 299g of weight loss was observed. In the summer of 2017, as in the spring of the same year, no weight loss was recorded, but for the summer of 2018, the weight loss was evident and about 205g of the weight of the cats had been reduced. The weight loss in the summer of 2019 not only continued but intensified and about 304g of weight loss was recorded for cats. Weight change was not observed in the fall of 2017 as in the spring and summer of the same year. In the fall of 2018, weight loss was recorded for cats. They had lost about 324g of their weight in the fall of 2018. Also, they experienced a weight loss of about 218g in the fall of 2019. During the spring, summer, and autumn of 2017, no weight loss was observed in the cats for the winter of 2018, but in the winter of 2019, the cats faced the most severe weight loss (seasonally). They lost about 401g of weight in the winter of 2019. Of course, in the winter of 2020, about 186g of weight loss was observed in cats. The results showed that female cats did not lose weight in 2017 but experienced weight loss in 2018 with a weight loss of 181g. The weight loss of females intensified in 2019 and 294g of weight loss was recorded. Female cats lost 186g of their weight in the winter of 2020. Male cats did not lose weight like female cats in 2017. But in 2018, a weight loss of 166g was observed in male cats. The weight loss of male cats continued in 2019 and 311g of weight loss was recorded for them. However, in 2020, unlike females, weight loss was not observed in male cats. It can be said that both sexes lost more weight in the winter of 2019 than in other seasons. In 2017, weight loss was observed only for the region of 10, and in the same year, weight gain was recorded for the region of 15. But in 2018, except for regions 3, 4, 15, and 19, weight loss was observed in other regions. In 2019, the weight loss of cats spread and weight loss was observed in all regions except the region of 12. In winter 2020, weight loss was recorded only in the region of 4. In the end, it can be concluded that the weight of cats has decreased since the spring of 2018 because the beginning of the decrease in the amount of organic waste has been recorded since the winter of 2018. So, there is a direct relationship between the weight of cats and the amount of organic waste (access to food). The amount of garbage has been decreasing since the winter of 2018, and the average weight of cats has also been decreasing since the spring of 2018 due to the decrease in access to food.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0185.v2
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: desert locusts; control; crop loss; pastureland; land cover
Online: 6 December 2021 (15:29:48 CET)
The desert locust remains a major threat to global food security. Control operations are a crucial tool to manage crisis; this research investigated the nature of control operations conducted between 2019-2021. Historical data on desert locust and control operations were obtained from the survey reports at the FAO Locust Hub and analysed with respect to survey reports, land cover types, cropland/rangeland extent and crop productivity data. We found that 16.1% of the grid cells with locust presence and 14.9% of the grid cells with control operations had a proportion of rangeland higher than 0.75; while 13.3% of the grid cells with locust presence and 13.2% of the grid cells with control operations had a proportion of croplands higher than 0.75, highlighting that locust presence and control operations were reported in both rangeland and cropland. Control operations continue to be used both to reduce overall locust numbers and to protect crops. Furthermore, through identifying which crops were most at risk, our analyses indicate that wheat production was under the highest strain during periods of increased locust infestations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0030.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Meniere Disease; cytokines; WGBS; Hearing Loss; DNA methylation
Online: 1 October 2021 (16:03:48 CEST)
Meniere Disease (MD) is a multifactorial disorder of the inner ear characterized by vertigo attacks associated with sensorineural hearing loss and tinnitus with a significant heritability. Although MD has been associated with several genes, no epigenetic studies have been performed in MD. Here we performed whole genome bisulfite sequencing in 14 MD patients and 6 healthy controls, with the aim of identifying a MD methylation signature and potential disease mechanisms. We observed a high number of differentially methylated CpGs (DMC) when comparing MD patients to controls (N= 9,545), several of them in hearing loss genes such as PCDH15, ADGRV1 and CDH23. Bioinformatic analyses of DMCs and cis-regulatory regions predicted phenotypes related to abnormal excitatory postsynaptic currents, abnormal NMDA-mediated receptor currents and abnormal glutamate-mediated receptor currents when comparing MD to controls. Moreover, we identified various DMCs in genes previously associated with cochleovestibular phenotypes in mice. We have also found 12 undermethylated regions (UMR) that were exclusive to MD, including 2 UMR in an inter CpG island in the PHB gene. We suggest that the DNA methylation signature allows to distinguish between MD patients and controls. The enrichment analysis confirms previous findings of a chronic inflammatory process underlying MD.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0162.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: vertigo; migraine; cytokines; inflammation; vestibular disorders; hearing loss
Online: 6 August 2021 (12:29:43 CEST)
Background: Meniere disease (MD) is an inner ear disorder associated with comorbidities such as autoimmune diseases or migraine. This study describes clinical and cytokine profile in MD according to the age of onset of the condition. Methods: A cross-sectional study including 83 MD patients: 44 with early onset MD (EOMD, <35 years old), and 39 with late onset MD (LOMD, > 50 years old), 64 patients with migraine and 55 controls was carried out. Clinical variables and cytokines levels of CCL3, CCL4, CCL18, CCL22, CXCL1 and IL-1β were compared among the different groups. Results: CCL18 levels were higher in patients with migraine or MD than in controls. Elevated levels of IL-1β were observed in 11.4% EOMD and in 10.3% LOMD patients and these levels were not dependent on the age of individuals. EOMD had a longer duration of the disease (p=0.004) and a higher prevalence of migraine than LOMD (p=0.045). Conclusions: Patients with EOMD have a higher prevalence of migraine than LOMD, but migraine is not associated with any cytokine profile in patients with MD. The levels of CCL18, CCL3 and CXCL4 were different between patients with MD or migraine and controls.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0712.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: Pricing, loss networks, Markov decision processes, blocking probability.
Online: 27 April 2021 (12:32:37 CEST)
Congestion pricing has received lots of attention in the scientific discussion. Congestion pricing means that the operator increases prices at the time of congestion and the traffic demand is expected to decrease. In a certain sense, shadow prices are an optimal way of congestion pricing: users are charged shadow prices, i.e., the expectations of future losses because of blocked connections. The shadow prices can be calculated exactly from Howard’s equation, but this method is difficult. The paper presents simple approximations to the solution of Howard’s equation and a way to derive more exact approximations. If users do not react by lowering their demand, they will receive higher bills to pay. Many users do not react to increased prices but would want to know how the congestion pricing mechanism affects the bills. The distribution of the price of a connection follows from knowing the shadow prices and the probability of a congestion state. There is another interesting distribution. The network produces profit to the operator, or equivalently, blocked connections produce a cost to the operator. The average cost rate can be calculated from Howard’s equation, but the costs have some distribution. The distribution gives the risk that the actual costs exceed the average costs, and the operator should include this risk to the prices. The main result of this paper shows how to calculate the distribution of the costs in the future for congestion pricing by shadow prices and for congestion pricing with a more simple pricing scheme that produces the same average costs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0357.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Striga infestation; Striga damage; yield loss; nitrogen application
Online: 17 August 2020 (10:08:51 CEST)
Low soil nitrogen status of savanna soils in Nigeria contributes to the persistent Striga hermonthica (Del.) Benth. infestation that limits maize production. The application of nitrogen fertilizer to Striga-resistant hybrids may reduce Striga infection and increase grain yields. This study assessed the performance of maize hybrids at low (30 kg ha-1) and high (120 kg ha-1) nitrogen application under natural infestation with Striga at Kafin Madaki and Tudun Wada in 2014 and 2015. Results showed that the application of nitrogen at 120 kg ha-1 reduced number of Striga plants by 59% compared to application at 30 kg N ha-1 in Kafin Madaki and by 21% in Tudun Wada. Compared to 30 kg N ha-1, the 120 kg N ha-1 rate also reduced Striga damage rating by 22% in Kafin Madaki and by 33% in Tudun Wada across the hybrids. Hybrids 8338-1 (5.3) and OBASUPER 1 (4.3) were the only entries with Striga damage rating greater than 4.5 (SDR > 4.5) when averaged across the nitrogen levels at both locations. Grain yield was 86 and 98% higher in Kafin Madaki and Tudun Wada, respectively when N was applied at 120 kg N ha-1 than at 30 kg N ha-1. The hybrids M1124-3 and M1227-14 produced grain yields that were significantly higher than those of the other hybrids in all locations. The hybrid 8338-1 produced the lowest grain yield across locations. Our results showed that, the application of 120 kg N ha-1 to Striga resistant maize hybrids will reduce Striga infection and increase grain yield.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0057.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Obstetrics And Gynaecology Keywords: miscarriage; fetal loss; risk factor; ethnicity; maternal race
Online: 4 April 2019 (15:52:25 CEST)
In last decades, growing migration flows have modified the obstetric clinical care, requiring specific attention by health care systems. The aim was to describe the phenomenon focusing on miscarriage (pregnancy loss at <20 weeks). Patients admitted for care at miscarriage in a six-year period (2012-17) were revised. Miscarriage rates in all ethnic groups, dichotomized in early (within the first 12 weeks of gestation) and late (at <20 weeks) pregnancy loss. Associations between women's characteristics (age, parity, inter-pregnancy interval (IPI)) were explored to elucidate any differences. A total of 1,940 patients were included, segregated in early (n = 1769, 91.2%) and late (n = 171, 8.8%) pregnancy losses. Caucasian ethnicity was the most common (87.9%), leaving the minority groups to 12.1%. Maternal age was higher among Caucasians women than other subgroups, in contrast to Asiatic patients. Nulliparity was observed in 1045 (53.9%) patient, more widespread among Caucasian and Maghrebins. A positive obstetric history counting at least one miscarriage was frequent, ranging from 22.2% to 75%, in particular among Asiatic women, while the recurrence in Caucasians. In Afro-Carribeans the most relevant rate of late miscarriage was found. By multiple regression modelling, maternal age, nulliparity and Afro-Carribean were identified as determinants. Maternal ethnicity should be considered in the management of pregnancy losses in combination with already well-defined risk factors, including age at miscarriare and nulliparity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0318.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: Salicornia europaea; Dicaffeoylquinic acids; Bone loss; Osteoclast; Reactive oxygen
Online: 6 November 2023 (13:45:40 CET)
Osteoporosis, often linked to increased osteoclast activity due to menopause or aging, was the focus. In this study, the inhibitory effects of Salicornia europaea L. (SE) water extract of desalted SE (WSE) were investigated on osteoclast differentiation and bone loss in ovariectomized mice. The findings revealed that WSE effectively inhibited RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation, as evidenced by TRAP staining, and also suppressed bone resorption and F-actin ring formation in a dose-dependent manner. Gene expressions related to osteoclast differentiation, including NFATc1, TRAP, cathepsin K, and DC-STAMP, were downregulated by WSE. Oral administration of WSE improved bone density and structural parameters in ovariectomized mice. Dicaffeoyl quinic acids (DCQAs) and saponins in WSE were detected, with 3,4-, 3,5-, and 4,5-DCQA isolated and identified. All tested DCQAs, including the aforementioned types, inhibited osteoclast differentiation, bone resorption, and the expression of osteoclast-related genes. Furthermore, WSE and DCQAs reduced ROS production mediated by RANKL. These results indicate the potential of WSE and its components, DCQA, as preventive or therapeutic agents against osteoporosis and related conditions.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1646.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: Scaling laws; biodiversity; habitat loss; ecological networks; tipping points
Online: 26 October 2023 (03:41:36 CEST)
Preserving and restoring biodiversity is becoming a great challenge as we face a world where planetary boundaries will likely be crossed over the following decades. Such challenge needs to consider multiple scales of complexity, both in space and time. A common thread in most cases is the presence of nonlinear phenomena generating shifts among alternative states. These breaking points imply a new perception of risk and different management strategies. A broad range of phenomena affect the preservation of healthy communities and constrain the ways to deal with conservation, from local features associated with habitat loss or facilitation to mesoscale or global network-level ecological complexity and the role played by extreme events. How are these scales connected? How can the emergent properties associated with ecosystem dynamics be exploited? Here a synthesis of ideas is presented, with a complex systems view of the different scales involved, the emergent phenomena separating them, and the universal properties that allow defining simple models on each scale.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1638.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Otolaryngology Keywords: autoimmune inner ear disease; sensorineural hearing loss; Meniere’s disease
Online: 25 October 2023 (10:21:22 CEST)
Background: Autoimmune inner ear disease (AIED) is a rare autoimmune condition characterized by progressive sensorineural hearing loss with hearing fluctuations over weeks to months, presenting significant challenges in both diagnosis and treatment. Due to its rarity, treatment responses and prognosis in AIED remain poorly understood. Methods: This study reviewed medical records from Taipei Medical University Hospital documented between August 2016 and August 2021. Among 67 patients experiencing fluctuating hearing loss, 11 met the diagnostic criteria for AIED and underwent regular follow-up assessments within a 5-year timeframe. ROC curve was used to discriminate the power of these prognostic parameters. Results: In this study, several factors including younger age, milder initial hearing loss, meeting criteria for bilateral Meniere's disease (MD), having an ascending audiogram pattern, longer time interval between hearing impairment attacks in contralateral ears and responding well to steroids were associated with better prognosis. ROC curve demonstrated the diagnostic value of specific parameters such as the presence of bilateral MD (AUC 0.825, 95% CI 0.640–1.000), pretreatment HI ≤ 45 dB HL (AUC 0.808, 95% CI 0.610–1.000), response to steroids (AUC 0.800, 95% CI 0.595–1.000), and ascending audiogram (AUC 0.858, 95% CI 0.683–0.858). Conclusions: This study identified key prognostic factors for AIED, providing valuable insights for predicting AIED prognosis and facilitating personalized patient management.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2068.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: school buildings; building dynamic energy loss; microenvironment; occupants’ behavior
Online: 30 September 2023 (10:16:05 CEST)
The utilization of primary school buildings is multifaceted, primarily due to the high occupancy density, varying thermal preferences among occupants, diverse indoor activities (such as walking, sports, and conversation), and a constant flow of individuals entering and exiting the building. This results in frequent opening and closing of external windows and doors and fluctuations in internal heat gain. Consequently, frequent interactions between the indoor and outdoor microenvironments lead to energy losses. This study conducts a comprehensive literature review on building energy loss stemming from occupant behavior and the interactions between indoor and outdoor microenvironments. Furthermore, it proposes a dynamic real-time monitoring system based on a computer data capture and visualization platform foundation for building energy loss. The research methods include data crawling, data association rule mining, and data association analysis. The research findings yield a universally applicable and informative building energy-saving design theory based on extensive data analysis. Additionally, the system presents information on occupants' behavior and the microclimate data of indoor and outdoor environments on a computer screen, facilitating human-machine communication and enabling timely adjustments to design strategies for new buildings and operation and maintenance strategies for existing buildings.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1710.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Otolaryngology Keywords: hearing loss; GJB2 variants; p.V37I; c.235delC; audiogram shapes
Online: 26 September 2023 (13:51:51 CEST)
Background: this study aimed to describe the distribution of the genotype and allele frequencies of GJB2 variants in the Chinese population of the Dongfeng Tongji cohort and to analyze the features of the hearing phenotype. Methods: we used data from 9910 participants in the Dongfeng Tongji cohort in 2013 and selected nine GJB2 variants. Pure-tone audiometry was employed to measure hearing. Differences in genotype and allele frequencies were analyzed by chi-squared test or Fisher's exact test. Results: of the 9910 participants, 5742 had hearing loss. The genotype frequency of the GJB2 variant p.V37I was statistically significantly distributed between the normal and impaired hearing groups, but not for the variant c.235delC. A higher frequency of the p.V37I homozygous genotype was found in the hearing loss group (0.5%) than in the normal hearing group (0.1%). Patients with p.V37I and c.235delC homozygous mutations exhibited varying degrees of hearing loss, mainly presenting sloping and flat audiogram shapes. Conclusions: a significant difference was found in the genotype frequency of the GJB2 variant p.V37I between the case and control groups, but not for the variant c.235delC. Different degrees of hearing loss and various audiogram shapes were observed in patients with p.V37I and c.235delC homozygous mutations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1729.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Vision And Graphics Keywords: underwater target detection; deformable convnets v2; SimAm; Loss function
Online: 24 August 2023 (09:55:23 CEST)
Underwater target detection is widely used in various applications such as underwater search and rescue, underwater environment monitoring, and Marine resources survey. However, the visibility of the underwater environment and the accuracy of target detection can be affected by complex underwater light changes and unpredictable background noise. To address these issues, we propose an improved underwater target detection algorithm based on YOLOv8n. Our algorithm focuses on three aspects. Firstly, we replace the original C2f module with Deformable Convnets v2 to enhance the adaptive ability of the target region in the convolution check feature map and extract the target region's features more accurately. Secondly, we introduce SimAm, a non-parametric attention mechanism, which can deduce and assign three-dimensional attention weights without adding network parameters. Lastly, we optimize the loss function by replacing the CIOU loss function with the Wise-IOU loss function. To conduct our experiments, we create our own dataset of underwater target detection for experimentation. Meanwhile, we also utilized the Pascal VOC dataset to evaluate our approach. The mAP@0.5 and mAP@0.5:0.95 of the original YOLOv8n algorithm on the underwater target detection were 88.6% and 51.8%, respectively, and the improved algorithm mAP@0.5 and mAP@0.5:0.95 can reach 91.8% and 55.9%. The original YOLOV8n algorithm was 62.2% and 45.9% mAP@0.5 and mAP@0.5:0.95 on the Pascal VOC dataset, respectively. The improved YOLOV8n algorithm mAP@0.5 and mAP@0.5:0.95 were 65.7% and 48.3%, respectively. The floating-point computation volume of the model is reduced by about 6%. The above experimental results prove the effectiveness of our method.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1558.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: knee; arthroplasty; tranexamic acid; local infiltration analgesia; blood loss
Online: 24 July 2023 (10:37:38 CEST)
Purpose: The study aimed to investigate the efficacy of TXA supplemented with local infiltration analgesia (LIA) in reducing blood loss in patients undergoing total knee replacement. Materials: A retrospective study on 530 individuals with a mean age of 71,44 years after posterior stabilized total knee arthroplasty was evaluated. Patients were divided into three groups, corresponding to the method of bleeding control: I - patients without additional bleeding protocol (control group); II - patients with iV TXA administration (TXA group); III - patients with exact TXA protocol combined with intraoperative local infiltration analgesia (TXA + LIA group). Blood loss was measured as a substitute for blood loss by maximal Hb drop compared to preoperative Hb level. Results: The mean hospitalization for patients from the control group was 7.02 (SD 1.34) days, 6.08 (SD 1.06) days for the TXA group, and 5.56 (SD 0.79) for the TXA + LIA group. The most significant hemoglobin drop was found in the control group, which amounted to an average of 30.08% output value. In the TXA group, the decrease in hemoglobin was, on average, 25.17% (p<0.001), and in the TXA + LIA group, it was 23.67% (p<0.001). A decrease in the rate of allogeneic blood transfusions was observed, which was 24.4% in the control group, 9.9% in the TXA group, and 8% in TXA + LIA group (p<0.01). Conclusions: Compared to the separate administration of tranexamic acid, the combination of perioperative administration with local infiltration analgesia statistically significantly reduces blood loss in patients after total knee replacement.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0355.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Otolaryngology Keywords: Third window; X-linked gusher; hearing loss; audiovestibular; POU3F4
Online: 6 July 2023 (09:16:03 CEST)
Conductive hearing losses are typically present in disorders of the external/middle ear. However, there is a rare group of inner ear conditions called third windows that can also generate a conductive hearing loss. This is due to an abnormal connection between the middle and the inner ear or between the inner ear and the cranial cavity. X-linked gusher disorder is an extremely rare congenital inner ear dysplastic syndrome with such an abnormal connection due to a characteristic incomplete cochlear partition type 3 and an incomplete internal auditory meatus fundus. The disorder is inherited in an X-linked fashion due to the mutation of the POU3F4 gene. We present 2 siblings diagnosed with the condition and their long term follow ups. They both presented with audiovestibular symptoms and showed progressive mixed losses and bilateral vestibular weakness. They were treated with cochlear implant, digital amplification and with vestibular rehabilitation. Significant others around them were involved in their journey with the medical team and in both, a very favourable outcome was achieved. This is the first time that we are reporting evolving audiovestibular function with vestibular quantification in X-linked gusher disorder and emphasize on the multidisciplinary holistic approach to manage these children effectively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0232.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Otolaryngology Keywords: Atresia; Cartilage conduction hearing aids; Conductive hearing loss; Infant
Online: 4 July 2023 (12:36:49 CEST)
: Forty-nine children who started wearing cartilage conduction hearing aids (CC-HA) before elementary school graduation (including 17 cases of bilateral hearing loss and 32 cases of unilateral hearing loss) were followed up and examined. The wearing and utilization status of CC-HA, as well as the progress to date, were evaluated. In addition, 33 participants who purchased CC-Has were interviewed to assess the wearing effect. Eleven of the 17 children with bilateral hearing loss and 25 of the 32 children with unilateral hearing loss have continued using CC-HA. In terms of wearing effect, a good wearing effect was reported, even by those with one-sided hearing loss. In cases where it is difficult to wear CC-HAs stably with pasting or ear tips, it is possible to fix them stably using commercially available hair bands and eyeglass vines. In two cases, CC-HAs were worn from the age of 0. With ingenuity and appropriate educational and medical support, it is possible to wear CC-HA from infancy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1871.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: MEMS Resonators; TPoS; phononic crystals; Quality factor; Anchor loss
Online: 27 June 2023 (10:37:44 CEST)
: This paper proposes a reem-shape phononic crystal for the performance enhancement of TPoS resonators. The proposed phononic crystal offers an ultra-wide acoustic band gap that prevents energy leakage through the supporting substrate on its placement at the anchoring boundary, resulting in significant improvements in the resonator quality factor. Simulated results show reem-shape Phononic crystals generate a band gap up to 175MHz with BG of 90% and enhance the anchor quality factor from 180,000 to 6,000,000 and unloaded quality factor from 133,000 to 160,000 representing 33.3-fold and 1.2-fold improvements respectively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0872.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: dietary intake; bariatric surgery; weight loss; outcomes; macronutrient consumption
Online: 13 June 2023 (04:15:13 CEST)
Metabolic and bariatric surgery (MBS) is the most effective long-term treatment for Class III obesity. Reduced dietary intake is considered a behavioral driver of post-surgical weight loss, but limited data have examined this association. Therefore, this study examined prospective, longitudinal relationships between dietary intake and weight loss over 24 months following Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass and Sleeve Gastrectomy. Relationships between weight loss and dietary intake were examined using a validated 24-hour dietary recall method. Associations between total energy/macronutrient intake and weight loss outcomes were assessed at 12-, 18-, and 24-months following MBS, defining patients as “responders” and “suboptimal responders” according to the Reinhold criteria of 50% excess weight loss. Consistent with previous literature, 12-month responders and suboptimal responders showed significant associations between weight loss and dietary intake. Unlike previous work, this study revealed that many of these associations are no longer significant 24 months post-MBS, despite consistent weight loss trends. This study suggests a short-term signal between these dietary factors and weight loss outcomes 12 months post-MBS, consistent with previous observations. However, this signal does not persist beyond 12 months. These results are essential for interpreting and designing clinical studies measuring long-term post-surgical weight loss outcomes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0307.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: SMD inductor; loss tangent; effective permeability; Near-field coupling
Online: 5 June 2023 (10:30:01 CEST)
In this paper, we propose a methodology for analyzing the near-field coupling between two surface mount device (SMD) inductors using a 3-dimensional electromagnetic (3D-EM) model. To develop the 3D-EM model, we first extract the effective permeability of core magnetic material in the SMD using the loss tangent in the equivalent circuit model. Then the effective permeability is used in the magnetic material for the 3D-EM modeling of SMD inductor. The validity of the proposed 3D-EM model is confirmed by comparing the impedance and S-parameters obtained from both measured and EM-simulated values for the two near-field coupled SMDs. Finally, the near-field coupling effects between the two adjacent SMD inductors are visualized in terms of magnetic coupling path visualization (CPV) using the proposed 3D-EM model, which demonstrates its usefulness for near-field coupling analysis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0604.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: atmospheric ducts; northwestern SCS; parabolic equation model; propagation loss
Online: 9 May 2023 (08:33:51 CEST)
The propagation of electromagnetic waves beyond the line of sight can be caused by atmospheric ducts, which are a significant concerns in the fields of radar and communication. This paper utilizes data from seven automatic stations and five radio-sounding stations to statistically analyze the characteristics of the atmospheric ducts in the northwest region of the South China Sea (SCS). After verifying the practicality of numerical analysis data from NCEP CFSv2 and ERA5 in studying atmospheric ducts using measured data, we analyzed the space-time distribution characteristics of the height of the regional evaporation duct and the bottom height of the elevated duct. Using the parabolic equation model, we simulated electromagnetic propagation loss under different frequencies and radiation elevation angles in both uniform and non-uniform duct environments within a typical atmospheric duct structure. The study found that the NCEP CFSv2 data accurately captures the evaporation duct height and duct occurrence rate in the study area, and the elevated duct bottom height obtained from the inversion of ERA5 and the measured data has a good consistency. The occurrence rate and height of evaporation duct in coastal stations in the northwest of the SCS vary significantly by month, demonstrating clear monthly distribution patterns. Conversely, changes in the Xisha station are minimal, indicating good temporal uniformity. For lower atmospheric ducts, the difference in occurrence rates between 00:00 and 12:00 (UTC) is negligible. The occurrence probability of elevated ducts in the Beibu Gulf area is relatively high, mainly concentrated from January to April, and the Xisha area is dominated by surface ducts without foundation layer, mainly concentrated from June to August. The monsoon plays a critical role in the generation and evolution of atmospheric ducts in the northwest of the SCS, with the height of the evaporation duct increasing and the bottom height of the elevated duct decreasing after the onset of the summer monsoon. Electromagnetic propagation simulations demonstrate that higher frequency and lower elevation angles of radiation sources in the trapping layer of the evaporation duct make it easier to be trapped. As the evaporation duct height decreases, the amplitude of the "sinusoidal fluctuation" of the propagation loss also decreases. Frequency changes of the radiation source in the surface duct environment have minimal impact on electromagnetic propagation loss, but the elevation angle of the radiation source is a critical factor. The frequency of the "sinusoidal fluctuation" in propagation loss is higher in a hybrid duct environment compared to a uniform surface duct. Additionally, the propagation loss increases faster with distance at the height of the evaporation duct, resulting in greater electromagnetic propagation loss.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0029.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: DC/DC Charger; circuit design; charging strategy; working loss
Online: 3 January 2023 (09:37:24 CET)
Based on the analysis of the working principle, circuit design and working loss of the common charger DC/DC converter, this paper designs a ZVS half-bridge three-level DC/DC converter based on non-phase-shift control mode, and proposes a multi-stage constant current and voltage limiting charging control strategy based on modulation wave selection control. The simulation results show that the proposed method and control strategy have faster voltage regulation ability and wider stability margin, and can achieve stable current sharing control in the charging process.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0098.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Mathematics Keywords: Adaptive; Tuning; Modelling; Estimation parameters; Propagation loss; NLOS; LOS
Online: 11 April 2022 (13:53:30 CEST)
Wireless cellular communication technology has developed into a very resourceful commodity worldwide. Today, people of all races can hardly live without means of voice and data cellular communication technology. Imprecise propagation loss estimation leads to high power waste, high co-channel interference and poor service quality in cellular communication system networks. This paper proposes a realistic adaptive fine-tuning method for distinctive propagation loss estimation over a microcellular communication radio links based on signal power measurements from Long Term Evolution radio broadband networks, taking non-line of sight (NLOS) and line of sight (LOS) environments into consideration. The methodology is verified by measurements taken in non-line of sight and line of sight signal propagation scenarios. The results showed that the estimated propagation losses using the proposed realistic adaptive tuning models were more accurate than the existing Cost -231 modelling estimation approach
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0095.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: Adaptive; Tuning; Modelling; Estimation parameters; Propagation loss; NLOS; LOS
Online: 11 April 2022 (11:03:43 CEST)
Wireless cellular communication technology has developed into a very resourceful commodity worldwide. Today, people of all races can hardly live without means of voice and data cellular communication technology. Imprecise propagation loss estimation leads to high power waste, high co-channel interference and poor service quality in cellular communication system networks. This paper proposes a realistic adaptive fine-tuning method for distinctive propagation loss estimation over a microcellular communication radio links based on signal power measurements from Long Term Evolution radio broadband networks, taking non-line of sight (NLOS) and line of sight (LOS) environments into consideration. The methodology is verified by measurements taken in non-line of sight and line of sight signal propagation scenarios. The results showed that the estimated propagation losses using the proposed realistic adaptive tuning models were more accurate than the existing Cost -231 modelling estimation approach.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0502.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Stem Cell; Embryo; Zebrafish; Neurosensory Hearing Loss; Tissue Regeneration
Online: 26 November 2021 (10:52:49 CET)
Hearing dysfunctions can be classified by type, degree, configuration, time of onset, aetiology, and finally, consequences on speech development. They can be divided into conductive, mixed, central types and sensorineural. Conductive hearing loss (CHL) results from interference with the mechanical transmission of sound through the external and middle ear; it can be congenital, as a consequence of anatomic abnormalities, but it can commonly be acquired following middle ear inflammatory pathologies. Sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) results from failure to transduce vibrations to neural impulses in the cochlean and is a consequence of an irreversible damage to the differentiated cells which make up the organ of hearing and the acoustic paths at various levels. Mixed hearing loss involves a combination of these two types in the same ear. Studies in neuroscience field have shown that the prevention of cell degeneration is only possible if all the factors taken at the different stages of stem cells’ multiplication and differentiation are administered together. We have demonstrated this in a recent study on the ability of SCDSFs to prevent neurodegeneration in hippocampal cells of the CA1 zone in mice. This study confirms previous findings demonstrating that early developmental zebrafish embryo extracts could act as a modulator of senescence in human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) isolated from many adult tissues. These findings have open a promising way for the approaches promoting the rejuvenation and regeneration of different tissues, by-passing stem cell transplantation. In the present clinical trial we have used SCDSFs to study the possible reversion of neurosensory hearing loss, until now considered an irreversible condition.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0256.v3
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: germination; Leucadendron; seed storage; seed viability estimation; viability loss
Online: 17 November 2021 (13:15:02 CET)
Seed viability is routinely measured on seeds that fail to germinate at the end of an experiment. Together with the number of germinants, this is used to estimate viability of the seeds at start of the experiment (i.e., initial viability) and provides the comparative basis on which germination success is determined. Perusal of the literature shows that sometimes (perhaps often, as the problem has yet to be recognized or reported) prolonged duration in the treatment, especially the control where little germination occurs, can lead to loss of viability. This results in underestimation of initial viability if that treatment is used. I caution against the routine use of end-of-trial germination and viability of ungerminated seeds as an estimate of initial viability in determining germination success of various treatments. I explore ways to deal with the problem but the preference is for estimates of initial viability to be undertaken on a separate sample of seeds concurrently with the experiment as this avoids the risk of seed death during the trial.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0356.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Land-use change; forest conversion; species loss; fragmentation; deforestation
Online: 17 August 2021 (10:10:09 CEST)
Remote sensing/GIS techniques are a versatile tool for x-raying serial forest structural changes in retrospect. It would be impossible to evaluate past occurrences and changes in forest extents in past decades at Effan Forest Reserve without non-conventional means. Therefore, we adopted remote sensing technology using Landsat images to evaluate land-use change and degradation rates in the area with a view to ascertaining causal factors for possible minimization of forest degradation in Effan Forest Reserve. Land-use/land-cover changes were analyzed using USGS-Landsat TM and ETM images of 1987, 2002, 2014 and 2019. Field-data were collected using handheld GPS receiver and spatial statistical analyses were conducted using the ground control points (GCPs). For inventory data, a systematic sampling technique was adopted using ten 1.05 km-transects at 500 m intervals. A total of 50 sample plots of 50 × 50 m were used. All tree species with Dbh ≥10 cm were enumerated. Nineteen tree species in ten families were encountered with Vitellaria paradoxa as the most-frequently occurring species in the area. IUCN-listed endangered Pterocarpus erinaceus, hitherto abundant in the area, was rarely encountered during the survey, while Vitellaria paradoxa is gradually shrinking, going the relative abundance in the area. The result further showed that primary and secondary forests decreased considerably by 258.03 ha (46.72%) and 9.18 ha (3.63%), respectively, with a total forest loss of 50.3% in 32 years (8.4 hayr-1, 1.6% per annum). While forest plantation size doubled by 369.72 ha within the period. This is worrisome as the remaining fragmented forests appeared to be on the decline, except the riparian vegetation, due to inaccessibility to the riparian by loggers. It thus appeared that forest protection approaches were ineffective. Increased protection efforts could save this forest reserve, and the concerned authority should consider a focused-enrichment planting involving indigenous species for ecosystem-repair.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0217.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Endoscopic Endonasal Transphenoid (EET); Blood Loss Measurement; Electrochemical Measurement
Online: 9 July 2021 (11:11:51 CEST)
Surgeries that take place in medicine and dentistry or during any form of childbirth results in a significant amount of blood loss. The prevalent measurement methods that surgeons and anesthesiologists utilize as the “gold - standard” has several drawbacks. There are numerous other methods to measure blood loss, which, however, due to their impracticality and limitations, are not ideal either. This paper focuses on minimally invasive neurosurgery in particular, by taking into account a surgical technique known as Endoscopic Endonasal Transphenoidal surgery (EETS), which is used to treat pituitary tumors and adenomas. Along with the review of the existing literature pertaining to blood loss management, this paper proposes a modified electrode probe method along with the concept of usage, computer interface, and the system of integration. The probe is intended to measure the hematocrit count from the collected blood under all circumstances, such that the medical practitioner is assisted to improve the blood loss management technique for better patient recovery.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0526.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: RUSLE; Quantification; Severity; Significant Factors; Soil Erosion; Soil Loss
Online: 23 February 2021 (15:54:25 CET)
The quantity of soil loss as a result of soil erosion is dramatically increasing in catchment where land resources management is very weak. In this paper, a RUSLE model-based soil loss quanti-fication technique is presented to estimate the annual soil loss and identify the severity of the erosion in the catchment. This study uses Fincha catchment in Abay river basin as the study area to quantify the annual soil loss by implementing Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) model developed in ArcGIS version 10.4. Digital Elevation Model (12.5 x 12.5), LANDSAT 8 of Operational Land Imager (OLI) and Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS), Annual Rainfall of 10 stations and soil maps of the catchment were used as input parameters to generate the significant factors. Rainfall erosivity factor (R), soil erodibility factor (K), cover and management factor (C), slope length and steepness factor (LS) and support practice factor (P) were used as soil loss quantification significant factors. A model builder for the RUSLE model was developed and raster map calcula-tion algebra was applied in ArcGIS version 10.4 to quantify the total annual soil loss. It was found that the quantified average annual soil loss ranges from 0.0 to 76.5 t ha-1 yr-1 was obtained in the catchment. The area coverage of soil erosion severity with 55%, 35% and 10% as low to moderate, high and very high respectively were identified. The information about the spatial variation of soil loss severity map generated in RUSLE model has a paramount role to alert land resources man-agers and all stakeholders in controlling the effects via implementation of both structural and non-structural mitigations. The results of the RUSLE model can also be further considered along with the catchment for practical soil loss quantification that can help for protection practices.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0212.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: Photonic crystal cavity; High Q-factor; loss reduction; SOI
Online: 8 February 2021 (13:25:38 CET)
Increasing the quality factor (Q) of an optical resonator device has been a research focus to be utilized in various applications. Higher Q-factor means light is confined in a longer time which will produce a shaper peak and higher transmission. In this paper, we introduce a novel technique to increase further the Q-factor of a one-dimensional photonic crystal (1D PhC) cavity device by using an end loop-mirror (ELM). The technique utilizes and recycles the light transmission from the conventional 1D PhC cavity design. The design has been proved to work by using the 2.5D FDTD simulation with Lumerical FDTD and MODE softwares. By using the ELM technique, the Q- factor of a 1D PhC design has been shown to have increased up to 79.53 % from the initial Q value without the ELM. This novel design technique can be combined with any high Q-factor and very high Q-factor designs to increase more the Q-factor value of a photonic crystal cavity devices or any other suitable optical resonator devices. The experimental result shows that the device is measurable by adding a Y-branch component to the one-port structure and able to get the high-Q result.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0405.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics And Photonics Keywords: quantum loss limit; broadband signal recycling; optomechanical filter cavity
Online: 16 November 2020 (09:10:41 CET)
Quantum noise limits the sensitivity of laser interferometric gravitational-wave detectors. Given the state-of-the-art optics, the optical losses define the lower bound of best possible quantum-limited detector sensitivity. In this work, we come up with the configuration which allows to saturate this lower bound by converting the signal recycling cavity to be a broadband signal amplifier using an active optomechanical filter. We will show the difference and advantage of such a broadband signal recycling scheme compared with the previous white-light-cavity scheme using the optomechanical filter in [Phys.Rev.Lett.115.211104 (2015)]. The drawback is that the new scheme is more susceptible to the thermal noise of the mechanical oscillator. To suppress the radiation pressure noise which rises along with the signal amplification, squeezing with input/output filter cavities and heavier test mass are used in this work.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0072.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: indoor positioning; access point placement; path loss model; optimization
Online: 5 October 2020 (11:34:03 CEST)
Indoor Positioning Systems (IPSs) are designed to provide solutions for location-based services. Wireless local area network (WLAN)-based positioning systems are the most widespread around the globe and are commonly found to have a ready-to-use infrastructure composed mostly of access points (APs). They provide useful information on signal strength to be processed by adequate location algorithms, which are not always capable of achieving the desired localization error only by themselves. In this sense, this paper proposes a new method to improve the accuracy of IPSs by optimizing some of their most relevant infrastructure components. Included are the arrangement of APs over the environment, the number of reference points (RPs), and the number of samples per location estimation test. A simulation environment is also proposed, in which the impact of key influencing factors on system accuracy is analyzed. Finally, a case study is simulated to validate an optimal combination of design parameters and its compliance with the requirements of localization error and the limited number of access points. Our simulation results clearly show that the desired localization accuracy, which is set as a goal, can be achieved while maintaining the factors already mentioned at minimal levels, which decreases both system deployment costs and computational effort.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0009.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: visual search; vision loss; incidental learning; macular degeneration; fovea
Online: 1 October 2020 (09:12:00 CEST)
Foveal vision loss has been shown to reduce efficient visual search guidance due to contextual cueing by incidentally learned contexts. However, previous studies used artificial (T among L-shape) search paradigms that prevent the memorization of a target in a semantically meaningful scene. Here, we investigated contextual cueing in real-life scenes that allow explicit memory of target locations in semantically rich scenes. In contrast to the contextual cueing deficits in artificial scenes, contextual cueing in patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) did not differ from age-matched normal-sighted controls. We discuss this in the context of visuospatial working memory demands for which both eye-movement control in the presence of central vision loss and for memory-guided search may compete. Memory-guided search in semantically rich scenes may depend less on visuospatial working memory than search in abstract displays, potentially explaining intact contextual cueing in the former but not the latter. In a practical sense, our findings may indicate that Patients with AMD are less deficient than expected after previous lab experiments. This shows the usefulness of realistic stimuli in experimental clinical research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0273.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: amyloid; virus; nucleation; loss-of-function; Alzheimer's; Parkinson's; prion; protein-only
Online: 19 November 2019 (03:53:09 CET)
Amyloids are fibrillar protein aggregates that are associated with diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, type II diabetes and Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease. The process of amyloid aggregation involves three pathological protein transformations; from natively-folded conformation to the cross-β conformation, from biophysically soluble to insoluble, and from biologically functional to non-functional. While amyloids share a similar cross-β conformation, the biophysical transformation can either take place spontaneously via a homogeneous nucleation mechanism (HON) or catalytically on an exogenous surface via a heterogeneous nucleation mechanism (HEN). Here, we postulate that the different nucleation pathways can serve as a mechanistic basis for an etiological classification of amyloidopathies, where hereditary forms generally follow the HON pathway, while sporadic forms follow surface-induced (including microbially-induced) HEN pathways. Furthermore, the conformational and biophysical amyloid transformation results in loss-of-function (LOF) of the original natively-folded and soluble protein. This LOF can, at least initially, be the mechanism of amyloid toxicity even before amyloid accumulation reaches toxic levels. By highlighting the important role of non-protein species in amyloid formation and LOF mechanisms of toxicity, we propose a generalized mechanistic framework that could help better understand the diverse etiology of amyloid diseases and offer new opportunities for therapeutic interventions including replacement therapies.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Otolaryngology Keywords: hearing impairment; hearing loss; ontology; data harmonization; meta-analysis
Online: 19 September 2019 (11:37:08 CEST)
Hearing impairment (HI) is a common sensory disorder that is defined as the partial or complete inability to detect sound in one or both ears. This diverse pathology is associated with a myriad of phenotypic expressions and/or syndromes. HI can be caused by various intrinsic, environmental and/or unknown factors. Some ontologies capture some relevant HI forms, phenotypes and syndromes, but there is no comprehensive knowledge portal which includes aspects specific to the HI disease state. This hampers inter-study comparability, integration and interoperability within and across disciplines. This work describes the HI Ontology (HIO) that was developed based on the Sickle Cell Disease Ontology (SCDO) model. This is a collaboratively developed resource built around the 'Hearing Impairment' concept by a group of experts in different aspects of HI and ontologies. HIO is the first comprehensive, standardized, hierarchical and logical representation of existing HI knowledge. HIO allows researchers and clinicians alike to readily access standardized HI-related knowledge in a single location and promote collaborations and HI information sharing, including epidemiological, socio-environmental, biomedical, genetic and phenotypic information. Furthermore, this ontology illustrates the adaptability of the SCDO framework for use in developing a disease-specific ontology.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0160.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: Siamese neural network, appearance model, contrastive loss, cross entropy.
Online: 13 May 2019 (13:32:25 CEST)
An appearance model plays a crucial rule in multi-target tracking. In traditional approaches, the two steps of appearance modeling i.e visual representation and statistically similarity measure are modeled separately. Visual representation is achieved either through hand-crafted features or deep features and statically similarity is measure through a cross entropy loss function. A loss function based on cross-entropy (KL-divergence, mutual information) find closely related probability distribution for the targets. However, if the targets have similar visual representation, it ends up mixing the targets. To tackle this problem, we come up with a synergetic appearance model named Single Shot Appearance Model based on Siamese neural network. The network is trained with a contrastive loss function for finding the similarity between different targets in a single shot. The input to the network is two target patches and based on their similarity, a contrastive score is output by the network. The proposed model is evaluated on accumulative dissimilarity metric on three datasets. Quantitatively, promising results are achieved against three baseline methods.
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: forgery detection; GAN; contrastive loss; deep learning; pairwise learning
Online: 5 May 2019 (11:13:55 CEST)
Recently, generative adversarial networks (GANs) can be used to generate the photo-realistic image from a low-dimension random noise. It is very dangerous that the synthesized or generated image is used on inappropriate contents in social media network. In order to successfully detect such fake image, an effective and efficient image forgery detector is desired. However, conventional image forgery detectors are failed to recognize the synthesized or generated images by using GAN-based generator since they are all generated but manipulation from the source. Therefore, we propose a deep learning-based approach to detect the fake image by combining the contrastive loss. First, several state-of-the-art GANs will be collected to generate the fake-real image pairs. Then, the contrastive will be used on the proposed common fake feature network (CFFN)to learn the discriminative feature between the fake image and real image (i.e., paired information). Finally, a smaller network will be concatenated to the CFFN to determine whether the feature of the input image is fake or real. Experimental results demonstrated that the proposed method significantly outperforms other state-of-the-art fake image detectors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0096.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: Wind tunnel, Prandtl’s configuration, corners, vortex, turbulence, pressure loss
Online: 14 December 2018 (10:44:37 CET)
Wind tunnels are devices that enable researchers to study the flow over objects of interest, the forces acting on them and their interaction with the flow, which is nowadays playing an increasingly important role due to noise pollution. Since the first closed circuit wind tunnel with variable cross-section was built in G¨ottingen, its Prandtl configuration has little change. The wind tunnel with Prandtl configuration has four corners and vanes, more than 50% of the total pressure loss are caused by the corners and vanes. How to reduce the total pressure loss is a world class problem in the wind tunnel design. This study attempts to propose a novel configuration of wind tunnel, where the corners have been replaced by semi-circular tunnel. Sun wind tunnel 2 has only two corners and vanes, while Sun wind tunnel 1 has no corners and vanes at all. It is expected the new wind tunnel can reduce the total pressure loss from 50% to 10%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0340.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: damaged area; direct economic loss; disaster; drought; extreme precipitation
Online: 15 November 2018 (04:26:41 CET)
Understanding the distribution in drought and floods plays an important role in disaster risk management. The present study aims to explore the trends in the standardized precipitation index and extreme precipitation days in China, as well as to estimate the economic losses they cause. We found that in the Northeast China, northern of North China and northeast of Northwest China were severely affected by drought disasters (average damaged areas were 6.44 million hectares) and the most severe drought trend was located in West China. However, in the north of East China and Central China, the northeastern of the Southwest China was severely affected by flood disasters (average damaged areas were 3.97 million hectares) and the extreme precipitation trend is increasing in the northeastern of the Southwest China. In the Yangtze River basin, there were increasing trends in terms of drought and extreme precipitation, especially in the northeastern of the Southwest China, where accompanied by severe disaster losses. By combining the trends in drought and extreme precipitation days with the distribution of damaged areas, we found that the increasing trend in droughts shifted gradually from north to south, especially in the Southwest China, and the increasing trend in extreme precipitation gradually shifted from south to north.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0529.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: extracellular vesicles, EVs , traumatic brain injury, bone loss, TBI
Online: 23 October 2018 (08:56:08 CEST)
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major source of worldwide morbidity and mortality. Patients suffering from TBI exhibit a higher susceptibility to bone loss and an increased rate of bone fractures; however, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly defined. Herein, we observed significantly lower bone quality and elevated levels of inflammation in bone and bone marrow niche after controlled cortical impact-induced TBI in in-vivo CD-1 mice. Further, we identified dysregulated NFB signaling, an established mediator of osteoclast differentiation and bone loss, within the bone marrow niche of TBI mice. Ex vivo studies revealed increased osteoclast differentiation in bone marrow-derived cells from TBI mice, as compared to sham injured mice. Finally, we found bone marrow derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) from TBI mice enhanced the colony forming ability and osteoclast differentiation efficacy of bone marrow cells and activated NFB signaling genes in bone marrow-derived cells. Taken together, we provide evidence that TBI-induced inflammatory stress on bone and the bone marrow niche may activate NFB leading to accelerated bone loss. Targeted inhibition of these signaling pathways may reverse TBI-induced bone loss and reduce fracture rates.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0053.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Surfaces, Coatings And Films Keywords: 1,10-Phenanthroline-5,6-diamine; corrosion inhibitor; weight loss method
Online: 8 January 2018 (09:08:46 CET)
The inhibition impacts of 1,10-Phenanthroline-5,6-diamine (PTDA) on mild steel in 1 M HCl solution were investigated through weight loss method. The inhibition efficiencies of PTDA increase with increase in PTDA concentration at the temperature 303. Weight loss method indicate that PTDA is an excellent inhibitor the inhibition efficiency of 81.5% at the maximum PTDA concentration of 0.5 g/L at the temperature 303K.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0036.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: conservation; governance; habitat loss; livelihood; eco-tourism; carbon credits
Online: 7 December 2016 (11:13:38 CET)
Establishment of protected areas (PAs) is one of the key global conservation strategies that currently cover approximately 15% of the earth’s land surface. Globally, PA networks are designed to curb the growing anthropogenic pressures in areas with high biological diversity. Despite the importance of PAs in conserving the vanishing biodiversity and unique habitats, many of them are in critical condition due to poor governance thus functioning below the expected level. Moreover, in many developing countries, the PA coverage is below the global standard. Recognizing their contemporary role in conservation, governments have recently agreed to expand the global PA coverage to 17% by the year 2020 (Aichi target 11). This book with eight chapters from different regions of the world provides an overview of the PAs governance, institutional mechanisms, conservation benefits, limitations and challenges associated with their respective policy discourse, integrated management, and functional attributes. Protected areas expect to to play an important role in the long rn in conservation and protection of biodiversity and ecosystems particularly in countries where population pressure and habitat loss are high. Regular intervention, political commitment, and effective governance are essential for the sustainability of PAs across the world. Here, we also attempted to shed some light on future development clues for the sustainable management and monitoring of PAs worldwide.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1157.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Ophthalmology Keywords: Hearing-loss; headphones; noise-canceling; communication; elderly; Bluetooth; ophthalmic exam
Online: 18 October 2023 (17:22:44 CEST)
This study tests the utilization of Bluetooth noise-canceling headphones in improving the quality of eye exams in patients with hearing loss. University of Texas Medical Branch patients above 55 years of age were screened for hearing loss using SoundCheck audiometry. All 29 subjects (18 red-zone and 11 yellow-zone) answered pre-recorded Amsler grid and patient education questions that solicited precise responses. As controls, subjects were randomly administered half of the questions via headphones and half via a smartphone at normal speech volume (60 decibels). Points were awarded for responses demonstrating comprehension, and a post-exam survey was collected. Collectively, the mean score was 1.79 with headphones versus 0.96 with control on the Amsler grid segment and 1.90 with headphones versus 0.97 with control on education questions (p=0.001). Between the red and yellow zone hearing loss patients, the red-zone group answered significantly better in both Amsler (1.78 versus 0.50; p=0.0003) and education questions (1.88 versus 0.44; p<0.0001) with headphones. The yellow zone group answered better with headphones overall but failed to reach significance. Post-exam survey indicated that 28 of 29 patients (97%) preferred the headphones during ophthalmic exams. Patients with severe hearing loss demonstrated better comprehension with the noise-canceling headphones; thus these devices show great promise in improving effective, compassionate communication between providers and hearing-loss patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0959.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Other Keywords: Impermanent Loss; Liquidity Pools; Geometric Mean Market Makers; Optimization; DeFi
Online: 16 October 2023 (10:03:46 CEST)
Liquidity providers for asset-pair pools with constant value distri- bution, such as Balancer pools, experience some impermanent loss whenever there is price divergence in the tokens’ fiat values. In this paper, we model this impermanent loss for geometric mean invariant pools by deriving a function of two parameters. We analyze our function graphically, showing that unevenly distributed pools with large weighting disparities best mitigate the risk of impermanent loss. We conclude by providing a general protocol for liquidity providers to choose a suitable pool based on their risk tolerance and profit goals.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0906.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Respiratory viruses; Anosmia; Olfaction Disorders; loss of smell; Covid-19
Online: 16 October 2023 (08:54:50 CEST)
Acute respiratory viruses (ARVs) are leading cause of diseases in human worldwide. High risk individuals including children and elderly could potentially develop severe illness that could result in hospitalization or death in the worst case. Most common ARVs are Human respiratory syncytial virus, Human Metapneumovirus, Human Parainfluenza Virus, rhinovirus, coronaviruses (including SARS and MERS CoV), adenoviruses, Human Bocavirus, enterovirus (-D68 and 71), and influenza viruses. The olfactory deficits due to ARVs infection is a common symptom among patients. This mini review provides an overview of the role of SARS-CoV-2 and other common ARVs in the development of human olfactory pathophysiology. We highlight the critical need for understanding the signaling underlying the olfactory dysfunction and the development of therapeutics for this wide-ranging category of AVRs to restore the altered or loss of smell in affected patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0109.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Diabetes; Socio demographic characteristics; machine learning; polydipsia; sudden weight loss.
Online: 3 October 2023 (08:54:18 CEST)
Diabetes is one of the fatal diseases that play a vital role in the growth of other diseases in the human body. Controlling and curing diabetes in its early stages is the most significant technique to avoid its effects of diabetes. However, lack of awareness and expensive clinical tests are the primary reasons to skip clinical diagnosis and take preventive methods in lower-income countries like Bangladesh, Pakistan, and India. From this perspective, the study aims to build an automated machine learning (ML) model, which will predict diabetes at an early stage using socio-demographic characteristics rather than clinical attributes. Because clinical features are not always known to all people from lower-income countries. To find the best fit supervised ML classifier of the model, we applied six classification algorithms and found that RF outperformed with an accuracy of 99.36%. In addition, the most significant risk factors were found based on the SHAP value by all the applied classifiers. The study reveals that polyuria, polydipsia, and delayed healing are the most significant risk factors for growing diabetes. The findings indicate that the proposed model is highly capable of predicting diabetes in the early stages.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.2007.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Health Policy And Services Keywords: stroke; cost; burden; direct healthcare cost; loss of productivity; QALY
Online: 31 July 2023 (05:04:42 CEST)
The aim of this study was to measure one-year total cost of stroke and to investigate the value of stroke care, defined as cost per QALY. The study population included 892 patients with first ever acute stroke, hemorrhagic and ischemic, (ICD-10 codes: I61, I63 and I64) admitted within 48 hours of symptoms onset to nine public hospitals located in six cities. We conducted a bottom-up cost analysis from the societal point of view. All cost components including direct medical costs, productivity losses due to morbidity and mortality and informal care costs were considered. We used an annual time horizon, including all costs for 2021 irrespective of the time of disease onset. The average cost (direct and indirect) was extrapolated in order to estimate the national annual burden associated with stroke. We estimated the total cost of stroke in Greece at €343.1 mil a year in 2021, (€10,722/patient or €23,308 per QALY). Out of €343.1 mil., 53.3% (€182.9 mil) consisted direct healthcare cost representing 1.1% of current health expenditure in 2021. Overall, productivity losses were calculated at €160.2 mil. The mean productivity losses were estimated to 116 work days with 55.1 days lost due to premature retirement and absenteeism from work, 18.5 days lost due to mortality and 42.4 days lost due to informal caregiving by family members.This study highlights the burden of stroke and underlines the need for stakeholders and policy makers to re-organize stroke care and promote interventions that have been proved as cost-effective
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1277.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: geomechanics, drilling, engineering, technology, sticking, mud loss, pyhton, programming, oilfield
Online: 19 July 2023 (08:37:35 CEST)
The results of applying drilling engineering tools in planned deviated and horizontal wells of oil and gas condensate fields have been examined. The basis for the implementation of a comprehensive approach was the information obtained from drilling horizontal wells in the West and East Siberia, Volga-Ural region, and Iraqi Kurdistan. A synthetic model is considered as an example of the data, incorporating geomechanical and geological properties. As a result of the conducted audit of the geomechanical model and drilling process, the methodologies used were further developed to obtain optimal drilling fluid densities, aiming to prevent cavity formation on well walls, hydraulic fractures, and other related issues. The implementation of the Python programming language was introduced in the stages of geomechanical model preparation, resulting in a time acceleration of up to 20%. During the pre-drilling stage, technological operations were synchronized with the geomechanical model, increasing the involvement of process participants through the synchronization of knowledge areas. The interrelation between drilling technology, drilling parameters, properties of flushing fluids, and rock stability analysis was established, ensuring a 5% increase in construction speed (through NPT reduction and modification of existing tools and technological operations) and accident-free drilling of complex deviated and horizontal wells, provided that the recommended drilling parameters are followed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0368.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Health Policy And Services Keywords: Hearing loss; neonatal hearing screening; rescreening; otoacoustic emissions; auditory potentials.
Online: 6 July 2023 (04:06:24 CEST)
Second-level hospitals face peculiarities that hinder the implementation of the hearing rescreening protocol, which are not uncommon in other settings. This study analyzes the hearing rescreening process in this kind of hospital. A total of 1130 individuals were included. In this cohort, 61.07% were newborns in the hospital who failed their first otoemission test after birth (n=679) or were unable to have the test performed (n=11), then being referred to outpatient clinic. The remaining 38.93% were individuals who were born in another hospital with their first test conducted in the outpatient clinic (n=440). A high amount of rescreenings were made outside the recommended time frame, mainly in children referred from another hospital. There was a high rate of lost to follow-up especially with otolaryngologist referrals. Neonatal Hearing screening in second level hospitals is difficult because of the staffing and time constraints. This results in longer than recommended turnaround times and interferes with the timely detection of hearing loss. This is particularly serious in outpatients. Referral of children with impaired screening to out-of-town centers leads to unacceptable loss of follow-up. A legislative support for all these rescreening issues is necessary. We discuss these findings and propose some solutions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1733.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Insect Science Keywords: Hemiptera; opsin; gene loss; color vision; compensatory neofunctionalization; tuning site
Online: 26 June 2023 (04:26:48 CEST)
Expanding previous efforts to survey the visual opsin repertoires of the Hemiptera, this study confirms that homologs of the UV- and LW-opsin subfamilies are conserved in all Hemiptera, while the B-opsin subfamily is missing from the Heteroptera and subgroups of the Sternorrhyncha and Auchenorrhyncha, i.e. aphids (Aphidoidea) and planthoppers (Fulgoroidea), respectively. Unlike in the Heteroptera, which are characterized by multiple expansions of the LW-opsin subfamily, the lack of B-opsin correlates with the presence of tandem-duplicated UV-opsins in aphids and planthoppers. Available data on organismal wavelength sensitivities and retinal gene expression patterns lead to the conclusion that, in both groups, one UV-opsin paralog shifted from ancestral UV peak sensitivity to derived blue sensitivity, thereby compensating for the lost B-opsin. Two parallel bona fide tuning site substitutions compare to 18 non-corresponding amino acid replacements in the blue-shifted UV-opsin paralogs of aphids and planthoppers. Most notably, while the aphid blue-shifted UV-opsin clade is characterized by a replacement substitution at one of the best-documented UV/blue tuning sites (Rhodopsin site 90), the planthopper blue-shifted UV-opsin paralogs retained the ancestral lysine at this position. The combined findings identify aphid and planthopper UV-opsins as a new valuable data sample for studying adaptive opsin evolution.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1166.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: devulcanization; transmission loss; transfer matrix method; rubber waste; multilayer construction.
Online: 17 May 2023 (02:19:34 CEST)
According to circular economy principles, the recycling and reuse of waste tyre rubber is one of the most advanced and ecological waste disposal technologies. Each year about 19 million tons of tyres are produced, and this amount is increasing each year. One of the most innovative ways to recycle rubber waste is devulcanization. There are many methods of rubber devulcanization, but the most popular are grinding and chemical. In this article devulcanized rubber granules were used for the preparation of rubber samples. Two of them were obtained by the grinding method and one by chemical devulcanization. 15 different rubber samples were produced for the experimental measurements. Multilayer constructions with two solid layers of plasterboard on both sides (GKB and GKFI) and porous acoustic material of rubber sample inside were produced. Measurements were made in an impedance tube and compared with the results of TMM analysis. The same trends of resonant frequencies were determined. According to the results, the resonant frequencies depended on the thickness of the material, since transmission loss values depended on the mass of construction. According to the test results of transmission loss, constructions with 50mm thick rubber samples had on average 3dB better results than the structures with 25mm samples and 5dB better results than structures with 12 mm thick rubber samples. In addition, it was found that higher density plasterboards (GKFI) increased the overall transmission loss value of the structure by 5 dB. The same trends were determined by the TMM method. The test results showed that multi-layered constructions with devulcanized waste rubber had high transmission loss result and could be used for sound insulating structures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0702.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Pollution Keywords: air pollution; disease burden; YLLs; YLDs; health inequalities; productivity loss
Online: 10 May 2023 (08:04:40 CEST)
The aim of the research presented here is to assess the magnitude of the burden of health limitations resulting from air pollution on the world's economies. This burden was determined by the estimated number of premature years of life lost (YLLs) or health lost (YLDs) due to air pollution-related diseases in the working-age population. Attention was drawn to the problem of existing inequalities in the global burden of national economies with different income levels. The hypothesis of a persistently high level of inequality was verified on the basis of an analysis of the convergence process in a group of 204 countries over the period 1990-2019. The results obtained indicate a strong variation in the level of health constraints caused by air pollution. The analysis of the catch-up process of the least advantaged countries (highest level of health constraints due to air pollution) did not show a positive convergence effect in the study group.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0436.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Soil Science Keywords: tillage operation; rainfall pattern; hydrological characteristics; surface rainfall; soil loss
Online: 17 April 2023 (09:50:43 CEST)
Many studies have focused on the impacts of rainfall duration and intensity while overlooking the role of rainfall patterns on intensive tillage erosion in hilly agricultural landscapes. The objective of this study was to determine the combined effects of rainfall patterns and intensive tillage erosion on surface runoff and soil loss on sloping farmland in the purple-soil area of China. Five simulated rainfall patterns (constant, rising, falling, rising-falling, and falling-rising) with the same total precipitation were designed, and the intensive tillage erosion treatment (IT) and no-tillage treatment (NT) were subjected to simulated rainfall using rectangular steel tanks (2 m × 5 m) with a slope of 15°. To analyse the differences in the hydrodynamic characteristics induced by tillage erosion, we calculated the flow velocity (V), Reynolds number (Re), Froude number (Fr), and Darcy-Weisbach resistance coefficient (f). The results indicate that significant differences in surface runoff and soil loss were found among different rainfall patterns and stages (P < 0.05). The falling pattern and falling-rising pattern had faster runoff-initiating times and larger sediment yields than those of the other rainfall patterns. f varied from 0.30 to 9.05 for the IT and 0.48 to 11.57 for the NT and exhibited an approximately inverse trend to V and Fr over the course of the rainfall events. Compared with the NT, the mean sediment yield rates from the IT increased the dynamic range of 8.34%–16.21% among different rainfall patterns. The net contributions of the IT ranged from 2.77% to 46.39% on surface runoff and 10.14%–78.95% on soil loss on sloping farmland. Surface runoff and soil loss were positively correlated with rainfall intensity, V, and Fr but negatively correlated with f irrespective of tillage intensive (P < 0.05). For varying-intensity rainfall patterns, soil and water loss fluctuated during rainfall events, suggesting that the changes in rainfall intensity and tillage intensity would result in drastic variations in soil hydrological characteristics and sediment transport mechanisms. The time sequences of rainfall intensity in each rainfall pattern significantly affected surface runoff, soil erosion, and their contribution rates to total soil and water loss. Moreover, tillage erosion effects on soil and water loss were closely related to rainfall patterns in hilly agricultural landscapes. Our study not only sheds light on the mechanism of tillage erosion and rainfall erosion but also provides useful insights for developing tillage-water erosion prediction models to evaluate soil and water loss on cultivated hillslopes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0006.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Financial distress; Dual system banking; Loan Loss Provission; forecasting; econometrics
Online: 3 January 2023 (07:19:41 CET)
Nowadays, many Muslim-majority countries have implemented a dual banking system, namely the sharia and conventional systems. The development of Islamic banks is to fulfill the Muslims' need for the existence of halal transactions in financial institutions. However, in some countries, it turns out that conventional banks still dominate the country's economy. Because of that, it is necessary to see whether there are differences in financial risk and Earnings management between Islamic and conventional banks. The samples are conventional and Islamic banks in Southeast Asia, analyzed by the purposive sampling method from 2010-2019. The analytical tool used is the statistical difference test and economometrics analysis using generalized least square (GLS) regression with panel data (time series and cross-sectional data). These models are intended to forecasting the macroeconomics effects in applying dual banking system in one country or region. The results using non parametrics means difference test showed that the first hypothesis is accepted It means that Earnings management in conventional banks is greater than in Islamic banks. The Random Model Effect (REM) for second and third hypotheses testing on Conventional banks shows the Bankruptcy Risk and NPL do not affect the dependent variable Earnings Management (LLP). While fixed effect model testing on Islamic banks, the second and third hypothesis testing is rejected. Therefor Islamic Banks the value of Bankruptcy Risk (z-score) and the value of Non-Performing Loans (NPL) do not affect Earnings management. It also means that hypothesis 2 and 3 are rejected both in conventional as well as Islamic Banking. Sensitivity analysis for conventional as well as Islamic banking altogether using fixed effect model shows that the second and third hypotheses show that the independent variables (Bankruptcy Risk and NPL) do not affect the dependent variable Earnings Management (LLP). These results can be concluded that Islamic bank are enganged in less earnings management. Therefor in the the long run there are still more research that should conduct in comparing dual banking system in one region.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0206.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Physical Chemistry Keywords: Nanobelts; PAH; polyaromatics; cyclic polymers; hydrogen loss; fullerenes; carbon chains
Online: 16 May 2022 (10:57:33 CEST)
We explore the importance of curvature in carbonaceaous species transformation and stability, using laser-induced vaporisation to evaporate and ionise a source of curved polyaromatic hydrocarbons: carbon nanobelts. Collision impacts between species cause mass loss and the resultant ions are catalogued via mass-spectrometry. To interpret the mass spectra, we perform a series of “in-silico” simulated systematic hydrogen-loss studies using density functional theory (DFT) modelling, sequentially removing hydrogen atoms using thermodynamic stability as a selection for subsequent dehydrogenation. In an initial sequence of H2 removal, the rings are maintained through stable carbyne chain and pentagon-chain formation, giving rise to circular strained dehydrobenzoannulene species. The chains subsequently break, releasing CH and C2. While theoretical closed-cage routes are identified, they are not observed experimentally. The results can serve as a useful guide to high-energy impact conditions observed in some astrochemical environments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0161.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: SAGIN; packet loss ratio; transaction size; transmission power; throughput/goodput
Online: 12 January 2022 (10:56:04 CET)
The purpose of this article is to simulate data transmission and calculate traffic parameters in SAGIN air segment for which Ad Hoc network of flying drones is considered as a model. Traffic modeling is based on the manet-routing-compare example from the ns3 simulator library, which has been supplemented with the code for calculation packet losses, throughput/goodput, and message transmission delays. The program allowed considering drones movement at both low and high speeds from 3.6 km/h to 72 km/h. The dependences of traffic losses on data transmission power, transaction sizes and data transmission rate are obtained and analyzed. The distribution of the average effective arrival rate λ and the throughput/goodput for drones has been studied. Comparing traffic characteristics in models with different numbers of drones allows judging how the required quality of service can be achieved by choosing the right transmission parameters.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0411.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Fresh Agricultural Produce Supply Chain; Coordination; Discount Contract; Quantity Loss
Online: 24 December 2021 (15:56:11 CET)
This paper explores the coordination of the agricultural cooperative to supermarket or E-commerce sup-ply chain, under the condition of quantity loss with a mixed decay function of exponential and logistical distribution. The nature of this process is analyzed, and the corresponding demand and supply functions with single- and multi-stage discount strategies are constructed respectively to create a working model. The optimal discount ratios for supermarkets and agricultural cooperatives in decentralized and central-ized decision-making modes coupled with single- and multi-stage discounts are calculated respectively. Finally, a universal optimal strategy is designed, which can be applied to various quantity decay scenarios and makes the discount strategy more generalized. The results show that discounts can coordinate supply chains more effectively; not only is fresh agricultural produce sold before it starts to rot, but the benefit conflicts arising from both supermarkets vs. cooperatives and traditional vs. E-commerce channels are equilibrated. Further, multi-stage discounts are more effective than single-stage ones, but optimal discount ratios rely on the initial quantity of fresh agricultural produce in the supply chain; its market share in the traditional distribution channel; the potential market size; retail price; the price sensitivity coefficient of the channel; the cross-elasticity coefficient of prices between different channels; and the properties of the quantity loss.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0345.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Cold Sensation; Heat Loss; Cold Related Risks; Real Feel Temperature
Online: 21 December 2021 (14:06:58 CET)
Abstract: Windtech device is a novel tool for measuring the sensation of the ‘cold’. Cold poses numerous challenges for industrial operations, human survival, and living convenience. The impact of the cold is not possible to be quantified just based on temperatures; however other factors such as wind speed, humidity, irradiance have to be taken into consideration. Efforts have been made to develop combined indices such as wind chill temperature (WCT), AccuWeather RealFeel®, and others. The presented article discusses these along with the industrial standards that emphasize on the quantification of the ‘cold’. The following article introduces the Windtech device and its operating principle involving ‘heated temperature’, where the ‘heated temperature’ is affected by environmental parameters including ambient temperature, humidity, wind velocity, and irradiance. The discussed Windtech device is calibrated for operation according to the ISO 11079:2007 standard.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0094.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Discrete Mathematics And Combinatorics Keywords: Siamese networks; Ensemble of classifiers; Loss function; Discrete cosine transform
Online: 3 August 2021 (15:49:22 CEST)
In this paper, we examine two strategies for boosting the performance of ensembles of Siamese networks (SNNs) for image classification using two loss functions (Triplet and Binary Cross Entropy) and two methods for building the dissimilarity spaces (FULLY and DEEPER). With FULLY, the distance between a pattern and a prototype is calculated by comparing two images using the fully connected layer of the Siamese network. With DEEPER, each pattern is described using a deeper layer combined with dimensionality reduction. The basic design of the SNNs takes advantage of supervised k-means clustering for building the dissimilarity spaces that train a set of support vector machines, which are then combined by sum rule for a final decision. The robustness and versatility of this approach are demonstrated on several cross-domain image data sets, including a portrait data set, two bioimage and two animal vocalization data sets. Results show that the strategies employed in this work to increase the performance of dissimilarity image classification using SNN is closing the gap with standalone CNNs. Moreover, when our best system is combined with an ensemble of CNNs, the resulting performance is superior to an ensemble of CNNs, demonstrating that our new strategy is extracting additional information.
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: athletes; eating disorders; weight loss; body dissatisfaction; body image disorders
Online: 27 May 2021 (08:50:10 CEST)
TThe passion of bodybuilding athletes for a symmetric, lean, heavily muscled body leads them to carry out exhausting exercise programs and restrictive eating regimens, sometimes resulting in disordered eating behaviors. This study investigates potential exacerbators on the development of disordered eating in bodybuilding and strength athletes. The study involved 103 Cypriot bodybuilding athletes of both sexes, performing at three levels: professional, recreational and strength athletes. The Eating Attitude Test 26 (EAT-26) and The Three Factor Eating Question-naire (TFEQ-R21) were used to evaluate disordered eating and eating behaviors respectively. The current study was performed under the auspices of the Hellenic Center of Education & Treatment of Eating Disorders (KEADD). The degree of deviation between the perceived ideal body weight and the actual body weight was associated with increased risk of eating disorder. Athletes who desired a lower body weight recorded higher scores on EAT-26 overall, (p=0.001), and the subscales of dieting (p=0.01) and bulimia. (p=0.001). Cognitive restraint and emotional eating scales of TFEQ-R21 were more pronounced in the non-professional athletes. (p=0.01). The emotional eating score was higher in women. There is a need for appropriate sport-specific, gender-specific preventive intervention to deescalate the risk of eating disorder, in both profes-sional and non-professional bodybuilding athletes.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0471.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Athletes; eating disorders; weight loss; body dissatisfaction; body image disorders
Online: 19 April 2021 (12:10:51 CEST)
The passion of bodybuilding athletes for a symmetric, lean, heavily muscled body leads them to carry out exhausting exercise programs and restrictive eating regimens, sometimes resulting in disordered eating behaviors. This study investigates potential exacerbators on the development of disordered eating in bodybuilding and strength athletes. The study involved 103 Cypriot bodybuilding athletes of both sexes, performing at three levels: professional, recreational and strength athletes. The Eating Attitude Test 26 (EAT-26) and The Three Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ-R21) were used to evaluate disordered eating and eating behaviors respectively. The current study was performed under the auspices of the Hellenic Center of Education & Treatment of Eating Disorders (KEADD). The degree of deviation between the perceived ideal body weight and the actual body weight was associated with increased risk of eating disorder. Athletes who desired a lower body weight recorded higher scores on EAT-26 overall, and the subscales of dieting and bulimia. Cognitive restraint and emotional eating scales of TFEQ-R21 were more pronounced in the non-professional athletes. The emotional eating score was higher in women. There is a need for appropriate sport-specific, gender-specific preventive intervention to deescalate the risk of eating disorder, in both professional and non-professional bodybuilding athletes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0071.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Horticulture Keywords: Browning; Modified atmosphere packaging; Moisture loss; Oriental melon; Relative humidity
Online: 3 September 2020 (11:51:34 CEST)
Oriental melons have a relatively short shelf life as they are harvested during the summer season and susceptible to cold-induced injuries. Typical chilling injury when stored at 4℃ is expressed as browning of the fruit suture. To prolong the shelf life and reduce browning of the fruit, the effects of modified atmosphere packaging (MAP), X-tend modified atmosphere (MA)/modified humidity (MH) bulk packaging (XF), and polyethylene (PE) packaging, on oriental melons were investigated during storage at 4℃ and 10℃ for 14 days and under retail display conditions at 20℃. The O2 concentrations in PE packages stored at 4℃ and 10℃ ranged from 17.4–18.5%, whereas those in XF packages were reduced to 16.3–16.6%. The CO2 content of XF package (4.2–4.6%) was higher than that of PE package (1.4–1.9%) stored at 4℃ or 10℃. Relative humidity (RH) saturated in the PE packages but not in the XF packages after seven days of storage. Furthermore, PE packages performed better at maintaining melon weight and firmness than XF packages during storage at 10℃ for 14 days and under retail display conditions at 20℃. PE and XF packages effectively reduced the browning index of the peel and white linear sutures of oriental melons compared with the unpackaged control during cold storage at 4℃, and this observation was maintained at the retail display condition at 20℃. The enhanced CO2 levels, reduced O2 levels, and optimal RH values that were provided by the MAP, prevented the browning symptoms and improved the marketability and shelf life of oriental melons.