ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0269.v1
Subject: Engineering, Transportation Science And Technology Keywords: Travel Time Prediction; Deep Learning; Long Short Term Memory Networks; transit; temporal correlation
Online: 9 April 2021 (15:04:06 CEST)
This study introduces a comparative analysis of two deep learning (multilayer perceptron neural networks (MLP-NN) and the long short term memory networks (LSTMN)) models for transit travel time prediction. The two models were trained and tested using one-year worth of data for a bus route in Blacksburg, Virginia. In this study, the travel time was predicted between each two successive stations to all the model to be extended to include bus dwell times. Additionally, two additional models were developed for each category (MLP of LSTM): one for only segments including controlled intersections (controlled segments) and another for segments with no control devices along them (uncontrolled segments). The results show that the LSTM models outperform the MLP models with a RMSE of 17.69 sec compared to 18.81 sec. When splitting the data into controlled and uncontrolled segments, the RMSE values reduced to 17.33 sec for the controlled segments and 4.28 sec for the uncontrolled segments when applying the LSTM model. Whereas, the RMSE values were 19.39 sec for the controlled segments and 4.67 sec for the uncontrolled segments when applying the MLP model. These results demonstrate that the uncertainty in traffic conditions introduced by traffic control devices has a significant impact on travel time predictions. Nonetheless, the results demonstrate that the LSTMN is a promising tool that can has the ability to account for the temporal correlation within the data. The developed models are also promising tools for reasonable travel time predictions in transit applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0155.v2
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: Long short-term memory; Brain dynamics; Data-driven modeling; Complex systems
Online: 18 September 2019 (13:05:22 CEST)
Modeling brain dynamics to better understand and control complex behaviors underlying various cognitive brain functions are of interests to engineers, mathematicians, and physicists from the last several decades. With a motivation of developing computationally efficient models of brain dynamics to use in designing control-theoretic neurostimulation strategies, we have developed a novel data-driven approach in a long short-term memory (LSTM) neural network architecture to predict the temporal dynamics of complex systems over an extended long time-horizon in future. In contrast to recent LSTM-based dynamical modeling approaches that make use of multi-layer perceptrons or linear combination layers as output layers, our architecture uses a single fully connected output layer and reversed-order sequence-to-sequence mapping to improve short time-horizon prediction accuracy and to make multi-timestep predictions of dynamical behaviors. We demonstrate the efficacy of our approach in reconstructing the regular spiking to bursting dynamics exhibited by an experimentally-validated 9-dimensional Hodgkin-Huxley model of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons. Through simulations, we show that our LSTM neural network can predict the multi-time scale temporal dynamics underlying various spiking patterns with reasonable accuracy. Moreover, our results show that the predictions improve with increasing predictive time-horizon in the multi-timestep deep LSTM neural network.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0004.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Electrical Power Grids; Fault Forecasting; Long Short-Term Memory; Time Series Forecasting; Wavelet Transform
Online: 3 October 2022 (10:36:14 CEST)
The electric power distribution utility is responsible for providing energy to consumers in a continuous and stable way, failures in the electrical power system reduce the reliability indexes of the grid, directly harming its performance. For this reason, there is a need for failure prediction to reestablish power in the shortest possible time. Considering an evaluation of the number of failures over time, this paper proposes to perform a failure prediction during the first year of the pandemic in Brazil (2020) to verify the feasibility of using time series forecasting models for fault prediction. The Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) model will be evaluated to obtain a forecast result that can be used by the electric power utility to organize the maintenance teams. The Wavelet transform shows to be promising in improving the predictive ability of the LSTM, making the Wavelet LSTM model suitable for the study at hand. The results show that the proposed approach has better results regarding the evaluation of the error in prediction and has robustness when a statistical analysis is performed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0302.v2
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: Searaser; Flow-3D; Prediction; Long short term memory; deep neural network; Root mean error.
Online: 13 April 2021 (09:51:25 CEST)
Accurate forecasts of ocean waves energy can not only reduce costs for investment but it is also essential for management and operation of electrical power. This paper presents an innovative approach based on the Long Short Term Memory (LSTM) to predict the power generation of an economical wave energy converter named “Searaser”. The data for analyzing is provided by collecting the experimental data from another study and the exerted data from numerical simulation of searaser. The simulation is done with Flow-3D software which has high capability in analyzing the fluid solid interactions. The lack of relation between wind speed and output power in previous studies needs to be investigated in this field. Therefore, in this study the wind speed and output power are related with a LSTM method. Moreover, it can be inferred that the LSTM Network is able to predict power in terms of height more accurately and faster than the numerical solution in a field of predicting. The network output figures show a great agreement and the root mean square is 0.49 in the mean value related to the accuracy of LSTM method. Furthermore, the mathematical relation between the generated power and wave height was introduced by curve fitting of the power function to the result of LSTM method.
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: precipitation downscaling; convolutional neural networks; long short term memory networks; hydrological simulation
Online: 2 April 2019 (12:37:11 CEST)
Precipitation downscaling is widely employed for enhancing the resolution and accuracy of precipitation products from general circulation models (GCMs). In this study, we propose a novel statistical downscaling method to foster GCMs’ precipitation prediction resolution and accuracy for monsoon region. We develop a deep neural network composed of convolution and Long Short Term Memory (LSTM) recurrent module to estimate precipitation based on well-resolved atmospheric dynamical fields. The proposed model is compared against GCM precipitation product and classical downscaling methods in the Xiangjiang River Basin in South China. Results show considerable improvement compared to the ECMWF-Interim reanalysis precipitation. Also, the model outperforms benchmark downscaling approaches, including 1) quantile mapping, 2) support vector machine, and 3) convolutional neural network. To test the robustness of the model and its applicability in practical forecast, we apply the trained network for precipitation prediction forced by retrospective forecasts from ECMWF model. Compared to ECMWF precipitation forecast, our model makes better use of the resolved dynamical field for more accurate precipitation prediction at lead time from 1 day up to 2 weeks. This superiority decreases along forecast lead time, as GCM’s skill in predicting atmospheric dynamics being diminished by the chaotic effect. At last, we build a distributed hydrological model and force it with different sources of precipitation inputs. Hydrological simulation forced with the neural network precipitation estimation shows significant advantage over simulation forced with the original ERA-Interim precipitation (with NSE value increases from 0.06 to 0.64), and the performance is just slightly worse than the observed precipitation forced simulation (NSE=0.82). This further proves the value of the proposed downscaling method, and suggests its potential for hydrological forecasts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0086.v2
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Deep neural network; long short-term memory; water quality; discharge; stream-water
Online: 17 April 2023 (07:21:31 CEST)
Multivariate predictive analysis of the Stream-Water (SW) parameters (discharge, water level, temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, turbidity, and specific conductance) is a pivotal task in the field of water resource management during the era of rapid climate change. The highly dynamic and evolving nature of the meteorological and climatic features have a significant impact on the temporal distribution of the SW variables in recent days making the SW variables forecasting even more complicated for diversified water-related issues. To predict the SW variables, various physics-based numerical models are used using numerous hydrologic parameters. Extensive lab-based investigation and calibration are required to reduce the uncertainty involved in those parameters. However, in the age of data-informed analysis and prediction, several deep learning algorithms showed satisfactory performance in dealing with sequential data. In this research, a comprehensive Explorative Data Analysis (EDA) and feature engineering were performed to prepare the dataset to obtain the best performance of the predictive model. Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) neural network regression model is trained using over several years of daily data to predict the SW variables up to one week ahead of time (lead time) with satisfactory performance. The performance of the proposed model is found highly adequate through the comparison of the predicted data with the observed data, visualization of the distribution of the errors, and a set of error matrices. Higher performance is achieved through the increase in the number of epochs and hyperparameter tuning. This model can be transferred to other locations with proper feature engineering and optimization to perform univariate predictive analysis and potentially be used to perform real-time SW variables prediction.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0135.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: Energy consumption prediction; Time-series forecasting; Forecasting Building Energy Consumption; Long Short-Term memory
Online: 2 June 2023 (05:11:04 CEST)
The global demand for energy has been steadily increasing due to population growth, urbanization, and industrialization. Numerous researchers worldwide are striving to create precise forecasting models for predicting energy consumption to manage supply and demand effectively. In this research, a time-series forecasting model based on multivariate multilayered long short-term memory (LSTM) is proposed for forecasting energy consumption and tested using data obtained from commercial buildings in Melbourne, Australia: the Advanced Technologies Center, Advanced Manufacturing and Design Center, and Knox Innovation, Opportunity, and Sustainability Center buildings. This research specifically identifies the best forecasting method for subtropical conditions and evaluates its performance by comparing it with the most used methods at present, including LSTM, bidirectional LSTM, and linear regression. The proposed multivariate multilayered LSTM model was assessed by comparing mean average error (MAE), root-mean-square error (RMSE), and mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) values with and without labeled time. Results indicate that the proposed model exhibits optimal performance with improved precision and accuracy. Specifically, the proposed LSTM model achieved a decrease in MAE by 30%, RMSE by 25%, and MAPE by 20% compared to the LSTM method. Moreover, it outperformed the bidirectional LSTM method with a reduction in MAE by 10%, RMSE by 20%, and MAPE by 18%. Furthermore, the proposed model surpassed linear regression with a decrease in MAE by 2%, RMSE by 7%, and MAPE by 10%. These findings highlight the significant performance increase achieved by the proposed multivariate multilayered LSTM model in energy consumption forecasting.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0201.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: Waves; Protein Synthesis; Resonance; Long Term Memory
Online: 12 December 2022 (12:11:00 CET)
Conclusive evidence that specic long-term memory formation relies on den- dritic growth and structural synaptic changes has proven elusive. Connec- tionist models of memory based on this hypothesis are confronted with the so-called plasticity stability dilemma or catastrophic interference. Other fun- damental limitations of these models are the feature binding problem, the speed of learning, the capacity of the memory, the localisation in time of an event and the problem of spatio-temporal pattern generation. This paper suggests that the generalisation and long-term memory mechanisms are not correlated. Only the development and the improvement of the feature ex- tractors in the cortex involves structural synaptic changes. We suggest the long-term memory has a separate mechanism which involves protein synthe- sis to encode the information into the structure of these proteins. A model of memory should be capable of explaining the dierence between memorisation and learning. Learning has in our approach two dierent mechanisms. The generalisation in the brain is handled by the proper development of the links between neurons via synapses. The Hebbian learning rule could be applied only for this part of learning. Storing an internal ring pattern involves, in our approach, a new mechanism which puts the information regarding this ring pattern into the structure of special proteins in such a way that it can be retrieved later. The hypotheses introduced in this article includes a physiological assumption which has not been yet verified because it is not currently experimentally accessible. Keywords: Waves, Protein Synthesis, Resonance, Long Term Memory Preprint submitted to Neural Networks
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1145.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: muscarinic acetylcholine receptors; hippocampal CA3 pyramidal cells; mossy fiber synapses; frequency facilitation; long-term depression; long-term potentiation
Online: 14 July 2023 (09:24:01 CEST)
Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors are well-known for their crucial involvement in hippocampus-dependent learning and memory, but the exact roles of the various receptor subtypes (M1-M5) are still not fully understood. Here, we studied how M1 and M3 receptors affect plasticity at the mossy fiber (MF)-CA3 pyramidal cell synapse. In hippocampal slices from M1/M3 receptor double knockout (M1/M3-dKO) mice, the signature short-term plasticity of the MF-CA3 synapse was not significantly affected. However, the rather unique, NMDA receptor-independent and presynaptic form of long-term potentiation (LTP) of this synapse was much larger in M1/M3-deficient slices compared to wild type slices, in both field potential and whole-cell recordings. Consistent with its presynaptic origin, induction of MF-LTP strongly enhanced the excitatory drive onto single CA3 pyramidal cells, with the effect being more pronounced in M1/M3-dKO cells. In an earlier study , we found that deletion of M2 receptors in mice disinhibits MF-LTP in a similar fashion, suggesting that endogenous acetylcholine employs both M1/M3 and M2 receptors to constrain MF-LTP. Importantly, such synergism was not observed for MF long-term depression (LTD). Low-frequency stimulation, which reliably induced LTD of MF synapses in control slices, failed to do so in M1/M3-dKO slices and gave rise to LTP instead. In striking contrast, loss of M2 augmented LTD when compared to control slices. Taken together, our data demonstrate convergence of M1/M3 and M2 receptors on MF-LTP, but functional divergence on MF-LTD, the net effect being well-balanced bidirectional plasticity of the MF-CA3 pyramidal cell synapse.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0975.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Load Forecasting; Long Short Term Memory; Temporal Convolution Networks; Multilayer Perceptron; Convolutional Neural Networks; CNN-LSTM; Convolutional LSTM Encoder- Decoder; Evaluation Metrics; Power Sector; Data Analysis
Online: 15 May 2023 (04:39:19 CEST)
Nowadays, power sector is an area that gather great scientific interest, due to events such as the increase in electricity prices in the wholesale energy market and new investments due to technological development in various sectors. These new challenges have in turn created new needs, such as the accurate prediction of the electrical load of the end users. On the occasion of the new challenges, Artificial Neural Networks approaches have become increasingly popular due to their ability to adopt efficiently to time-series predictions. In this paper, it is presented the development of a model which, through an automated process, will provide an accurate prediction of electrical load for the island of Thira in Greece. Through an automated application, deep learning load forecasting models have been created, such as Multilayer Perceptron, Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM), Convolutional Neural Network One Dimensional (CNN-1D), CNN-LSTM, Temporal Convolutional Network (TCN) and a proposed hybrid model called Convolutional LSTM Encoder-Decoder. The results in terms of prediction accuracy show satisfactory performances for all models, with the proposed hybrid model achieving the best accuracy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1115.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geophysics And Geology Keywords: InSAR-based method; coal mine goaf; prediction of long-term land subsidence; concatenation of multiple short-term monitoring data
Online: 18 July 2023 (02:35:57 CEST)
The land subsidence occurring in goafs after coal mining is a protracted process. The accurate prediction of long-term land subsidence in goafs relies heavily on the availability of long-term monitoring data. However, the scarcity of continuous long-term land subsidence monitoring data subsequent to the cessation of mining significantly hinders the accurate prediction of long-term land subsidence in goafs. To address this challenge, this study proposes an innovative method based on Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) for predicting long-term land subsidence of goafs following coal mining. The proposed method employs a concatenation approach that integrates multiple short-term monitoring data from different coal faces, each with distinct cessation times, into a cohesive and uniform long-term sequence by normalizing the subsidence rates. The method was verified using actual monitoring data from the Yangquan No.2 mine in Shanxi Province, China. Initially, coal faces with same shapes but varying cessation times were selected for analysis. Using InSAR monitoring data collected between June and December of 2016, the average subsidence rate corresponding to the duration after coal mining cessation of each coal face was back-calculated. Subsequently, a function relating subsidence rate to the duration after coal mining cessation was fitted to the data. Finally, the relationship between cumulative subsidence and the duration after coal mining cessation was derived by integrating the function. The results indicated that the relationship between subsidence rate and duration after coal mining cessation followed an exponential function for a given coal face, whereas the relationship between cumulative subsidence and duration after coal mining cessation conformed to the Knothe time function. Notably, after the cessation of coal mining, significant land subsidence persisted in the goaf of the Yangquan No.2 mine for a duration ranging from 5 to 10 years. The cumulative subsidence curve along the long axis of the coal face ultimately exhibited an inclined W-shape. The proposed method enables the quantitative prediction of residual land subsidence in goafs, even in cases where continuous long-term monitoring data are insufficient, thus providing valuable guidance for construction decisions above the goaf.
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: wind power forecasting; short-term prediction; hybrid deep learning; wind farm; long short term memory; gated recurrent network and convolutional layers
Online: 22 September 2020 (03:45:59 CEST)
Accurate forecasting of wind power generation plays a key role in improving the operation and management of a power system network and thereby its reliability and security. However, predicting wind power is complex due to the existence of high non-linearity in wind speed that eventually relies on prevailing weather conditions. In this paper, a novel hybrid deep learning model is proposed to improve the prediction accuracy of very short-term wind power generation for the Bodangora Wind Farm located in New South Wales, Australia. The hybrid model consists of convolutional layers, gated recurrent unit (GRU) layers and a fully connected neural network. The convolutional layers have the ability to automatically learn complex features from raw data while the GRU layers are capable of directly learning multiple parallel sequences of input data. The data sets of five-minute intervals from the wind farm are used in case studies to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed model against other advanced existing models, including long short-term memory (LSTM), GRU, autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) and support vector machine (SVM), which are tuned to optimise outcome. It is observed that the hybrid deep learning model exhibits superior performance over other forecasting models to improve the accuracy of wind power forecasting, numerically, up to 1.59 per cent in mean absolute error, 3.73 per cent in root mean square error and 8.13 per cent in mean absolute percentage error.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0789.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: accuracy; data-driven approach, feed forward neural network; gated recurrent unit; hyper-parameters tuning; long short-term memory; short-term demand forecasting
Online: 12 July 2023 (11:29:06 CEST)
Electricity demand forecasting plays a significant role in energy markets. Accurate prediction of electricity demand is the key factor to optimize power generation, consumption, saving energy resources, and determining the energy prices. However, integrating energy mix scenarios, including solar and wind power which are highly non-linear and seasonal, into an existing grid increases uncertainty in generation, adds the challenges for precise forecast. To tackle these challenges, state-of-the-art methods and algorithms have been implemented in literature. We have developed Artificial Intelligence (AI) based deep learning models that can effectively handle the information of long time-series data. Based on the pattern of dataset, four different scenarios were developed and two best scenarios were selected for prediction. Dozens of models were developed and tested in deep AI networks. In the first scenario (Scenario1), data for weekdays excluding holidays was taken and in the second scenario (Scenario2) all the data in the basket was taken. Remaining two scenarios, weekends and holidays were tested and neglected because of their high prediction error. To find the optimal configuration, models were trained and tested within a large space of alternatives called hyper-parameters. In this study, an Aritificial Neural Network (ANN) based Feed-forward Neural Network (FNN) showed the minimum prediction error for Scenario1 while a Recurrent Neural Network (RNN) based Gated Recurrent Network (GRU) showed the minimum prediction error for Scenario2. While comparing the accuracy, the lowest MAPE of 2.47% was obtained from FNN for Scenario1. When evaluating the same testing dataset (non-holidays) of Scenario2, the RNN-GRU model achieved the lowest MAPE of 2.71%. Therefore, we can conclude that grouping of weekdays as Senario1 prepared by excluding the holidays provides better forecasting accuracy compared to the single group approach used in Scenario2, where all the dataset is considered together. However, Scenario2 is equally important to predict the demand for weekends and holidays.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0278.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: Long Short-Term Memory; time series forecasting; commodities; technical analysis
Online: 15 November 2022 (07:00:55 CET)
This article presents the implementation of a model to estimate the future price of commodities in the Brazilian market from time series of short-term technical evaluation. For this, data from two databases were used, one referring to the foreign market (opening values, maximum, minimum, closing, closing adjustment and volume) and the other, from the Brazilian market (the price of the day), considering commodities, sugar, cotton, corn, soybean and wheat. Subsequently, the technical indicators were calculated from the TA-Lib technical analysis library. Pearson’s correlation coefficient was applied, records with low correlation were removed, and then the database was consolidated. From the pre-processed data, Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) recurrent neural networks were used to perform data prediction at the one and three day interval. These models were evaluated using the mean square error (MSE), obtaining results between 0.00010 and 0.00037 on test data one day ahead, and from 0.00017 to 0.00042 three days ahead. However, based on the results obtained, it was observed that the developed model obtained a promising forecasting performance for all the commodities evaluated. As a main contribution, there is the consolidation of databases that can be used in future scientific research. Furthermore, based on its interpretation, it can assist in decision making regarding the buying and selling of commodities to increase financial gains.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0934.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Applied Mathematics Keywords: Time Series; Forecasting, Deep Learning; Genetic Algorithm; Long Short-Term Memory
Online: 12 May 2023 (11:07:28 CEST)
Fluctuating stock prices make it difficult for investors to see investment opportunities. One tool that can help investors overcome this is forecasting techniques. Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) is one of deep learning methods used in forecasting time series. The training and success of deep learning is strongly influenced by the selection of hyperparameters. This research uses a hybrid method between the Genetic Algorithm (GA) and LSTM to find a suitable model for predicting stock prices. GA is used in optimizing the architecture such as the number of epochs, window size, and the number of LSTM units in the hidden layer. Tuning optimizer is also carried out using several optimizers to achieve the best value. From method that has been applied, it shows that the method has a good level of accuracy with MAPE values below 10% in every optimizer used. The error rate generated is quite low, in case-1 with a minimum RMSE value of 93.03 and 94.40, & in case-2 with an RMSE value of 104.99 and 150.06 during training and testing. A fairly stable and small value is generated by setting it using the Adam Optimizer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0316.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: temporal lobe epilepsy; hippocampus; 4-aminopyridine; epilepsy model; long-term potentiation; AMPA receptor.
Online: 17 September 2021 (12:45:31 CEST)
Even brief epileptic seizures can lead to activity-dependent structural remodeling of neural circuitry. Animal models show that the functional plasticity of synapses and changes in the intrinsic excitability of neurons can be crucial for epileptogenesis. However, the exact mechanisms underlying epileptogenesis remain unclear. We induced epileptiform activity in rat hippocampal slices for 15 min using a 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) in vitro model and observed hippocampal hyperexcitability for at least 1 hour. We tested several possible mechanisms of this hyperexcitability, including changes in intrinsic membrane properties of neurons, presynaptic and postsynaptic alterations. Neither input resistance nor other essential biophysical properties of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons were affected by epileptiform activity. The glutamate release probability also remained unchanged, as the frequency of miniature EPSCs and the paired amplitude ratio of evoked responses did not change after epileptiform activity. However, we found an increase in the AMPA/NMDA ratio, suggesting alterations in the properties of postsynaptic glutamatergic receptors. Thus, the increase in excitability of hippocampal neural networks is realized through postsynaptic mechanisms. In contrast, the intrinsic membrane properties of neurons and the probability of glutamate release from presynaptic terminals are not affected in a 4-AP model.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1749.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Gender And Sexuality Studies Keywords: homosexual long-term care; elderly male homosexuals; long-term care services
Online: 29 November 2023 (09:38:21 CET)
The present study examines the long-term care service awareness, needs, and usage intention of elderly male homosexuals in Taiwan and their ideal long-term care service model. This study of five elderly male homosexual subjects aged 66 to 73 years was intended as a preliminary exploration. Interviews were used to collect data. The study determined that the five subjects had high awareness of long-term care services, as they had actual experience of long-term care services or even participated in care service staff training to obtain certificates. Some even had experience in applying for home care services and experienced problems during use. The subjects perceived that they were very likely to require long-term care services in the future and tended to use home care services if they required long-term care services. Due to their personal experiences, the subjects had negative awareness of long-term care services and worried that long-term care service staff had poor attitudes toward homosexuals. The subjects considered the most important aspects of long-term care to be basic medical care and lifestyle care. However, they worried that long-term care staff would delay or refuse to provide such services due to the subjects’ sexual orientation or stereotypes, and they were concerned above all about the “friendly attitude” of long-term care staff. They hoped that long-term care staff were friendly toward homosexuals and did not discriminate against them, and they felt that it would be more appropriate for homosexual long-term care staff to provide assistance. In terms of vision, while preferring organizations with homosexual employees, the subjects worried that they would be stigmatized and discriminated against . With regard to ideal long-term care services, while considering institutions with homosexual staff to be ideal, the subjects also worried that these would be labeled as institutions that were dedicated to homosexuals, potentially resulting in discrimination. Therefore, they hoped that the sexuality sensitivity of long-term care staff could be improved and that they would undergo professional continuing education to learn about homosexuals, the situation and care needs of homosexuals, and care techniques for homosexuals.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0126.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Speech/Music Classification; Enhanced Voice Service, Long Short-Term Memory, Big Data
Online: 5 November 2018 (17:02:36 CET)
Speech/music classification that facilitates optimized signal processing from classification results has been extensively adapted as an essential part of various electronics applications, such as multi-rate audio codecs, automatic speech recognition, and multimedia document indexing. In this paper, a new technique to improve the robustness of speech/music classifier for 3GPP enhanced voice service (EVS) using long short-term memory (LSTM) is proposed. For effective speech/music classification, feature vectors implemented with the LSTM are chosen from the features of the EVS. Experiments show that LSTM-based speech/music classification produces better results than conventional EVS under a variety of conditions and types of speech/music data.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0836.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: Long covid; Post covid; Sleep disorders
Online: 11 May 2023 (09:42:22 CEST)
Objectives: To examine the long term impact of COVID-19 on sleep patterns and development of sleep disorders. Methods: Using the centralized Massachusetts General Brigham (MGB) Research Patient Data Registry (RPDR), SARS-CoV2 positive patients were surveyed about their sleep patterns before and after the viral infection. Information related to co-morbid conditions and medications were obtained through chart review. Results: Two hundred and forty five completed surverys were analysed. Average age was 53.3 ± 16.3 years, and participants were predominantly Non-Hispanic White (84.1%) and female (74.3%). Average BMI (kg/m2) was 29.9 ± 6.9, and a greater proportion was non-smokers (63.2%). After COVID-19, there was an increase in the percentage of participants reporting difficulty initiating (31 ± 46% vs. 39 ± 49%, P=0.01), and maintaining sleep (43 ± 49% vs. 57 ± 49%, P<0.001), and use of sleep aids (24 ± 43% vs. 30 ± 45% P=0.003) with an incidence rate of 24.3%, 37.4%, and 12.3% respectively. In addition, there was an increase in daytime fatigue and the need for napping (58 ± 49% vs. 36 ± 48%, P <0.0001) with an incidence of 8% and 23% respectively. The sleep symptoms persisted beyond 12 months among 28% of the participants and were predominantly seen among women. Conclusions: Infection with SARS-CoV2 has negative effects on sleep, and a significant proportion of adults experience insomnia and daytime sleepiness beyond 12 months after recovering from the initial infection.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0252.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: Recurrent neural network; Long-term short memory; Gated recurrent unit
Online: 12 July 2021 (12:03:06 CEST)
Deep neural networks (DNNs) have made a huge impact in the field of machine learning by providing unbeatable humanlike performance to solve real-world problems such as image processing and natural language processing (NLP). Convolutional neural network (CNN) and recurrent neural network (RNN) are two typical architectures that are widely used to solve such problems. Time sequence-dependent problems are generally very challenging, and RNN architectures have made an enormous improvement in a wide range of machine learning problems with sequential input involved. In this paper, different types of RNN architectures are compared. Special focus is put on two well-known gated-RNN’s Long Term Short Memory (LSTM) and Gated Recurrent Unit (GRU). We evaluated these models on the task of force estimation system in pouring. In this study, four different models including multi-layers LSTM, multi-layers GRU, single-layer LSTM and single-layer GRU) were created and trained. The result suggests that multi-layer GRU outperformed other three models.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0049.v2
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Probability And Statistics Keywords: long short-term memory; minimum message length; time series; neural network; deep learning; Bayesian statistics; probabilistic modeling
Online: 12 October 2021 (11:41:30 CEST)
We investigate the power of time series analysis based on a variety of information-theoretic approaches from statistics (AIC, BIC) and machine learning (Minimum Message Length) - and we then compare their efficacy with traditional time series model and with hybrids involving deep learning. More specifically, we develop AIC, BIC and Minimum Message Length (MML) ARMA (autoregressive moving average) time series models - with this Bayesian information-theoretic MML ARMA modelling already being new work. We then study deep learning based algorithms in time series forecasting, using Long Short Term Memory (LSTM), and we then combine this with the ARMA modelling to produce a hybrid ARMA-LSTM prediction. Part of the purpose of the use of LSTM is to seek capture any hidden information in the residuals left from the traditional ARMA model. We show that MML not only outperforms earlier statistical approaches to ARMA modelling, but we further show that the hybrid MML ARMA-LSTM models outperform both ARMA models and LSTM models.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0194.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Mathematics Keywords: long-range dependence; Hurst effect; fractionallydifferenced models; Mandelbrot
Online: 26 May 2017 (18:36:50 CEST)
Long memory plays an important role in many fields by determining the behaviour and predictability of systems; for instance, climate, hydrology, finance, networks and DNA sequencing. In particular, it is important to test if a process is exhibiting long memory since that impacts the accuracy and confidence with which one may predict future events on the basis of a small amount of historical data. A major force in the development and study of long memory was the late Benoit B. Mandelbrot. Here we discuss the original motivation of the development of long memory and Mandelbrot's influence on this fascinating field. We will also elucidate the sometimes contrasting approaches to long memory in different scientific communities
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1197.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: TEVAR; long-term outcome; MACCE
Online: 16 August 2023 (09:17:03 CEST)
Background: To analyze long-term outcomes in patients undergoing thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR). Methods: All consecutive 97 patients undergoing TEVAR between September 2014 and September 2022 were included in the study. Primary outcome was long-term incidence of overall death and major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events (MACCE). Results: Mean age was 70.4 years, and 22(23.2%) had cerebrovascular disease (CBVD). A total of 49(51.6%) of patients had prior cardiac surgery intervention and 8(8.5%) had prior aortic valve replacement. Twenty-eight patients(28.8%) presented with aortic dissection, 60(61.8%) had aortic aneurysm, 4(4.1%) had intramural hematoma, and 5(5.1%) had other presentations. An emergent procedure was performed in 6(6.2%) patients, an urgent procedure in 37(38.1%) patients and 54(55.7%) patients had an elective procedure. Intraoperatively, 78.3% had percutaneous TEVAR, 5.1% had ministernotomy TEVAR, while 10.3% had concomitant full sternotomy TEVAR repair. Hospital mortality was 7 patients(7.2%). At 8-years follow-up, 76% were alive, 25.8% had MACCE, 21.6% were diagnosed with endoleaks(13 patients type II and 2 patients type 1) while 10.3% un-derwent repeat intervention. Conclusions: This single center experience in patients undergoing TEVAR evidenced good short and long-term survival and MACCE. Nonetheless, almost half of the patients underwent an ur-gent/emergent procedure, clinical results were favourable for TEVAR.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0467.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Anomaly detection; autoencoder; long short-term memory; deep learning; discrete wavelet transform, feature extraction, outlier detection.)
Online: 9 October 2023 (07:34:29 CEST)
In industrial settings, gears play a crucial role by assisting various machinery functions such as speed control, torque manipulation, and altering motion direction.The malfunction or failure of these gear components can have serious repercussions, resulting in production halts and financial losses. As a result, there is an increasing requirement to monitor the state of these components in order to avoid such issues from occurring. To address this need, research efforts have focused on early defect detection in gears in order to reduce the impact of possible failures. This study focused on analyzing vibration and thermal datasets from two extruder machine gearboxes using an autoencoder Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) model. The major goal is to implement an outlier detection approach to detect and classify defects. The results of this study highlighted the extraordinary performance of the Autoencoder LSTM model, which achieved an impressive accuracy rate of 94.42% in recognizing malfunctioning gearboxes within the extruder machine system. Furthermore, the study used a thorough global metrics evaluation methodology to further test the model’s dependability and efficacy, consequently substantiating the proposed approach’s validity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0509.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Ophthalmology Keywords: laser excimer; myopia surgery; long term; Femto-LASIK; PRK
Online: 22 July 2020 (09:53:46 CEST)
Refractive surgery is an increasingly popular procedure to decrease spectacle or contact lens dependency. The two most commonly used surgical techniques to correct myopia is Photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) and Femtosecond- Lasik (FS-LASIK)There are few publications that gathers such a long term follow up of both surgical techniques (2) Methods It has been performed a retrospective non-randomized study 509 PRK eyes and 310 FS-LASIK surgeries were followed for 10 years for the treatment of myopia and compound myopic astigmatism. Patients were followed up three months, one year, 2 years, 5 and 10 years. The safety index of both procedures was defined as a quotient between the postoperative BCVA (Best Corrected Visual Acuity) and the preoperative BCVA. The predictability is calculated as difference between the expected spherical equivalent and the achieved spherical equivalent. The efficacy index was calculated as a quotient between postoperative UCVA divided by the preoperative BCVA (3) Results. The results were: a safety index higher than 100% (109%) and an efficacy index of 82.4% after 10 years of PRK surgery in both groups. FS-LASIK was the safest surgery after 10 years and the most efficacy technique although in this case there were no statistically significant differences (4) Conclusions. All these data demonstrated better indexes for FS-LASIK
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0060.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Human Memory; Long-term Memory; Episodic; Implicit; Explicit
Online: 2 April 2021 (12:02:21 CEST)
Memory is probably one of the most complex cognitive functions of the human, and in many years, thousands of studies have helped us to better recognize this brain function. One of the reference textbooks in neuroscience, which has also elaborated on the memory function, is written by Prof. Kandel and his colleagues. In this book, I encountered a number of ambiguities when it was explaining the memory system. Here, I am sharing those points, either to find an answer for them, or to let them be a suggestion for our future works. Prof. Kandel has spent most of his meritorious lifetime on studying the memory system; however, the brain is extremely complex, and as a result, we still have many years to comprehensively understand the neural mechanisms of brain functions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0377.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: deep learning; time series prediction; long short-term memory; recurrent neural network; maximum correlation kurtosis deconvolution; cuckoo search.
Online: 22 November 2021 (10:55:00 CET)
This paper realizes early bearing fault warning through bearing fault time series prediction, and proposes a bearing fault time series prediction model based on optimized maximum correlation kurtosis deconvolution (MCKD) and long short-term memory (LSTM) recurrent neural network to ensure bearings operation reliability. The model is based on lifecycle vibration signal of the bearing, to begin, the cuckoo search (CS) is utilized to optimize the parameter filter length L and deconvolution period T of MCKD, taking into account the influence and periodicity of the bearing time series, the fault impact component of the optimized MCKD deconvolution time series is improved. Then select the LSTM learning rate α depending on deconvolution time series. Finally, the dataset obtained through various preprocessing approaches are used to train and predict the LSTM model. The average prediction accuracy of the optimized MCKD-LSTM model is 26 percent higher than that of the original time series, proving the efficiency of this method, and the prediction results track the real fault data well, according to the XI'AN JIAOTONG University XJTU-SY bearing dataset.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0140.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Vision And Graphics Keywords: Left ventricular ejection fraction; Left ventricle segmentation; Convolutional long short-term memory; Echocardiography
Online: 10 March 2022 (04:19:30 CET)
Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death worldwide. A key factor in assessing the risk of cardiovascular disease is left ventricular functional evaluation. Left ventricular (LV) systolic function is evaluated by measuring the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) using echocardiography data. Therefore, quick and accurate left ventricle segmentation is important for estimating the LVEF. However, it is difficult to accurately segment the left ventricle due to changes in the shape and area of the left ventricle during cardiac cycles. In this study, we proposed a framework that considers changes in the shape and area of the left ventricle during the cardiac cycle by applying the convolutional long short-term memory (CLSTM) approach. In addition, we evaluated the left ventricular segmentation and multidimensional quantification of the proposed system in comparison to manual and automated segmentation methods. In addition, to assess the validity of CLSTM, the values of multi-dimensional quantification metrics were compared and analyzed using graphs and Bland–Altman plots on a frame-by-frame basis. We demonstrated that the CLSTM method effectively segments the left ventricle by considering the LV activity. In conclusion, we demonstrated that LV segmentation based on our framework may be utilized to accurately estimate LVEF values.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0211.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: SARSCoV-2 virus; Long Covid; Spike protein
Online: 5 September 2023 (05:11:54 CEST)
The collective considerations presented here lead to a crucial question: What truly constitutes the primary public health challenge posed by SARSCoV-2 infection and its variants?The findings of Bowen et al.(1) and Noé et al.(4) have offered us new insights into the actual repercussions of SARSCoV-2 virus infections on public health. They unmistakably point to the late sequelae and complications arising as secondary effects of the viral infection, causing severe and long-term damage to global public health. Rather than the acute infection which has a very low mortality rate in the general population, as initially and commonly believed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0640.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: long-term energy storage; fossil fuels; energy transition
Online: 26 July 2020 (16:38:35 CEST)
Great Britain’s stocks of coal, natural gas, and petroleum have seen major changes to the levels of stored energy over the years 2005 to 2019, a reduction of 200 TWh (35%) from 570 TWh to 370 TWh. The transformation of its electrical system over this timeframe saw a reduction in coal generation, leading to a corresponding reduction of the levels of stockpiled coal of 85 TWh (68%), partially offset by an increase in the stocks of biomass for electrical generation. The reduction in natural gas storage of 24 TWh (44%) was primarily due to the closure of Britain’s only long-term seasonal natural gas storage facility in January 2018. This was partially offset by the construction of medium-term natural gas storage facilities and the use of LNG storage in the years preceding its closure. For stocks of crude oil and oil products the reduction was 35 TWh (21%), linked to the overall reduction in demand.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0676.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: remaining useful life; maximum correlation kurtosis deconvolution; multi-scale permutation entropy; long short-term memory
Online: 11 September 2023 (11:30:22 CEST)
The performance of bearings plays a pivotal role in determining the dependability and security of rotating machinery. In intricate systems demanding exceptional reliability and safety, the ability to accurately forecast fault occurrences during operation holds profound significance. Such predictions serve as invaluable guides for crafting well-considered reliability strategies and executing maintenance practices aimed at enhancing reliability. In order to ensure the reliability of bearing operation, this article investigates the application of three advanced techniques—Maximum Correlation Kurtosis Deconvolution (MCKD), Multi-Scale Permutation Entropy (MPE), and Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) recurrent neural networks—for the prediction of the remaining useful life (RUL) of rolling bearings. Each technique's principles, methodologies, and applications are comprehensively reviewed, offering insights into their respective strengths and limitations. Case studies and experimental evaluations are presented to assess their performance in RUL prediction. Findings reveal that MCKD enhances fault signatures, MPE captures complexity, and LSTM excels in modeling temporal patterns. The root mean square error of the prediction results is 0.007. The fusion of these techniques offers a comprehensive approach to RUL prediction, leveraging their unique attributes for more accurate and reliable predictions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0039.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Autonomous vehicles (A.V.); Anomaly Detection (A.D.); Deep Learning (DL), Symmetry; Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM); False Data Injection (FDI) Attacks
Online: 4 July 2022 (08:14:45 CEST)
Nowadays, technological advancement has transformed traditional vehicles into Au-tonomous Vehicles (A.V.s). In addition, in our daily lives, A.V.s play an important role since they are considered an essential component of smart cities. A.V. is an intelligent vehicle capable of main-taining safe driving by avoiding crashes caused by drivers. Unlike traditional vehicles, which are fully controlled and operated by humans, A.V.s collect information about the outside environment using sensors to ensure safe navigation. Furthermore, A.V.s reduce environmental impact because they usually use electricity to operate instead of fossil fuel, thus decreasing the greenhouse gasses. However, A.V.s could be threatened by cyberattacks, posing risks to human life. For example, re-searchers reported that Wi-Fi technology could be vulnerable to cyberattacks through Tesla and BMW AVs. Therefore, more research is needed to detect cyberattacks targeting the components of A.V.s to mitigate their negative consequences. This research will contribute to the security of A.V.s by detecting cyberattacks at the early stages. First, we inject False Data Injection (FDI) attacks into an A.V. simulation-based system developed by MathWorks. Inc. Second, we collect the dataset generated from the simulation model after integrating the cyberattack. Third, we implement an intelligent symmetrical anomaly detection method to identify FDI attacks targeting the control system of the A.V. through a compromised sensor. We use long short-term memory (LSTM) deep networks to detect FDI attacks in the early stage to ensure the stability of the operation of A.V.s. Our method classifies the collected dataset into two classifications: normal and anomaly data. The ex-perimental result shows that our proposed model's accuracy is 99.95%. To this end, the proposed model outperforms other state-of-the-art models in the same study area.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0264.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: concussion; mild traumatic brain injury; working memory; long-term cognitive outcome; support vector machine classifier; personalized prediction
Online: 16 December 2021 (10:24:08 CET)
Concussion, also known as mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), commonly causes transient neurocognitive symptoms, but in some cases, it causes cognitive impairment, including working memory (WM) deficit, which can be long-lasting and impede a patient’s return to work. The predictors of long-term cognitive outcomes following mTBI remain unclear because abnormality is often absent in structural imaging findings. The purpose of the study was to determine whether machine learning-based models using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) biomarkers and demographic or neuropsychological measures at baseline could effectively predict 1-year cognitive outcomes of concussion. We conducted a prospective, observational study of patients with mTBI who were compared with demographically-matched healthy controls enrolled between September 2015 to August 2020. Baseline assessments were collected within the first week of injury, and follow-ups were conducted at 6 weeks, 3 months, 6 months, and 1 year. Potential demographic, neuropsychological, and fMRI features were selected according to the significance of correlation with the estimated changes in WM ability. The support vector machine classifier was trained using these potential features and estimated changes in WM between the predefined time periods. Patients demonstrated significant cognitive recovery at the third month, followed by worsened performance after 6 months, which persisted until 1 year after concussion. Approximately half of the patients experienced prolonged cognitive impairment at 1-year follow up. Satisfactory predictions were achieved for patients whose WM function did not recover at 3 months (accuracy=87.5%), 6 months (accuracy=83.3%), 1 year (accuracy=83.3%), and performed worse at 1-year follow-up compared to baseline assessment (accuracy=83.3%). This study demonstrated the feasibility of personalized prediction for long-term postconcussive WM outcomes based on baseline fMRI and demographic features, opening a new avenue for early rehabilitation intervention in selected individuals with possible poor long-term cognitive outcomes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0229.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Finance Keywords: cryptocurrency; double long memory (LM); structural breaks (SBs); efficient market hypothesis; ARFIMA-FIGARCH model
Online: 13 December 2022 (07:03:26 CET)
This study estimates the effects of double long memory and structural breaks on the persistence level of six major cryptocurrency markets. We apply the Bai and Perron’s structural break test, Inclán and Tiao’s iterated cumulative sum of squares (ICSS) algorithm, and the fractionally integrated generalized autoregressive conditional heteroscedasticity (FIGARCH) model with different distributions. The results show that long memory and structural breaks characterize the conditional volatility of cryptocurrency markets and confirm our hypothesis that ignoring structural breaks leads to an underestimation of the persistence of volatility modelling. The ARFIMA-FIGARCH model with structural breaks and a skewed Student–t distribution fits the cryptocurrency market’s price dynamics well.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0410.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: long-term care, technology, therapy, virtual reality
Online: 20 September 2018 (13:34:02 CEST)
In this study, 6 residents of a long-term care facility were asked to try on Virtual Reality glasses and report their first experiences with Virtual Reality. The results show that Virtual Reality is of great interest to elderly residents of in-patient long-term care facilities. The wearing period was longer than expected and no symptoms of cyber sickness occurred. For the residents it was exciting to explore the virtual environments. Austrian destinations, nature scenes in the mountains and forests but also trips to the zoo, the museum, in churches or even densely populated areas like shopping streets or train stations would be places for the residents, they would like to explore virtually. Far-off destinations such as Rio de Janeiro or the Caribbean are more of an exception. Biographically relevant places such as the parental home or the location of their wedding were not named. Concerning the usability, an adjustment of the VR glasses is necessary for a longer-term use in any case.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.2095.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: cultural tourism (CT); multi‐quadratic‐long short term memory (MQ‐LSTM); social network sites (SNS); tourism recommendation (TR); geographic information system (GIS); Kriging interpolation‐based Chameleon (KIC)
Online: 1 November 2023 (02:31:44 CET)
Cultural Tourism (CT), which enhances the economic development of a region, aids a country in reinforcing its identities, enhancing cross-cultural understanding, and preserving the heritage culture of an area. Designing a proper tourism model assists the tourists in understanding the point of interest without the help of a local guide. However, owing to the need for the analysis of different factors, designing such a model is a complex process. Therefore, this article proposes a CT model for Riyadh for peak visitor time. Primarily, the map data and cultural event dataset are processed for location, such as grouping with Kriging Interpolation-based Chameleon (KIC), tree forming, and feature extraction. After that, the event dataset’s attributes are processed with word embedding. Meanwhile, the Social Network Sites (SNS) data like reviews and news are extracted with an external Application Programming Interface (API). The review data is processed with keyword extraction and word embedding, whereas the news data is processed with score value estimation. Lastly, the data are fused corresponding to a historical site and given to the Multi-Quadratic-Long Short Term Memory (MQ-LSTM) Recommendation System (RS); also, the recommended result with the map is stored in a database. Lastly, the database security is maintained with Locality Sensitive Hashing (LSH); moreover, by attaining higher performance values, the proposed model is experimentally verified.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0180.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: long term survival; Glioblastoma; IDH; EGFR; Ki67; p53
Online: 16 October 2019 (08:30:25 CEST)
Background: Glioblastomas (GBM) is generally burdened, to date, by a dismal prognosis, although Long Term Survivors have a relatively significant incidence. Our specific aim was to determine the exact impact of many surgery-, patient- and tumor-related variable on Survival parameters. Methods: The surgical, radiological and clinical outcomes of patients have been retrospectively reviewed for the present study. All the patients have been operated on in our Institution and classified according their Overall Survival in LTS (Long Term Survivors) and STS (Short Term Survivors). A thorough Review of our surgical series was conducted to compare the oncologic results of the patients in regards to 1. Surgical , 2. Molecular, and 3.Treatment related features. Results: A total of 177 patients were included in the final cohort. Extensive statistical analysis by means of univariate, multivariate and survival analyses disclosed a survival advantage for patients presenting a younger age, a smaller lesion and a better functional status at presentation. From the Histochemical point of view, Ki67(%) was the strongest predictor of better oncologic outcomes. A stepwise analysis of variance outlines the existence of 8 prognostic subgroups according to the molecular patterns of Ki67 overexpression and EGFR, p53 and IDH mutations. Conclusions: On the ground of our statistical analyses we can affirm that the following factors were significant predictors of survival advantage: KPS, Age, Volume of the lesion, Motor disorder at presentation, a Ki67 overexpression. A fine molecular profiling is feasible to precisely stratify the prognosis of GBM patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0228.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: long-term care; workplace management; Synergy Model
Online: 4 July 2023 (12:13:49 CEST)
Background: There are ongoing workforce challenges with the delivery of long-term care (LTC), such as staffing decisions based on arbitrary standards. The Synergy tool, a resident-centered approach to staffing, pro-vides objective, real-time acuity and dependency scores (Synergy scores) for residents. The purpose of this study was to implement and evaluate the impact of the Synergy tool on LTC delivery. Methods: A longitudinal mixed methods study took place within two publicly-funded LTC homes in British Columbia, Canada. Quantitative data included weekly Synergy scores for residents (24 weeks), monthly aggregated resident falls data (18 months) and a six-month economic evaluation. Qualitative data were gathered from family caregivers and thematically analyzed. Results: Quantitative findings from Synergy scores revealed considerable variability for resident acuity/dependency needs within and across units; and falls decreased during implementation. The six-month economic evaluation demonstrated some cost savings by comparing Synergy tool training and implementation costs with savings from resident fall rates reductions. Qualitative analyses yielded three positive impacts themes (improved care delivery, better communication, and improved resident-family-staff relationships), and two negative structural themes (language barrier and staff shortages). Conclusions: The Synergy tool provides useful data for enhancing a ‘fit’ between resident needs and available staff.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0779.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Social isolation; risk factors; older adults; long-term care
Online: 31 December 2020 (09:24:17 CET)
Objectives: A wealth of literature has established risk factors for social isolation among older people, however much of this research has focused on community-dwelling populations. Relatively little is known about how risk of social isolation is experienced among those living in long-term care (LTC) homes. We conducted a scoping review to identify possible risk factors for social isolation among older adults living in LTC homes. Methods: A systematic search of five online databases retrieved 1535 unique articles. Eight studies met the inclusion criteria. Results: Thematic analyses revealed that possible risk factors exist at three levels: individual (e.g., communication barriers), systems (e.g., location of LTC facility), and structural factors (e.g., discrimination). Discussion: Our review identified several risk factors for social isolation that have been previously documented in literature, in addition to several risks that may be unique to those living in LTC homes. Results highlight several scholarly and practical implications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0413.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: long COVID; COVID 19 vaccination; COVID awareness
Online: 24 December 2021 (23:40:18 CET)
Background Recently, a surge of COVID 19 was observed globally, regionally and nationally. With increasing numbers of cases, the frequency of long COVID is on the rise. Management and control of long COVID depend on changes in respect of human behaviors and requires an understanding of knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) regarding health threats. MethodsA descriptive cross sectional study using online survey to gather data on the socio-economic background, knowledge, attitudes and practices on long-term complications of COVID. Results: Out of 201 respondents, 89.2% participants have heard about long-term complications of COVID 19. Only 35.9% have demonstrated adequate knowledge in the questions relating to co-morbidities and risk factors of COVID-19. A total of 92.2% believe that they should adhere to preventive measures following vaccination. Less than 60 % were following the advice on avoiding unnecessary travel and crowded places. Further, less than 50% were following COVID preventive measures. ConclusionAlthough the majority of participants have heard about long-term complications and common symptoms, the knowledge regarding co-morbidities that can lead to severe disease and long COVID was not satisfactory. The attitudes of the participants indicated increasing concern about long COVID. Practices indicate lack of adherence to key measures such as avoiding crowded places. These findings highlight the need for further increasing of awareness.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202312.0262.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: Cardiopulmonary exercise test; Takotsubo syndrome; Long-term functional limitations; Heart failure
Online: 5 December 2023 (14:40:09 CET)
In patients with prior Takotsubo syndrome (TTS), long lasting functional cardiac limitations were described as compared with normal subjects. Emotions-triggered Takotsubo syndrome (E-TTS) has more favorable outcomes than TTS preceded by a physical trigger or by no identifiable fac-tors. The aim of the present study was to assess long-term cardiac functional limitations in a co-hort of asymptomatic E-TTS patients. We enrolled n=39 asymptomatic patients with a diagnosis of E-TTS. Cardiopulmonary exercise tests (CPET) were performed at 30 [12-40] months median fol-low-up from the acute event. A cohort of n=39 individuals matched for age, sex, body mass index and comorbidities served as control. Despite recovery of left ventricular ejection fraction, patients with prior E-TTS had lower peak VO2 and percentage of predicted peak VO2 (17.8 ± 3.6 vs 22.5 ± 6.5; P < 0.001 and 75.2 ± 14.1 % vs 100.6 ± 17.1%, P <0.001), VO2 at anaerobic threshold (AT) (11.1 [10.1-12.9] vs 14.4 [12.5-18.7]; P <0.001), peak O2 pulse (9.7 ± 2.5 vs 13.1 ± 3.5; P <0.001) and higher VE/VCO2 slope (30.4 ± 3.7 vs 27.2 ± 3.5; P <0.001) compared with matched controls. We found no statistically significant differences in heart rate reserve (HRR), respiratory equivalent ratio (RER), mean blood pressure and peak PetCO2 between patients and controls. Despite its favorable out-come, patients with E-TTS in our population were found to have subclinical long-term functional cardiac limitations as compared with a control cohort.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0139.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: concrete dams; prediction model; empirical modal decomposition method; wavelet threshold; sparrow search algorithm; long short-term memory
Online: 11 October 2022 (04:32:08 CEST)
The deformation monitoring information of concrete dams contains some high-frequency com-ponents, and the high-frequency components are strongly nonlinear, which reduces the accuracy of dam deformation prediction. In order to solve such problems, this paper proposes a concrete dam deformation monitoring model based on empirical mode decomposition (EMD) combined with wavelet threshold noise reduction and sparrow search algorithm (SSA) optimization of long short-term memory network (LSTM). The model uses EMD combined with wavelet threshold to decompose and denoise the measured deformation data. On this basis, the LSTM model based on SSA optimization is used to mine the nonlinear function relationship between the reconstructed monitoring data and various influencing factors. The example analysis shows that the model has good calculation speed, fitting and prediction accuracy and it can effectively mine the date char-acteristics inherent in the measured deformation, and reduce the influence of noise components on the modeling accuracy.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0200.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Other Keywords: sequelae; COVID-19; SARS-COV-2; long-COVID; systematic review
Online: 14 September 2022 (08:50:08 CEST)
Background: COVID-19 made its debut as a pandemic in 2020; since then, more than 607 million cases and at least 6.5 million deaths have been reported worldwide. While the burden of disease has been described, the long-term effects or chronic sequelae are still being described. Objective: To describe the findings of a current systematic review of the long-term effects related to post-COVID-19 sequelae. Design: A systematic review was carried out in which cohort studies, case series, clinical case reports were included, and the PubMed, Scielo, SCOPUS and Web of Science databases were ex-tracted. Information published 2020 to June 1, 2022, was sought. Results: We reviewed 300 manuscripts during the first step of the literature review process. Then 260 abstracts were analyzed. In the end, we included 32 manuscripts: 9 for pulmonary, 6 for cardiac, 2 for renal, 9 for neurological and psychiatric, and 8 for cutaneous sequelae. Conclusion: Studies show that the most common sequelae are those linked to the lungs, followed by skin, cutaneous and psychiatric alterations. Women report a higher incidence of the sequelae, as well as those with comorbidities and severer COVID-19 history. The COVID-19 pandemic has not only caused death and disease since its apparition but has also sickened millions of people around the globe who potentially suffer from serious illnesses that will continue to add to the list of health problems and further burden healthcare systems around the world.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1863.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: COVID 19; myocardial infarction; cardiovascular burden; long-term outcomes; acute coronary syndrome
Online: 27 September 2023 (11:29:44 CEST)
Coronavirus infection disease -2019 (COVID-19) was a global pandemic with high mortality and morbidity, that lead to an increased health burned all over the world. Although the virus affects mostly pulmonary tract, cardiovascular implications were often among COVID-19 positive patients, and are predictive for poor outcomes. Increased values of myocardial biomarkers such as Troponin I or NT-proBNP were proven to be risk factors for respiratory failure (26). Although the risk of acute coronary syndromes (ACS) was greater in acute-phase of COVID-19, there were lower rates of hospitalization for ACS, due to patient’s hesitation for presenting at the hospital (22). Hospitalized ACS patients with COVID-19 infection, had a prolonged symptom-to-first medical contact time, and longer door-to-balloon time. The mechanisms of myocardial injurie in COVID -19 patients are not still not clear, most often is incriminated: the down-regulation of ACE2 inhibitors, endothelial disfunction, pro-coagulant status, increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the long-term outcomes of COVID-19 survivors that presented an acute myocardial infarction by reviewing existing data.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0325.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Hazel Grouse; Bohemian Forest; Long-Term Monitoring; Population Trend; TRIM.
Online: 16 February 2021 (13:33:25 CET)
The population dynamics of Hazel Grouse was studied by presence/ absence recording at stationary sites along fixed routes (110 km) during 1972-2019 in the central part of the Bohemian Forest (Šumava, Czech Republic). The 100-km² study area covered altitudes between 600 m (Rejstejn) and 1,253 m a.s.l., (mount Sokol). Our data base contained indices of Hazel Grouse occupancy: positive sites/ controlled sites for a yearly increasing number of Hazel Grouse occurrence sites (N = 134) for 48 years. We used a loglinear Poisson-regression method to analyze the long-term population trend for Hazel Grouse in the study area. In the period 1972 to 2006 we found a stable Hazel Grouse population (p = 0.83). From 2006-2007 to 2019, the population index dropped (-3.8% per year, p < 0.05) for the last 13 years. This decline is assumed to be influenced by habitat loss due to succession resulting in older, more open forest stands, by strongly increasing forestry and windstorm “Kyrill” followed by clear cutting, bark-beetle damage, and removal of pioneer trees in spruce plantations, which diminished buds and catkins, the dominant winter food. The influence of disturbance by increasing touristic activities and/or predation is discussed. Our results could help to optimize conservation efforts for Hazel Grouse in the Bohemian Forest.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0170.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: Long-COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; Endothelial cells; Cognitive dysfunction; Blood Brain Barrier; Neuro-inflammation
Online: 2 June 2023 (09:38:56 CEST)
As the name implies, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a single-stranded RNA virus and a member of the corona virus family, primarily affecting the upper respiratory system and the lungs. Like many other respiratory viruses, SARS-CoV-2 can spread to other organ systems. Apart from causing diarrhea, another most common but debilitating complication caused by the SARS-CoV-2 is neurological symptoms and cognitive difficulties, which occur in up to two thirds of hospitalized covid patients and ranging from shortness of concentration, overall declined cognitive speed to executive or memory function impairment. Neuro-cognitive dysfunction and “brain fog” are frequently present in COVID-19 cases, which can last several months after the infection, leading to disruption of daily life. Cumulative evidence suggests that SARS-CoV-2 affects vasculature in the extra pulmonary systems directly or indirectly, leading to impairment of endothelial function and even multi-organ damage. The post COVID-19 long-lasting neurocognitive impairments have not been studied fully; and the underlying mechanism remains elusive. In this review, we summarize the current understanding of the effects of COVID-19 on vascular dysfunction and how vascular dysfunction leads to cognitive impairment in patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0629.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: Community Health Survey; CHS; PM10 long-term effect; young adults; BMI
Online: 28 August 2020 (09:26:19 CEST)
Background: The associations between long-term exposure to particulate matters (PM) in residential ambiance and obesity are comparatively less elucidated among young adults. Methods: Using 2017 Community Health Survey data with aged 19−29 participants in 25 communities, Seoul, the relationship between obesity and long−term PM10 levels of living district was examined. We defined obesity as overweight (25≤BMI<30) or obese (30≤BMI) using Body Mass Index (BMI) from self-reported anthropometric information. Analysis was conducted sampling weighted logistic regression models by fitting municipal PM10 levels according to individual residence periods with 10 years and more residing in a current municipality. Socio-demographic factors were adjusted over all models and age−specific effect was explored among aged 19–24 and 25–29. Results: Total study population are 3,655 [men 1,680 (46.0%) and aged 19–24 1,933 (52.9%)] individuals. Among the communities with greater level of PM10; 2001–2005, associations with obesity were increased for overall with residence period; 10 years ≤ [Odds ratio, OR 1.071, 95% Confidence interval (CI) 0.969–1.185], 15 years ≤ [OR 1.118, 95% CI 1.004–1.245], and 20 years ≤ [OR 1.156, 95% CI 1.032–1.294]. However, decreased associations were detected for PM10; 2006–2010, and age–specific effects were modified according to the residence period. Conclusions: Although currently PM10 levels are decreasing, higher levels of PM10 exposure at the residential area during the earlier life-time may contribute in increasing obesity among young adults.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0719.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; long-term; neutralization antibody; lymphocyte functionality; viral pathogenicity.
Online: 30 July 2020 (12:16:21 CEST)
COVID-19 patients can recover with a median SARS-CoV-2 clearance of 20 days post initial symptoms (PIS). However, we observed some COVID-19 patients with existing SARS-CoV-2 for more than 50 days PIS. This study aimed to investigate the cause of viral clearance delay and the infectivity in these patients. Demographic data and clinical characteristics of 22 long-term COVID-19 patients were collected. SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid, peripheral lymphocyte count, and functionality were assessed. SARS-CoV-2-specific and neutralization antibodies were detected, followed by virus isolation and genome sequencing. The median age of the studied cohort was 59.83±12.94 years. All patients were clinically cured after long-term SARS-CoV-2 infection ranging from 53 to 112 days PIS. Peripheral lymphocytes counts were normal. Interferon gamma (IFN-ƴ)-generated CD4+ and CD8+ cells were normal as 24.68±9.60% and 66.41±14.87%. However, the number of IFN-ƴ-generated NK cells diminished (58.03±11.78%). All patients presented detectable IgG, which positively correlated with mild neutralizing activity (ID50=157.2, P=0.05). SARS-CoV-2 was not isolated, and a cytopathic effect was lacking. Only three synonymous variants were identified in spike protein coding regions. In conclusion, decreased IFN-γ production by NK cells and low neutralizing antibodies might favor SARS-CoV-2 long-term existence. Further, low viral load and weak viral pathogenicity was observed in COVID-19 patients with long-term SARS-CoV-2 infection.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0108.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Soil Science Keywords: soil organic matter; greenhouse gases; climatic change scenarios; adaptation; long-term experiment; black fallow
Online: 4 September 2023 (15:45:06 CEST)
Arable Сhernozems with high SOC contents have the potential to be significant sources of GHGs, and climate change is likely to increase SOC losses, making the issue of carbon sequestration in this region even more important. The prospect of maintaining SOC stock or increasing it by 4% an-nually under planned management practice modifications for the period up to 2090 was evaluated using a long-term experiment on Haplic Chernozem in the Rostov Region, Russia. In this study, we used the RothC model to evaluate SOC dynamics for three treatments with mineral and organic fertilization under two adaptation scenarios vs. business as usual, as well as under two climate change scenarios. Correction of crop rotation and the application of organic fertilizers at high rates are essential tools for maintaining and increasing SOC stocks. This can maintain SOC stock at the level of 84–87 Mg∙ha-1 until the middle of the 21st century, as the first half of the century is con-sidered the most promising period for the introduction of adaptation measures for the additional accumulation of SOC on Chernozems. Part of the additional accumulated SOC is expected to be lost before 2090.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0134.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Cardiac arrest; normothermia; EEG; SSEP; GWR; long term predictors
Online: 8 January 2021 (10:26:27 CET)
Introduction Early prediction of long term outcomes in patients resuscitated after cardiac arrest (CA) is still challenging. Guidelines suggested a multimodal approach combining multiple predictors. We evaluated whether the combination of the electroencephalography (EEG) reactivity, somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEPs) cortical complex and Gray to White matter ratio (GWR) on brain computed tomography (CT) at different temperatures could predict survival and good outcome at hospital discharge and after six months. Methods We performed a retrospective cohort study including consecutive adult, non-traumatic patients resuscitated from out-of-hospital CA who remained comatose on admission to our intensive care unit from 2013 to 2017. We acquired SSEPs and EEGs during the treatment at 36°C and after rewarming at 37°C, Gray to white matter ratio (GWR) was calculated on the brain computed tomography scan performed within six hours of the hospital admission. We primarily hypothesized that SSEP was associated with favorable functional outcome at distance and secondarily that SSEP provides independent information from EEG and CT. Outcomes were evaluated using the Cerebral Performance Category (CPC) scale at six months from discharge. Results Of 171 resuscitated patients, 75 were excluded due to missing of data or uninterpretable neurophysiological findings. EEG reactivity at 37 °C has been shown the best single predictor of good outcome (AUC 0.803) while N20P25 was the best single predictor for survival at each time point. (AUC 0.775 at discharge and AUC 0.747 at six months follow up) Predictive value of a model including EEG reactivity, average GWR, and SSEP N20P25 amplitude was superior (AUC 0.841 for survival and 0.920 for good outcome) to any combination of two tests or any single test. Conclusion Our study, in which life-sustaining treatments were never suspended, suggests SSEP cortical complex N20P25, after normothermia ad off sedation, is a reliable predictor for survival at any time. When SSEP cortical complex N20P25 is added into a model with GWR average and EEG reactivity, the predictivity for good outcome and survival at distance is superior than each single test alone.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0037.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Language And Linguistics Keywords: non-native speech learning; talker variability; phonetically-irrelevant variability; long-term retention; cognitive abilities
Online: 2 November 2022 (03:05:23 CET)
Talker variability has been reported to facilitate generalization and retention of speech learning, but is also shown to place demands on cognitive resources. Our recent study provided evidence that phonetically-irrelevant acoustic variability in single-talker (ST) speech is sufficient to induce equivalent amounts of learning to the use of multiple-talker (MT) training. This study is a follow-up contrasting MT versus ST training with varying degrees of temporal exaggeration to examine how cognitive measures of individual learners may influence the role of input variability in immediate learning and long-term retention. Native Chinese-speaking adults were trained on the English /i/-/ɪ/ contrast. We assessed the trainees’ working memory and selective attention before training. Trained participants showed retention of more native-like cue weighting in both perception and production regardless of talker variability condition. The ST training group showed long-term benefit in word identification, whereas the MT training group did not retain the improvement. The results demonstrate the role of phonetically-irrelevant variability in robust speech learning and modulatory functions of nonlinguistic working memory and selective attention, highlighting the necessity to consider the interaction between input characteristics, task difficulty, and individual differences in cognitive abilities in assessing learning outcomes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0359.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: deeply buried tunnels; deep soft rocks; elasto-visco-plastic creep constitutive model; closed-form solutions; long-term stability; structural integrity; long-term monitoring
Online: 6 September 2023 (03:40:19 CEST)
The time-dependent behavior and long-term stability of deep-buried tunnels in soft rocks have received lots of considerations in tunnel engineering and allied sciences. To better explore and deepen the engineering application of rock creep, extensive research studies are still needed, although fruitful outcomes have already obtained in many related investigations. In this article, the Weilai Tunnel in China’s Guangxi province is studied taking its host rocks as the main research object. In fact, aiming at forecasting the time-varying deformation of this tunnel, a novel elasto-visco-plastic creep constitutive model with two variants is proposed, by exploiting the typical complex load-unload process of rock excavation. The model is well validated and good agreements are found with the relevant experimental data. Moreover, the time-dependent de-formation rules are properly established for the surrounding rocks, by designing two new closed-form solutions based on the proposed creep model and the Hoek-Brown criterion. The convergence deformations calculated from the closed-form solutions conform well to the on-site monitoring data. In only 27 days after excavation, the creep deformation of the Weilai tunnel overtakes 400 mm, which is enormous. To guarantee the long-term stability of this tunnel, a ro-bust support scheme and its long-term monitoring with appropriate remote sensors are strongly suggested.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0153.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: long-term trend; meander planform; subcritical flow; width-depth ratio; riparian management
Online: 9 February 2023 (03:58:56 CET)
This study numerically evaluated the long-term and stable trends of meandering channel planform at different mean annual subcritical flows based on a depth-averaged linearized meander evolution model. The calculation cases included an idealized sine-generated meander with moderate max-deflection angle and a typical natural meander - Jiyun River (in China). Within the increase of the selection of the mean annual width-depth ratio in a certain scope, the results showed some specific phase characteristics of channel centerline evolution: (1) the meander straightening trend became weaker in phase 1 (B/H ≤ 16.5) and gradually turned into the meander developing trend in phase 2 (B/H ≤ 27) with the overall immunity to flow magnitude; (2) the symmetric development form along the transverse direction perpendicular to the flow average direction was broken starting from the downstream tail in phase 3 (B/H ≤ 28.9), meantime accompanied by the highlight of flow effects when the mean annual B/H exceeded 28; (3) in phase 4 (B/H ≤ 29.5), there occurred obvious incipience and jump process of the channel sensitivity responding to flow when the selected B/H crossed 29.3, which were very similar to the transition process from the laminar flow to turbulent flow. Besides, the initial sinuosity and curvature-ratio indicator could contribute much to the channel evolutionary state, as demonstrated in the comparison between natural Jiyun River case and the correspondingly idealized sine-generated meander case with the same level of mean annual B/H. This research provides innovation spaces for deeper meander mechanism exploration and effective riparian management.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1325.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Finance Keywords: Dependency; elderly; long term care; costs; Sustainable Development Goals; public policies; human rights
Online: 18 August 2023 (09:47:03 CEST)
The rapid ageing of populations around the World is creating complex challenges for national governments. The establishment of sustainable and equitable long-term care systems for old and dependent people is one of the main issues of social policy in developed countries. The aim of this work is to define a cost model for residential and day care centres for dependent persons in Cantabria (Spain). The cost model will make it possible to establish the theoretical cost of attending to the needs of the different types of dependent persons in the different types of care centres, and the methodology used could be extrapolated to other regions. The daily cost per user for elderly residential care is €53.72. The cost per user in elderly day centres (5 days) is 32.56 euros. In residential centres for people with disabilities, the values range between €47.41 and €75.25 depending on the category of the centre. In three categories of centres the public price is not enough to cover the cost (physical disability, intellectual disability, mental illness – low care), and therefore the administration should reconsider their public prices for these kind of centres if they want to really contribute to the sustainability of these residential care centres. This research will have important implications for policy-makers in a context of fulfilment of SDGs and where better support for old and disabled people and their carers, as well as fair and efficient financing of social care services, are essential to address the current and future challenges of dependency.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0504.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: fly ash-based geopolymer composite; long-term properties under cyclic load; fibre-reinforced geopolymer
Online: 8 August 2023 (05:26:25 CEST)
This study investigates the cyclic load application impact on fly ash-based geopolymer composites that are reinforced with a low amount of fibre reinforcement. For reinforcement purposes, PVA and steel fibres are used. For testing purposes, four geopolymer composite mixes were made, 3 of which had fibre reinforcement. Simultaneously specimens were tested for shrinkage, static load-induced creep, and cyclic load-induced creep. For static and cyclic creep testing, specimens were loaded with 20% of their strength. For cyclic creep testing, load application and release cycles were seven days long. When each cycle was introduced, the load was added in steps. In 5 minutes, by 25% steps of the necessary load, the specimens were loaded or unloaded. Only plain specimens show that static creep strains are within cyclic creep strains. For all the other specimens, the static load is higher than the cyclic load-induced creep amplitude. Also, 1% PVA fibre-reinforced specimens show the most elastic characteristics under cyclic load, and 1% steel fibre-reinforced specimens appear to be the most resistant to the cyclic load introduction.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0239.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: long-term care; healthcare workers; mental health; moral distress; resilience; COVID-19
Online: 12 August 2022 (12:43:46 CEST)
Healthcare workers (HCWs) in long-term care (LTC) faced and continue to experience significant emotional and psychological distress throughout the pandemic. Despite this, little is known about the unique experiences of LTC workers. This scoping review synthesizes existing research on the experiences of HCWs in LTC during the COVID-19 pandemic. Following Arksey and O’Malley’s framework, data were extracted from six databases from inception of the pandemic to June 2022. Among 3,808 articles screened, 40 articles were included in the final analysis. Analyses revealed three interrelated themes: carrying the load (moral distress); building pressure and burning out (emotional exhaustion); and working through it (a sense of duty to care). Given the impacts of the pandemic on both HCW wellbeing and patient care, every effort must be made to address the LTC workforce crisis and evaluate best practices for supporting HCWs experiencing mental health concerns during and post-COVID-19.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0280.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Cognitive Science Keywords: depression, virtual reality (VR), virtual reality therapy (VRT), long-term care facility (LTCF), mood disorder, place attachment, neuro-architecture
Online: 12 April 2021 (11:51:41 CEST)
Virtual reality (VR) describes a family of technologies which immerse users in sensorily-stimulating virtual environments. Such technologies have increasingly found applications in the treatment of neurological and mental health disorders. Depression, anxiety, and other mood abnormalities are of concern in the growing elderly population – especially those who reside in long-term care facilities (LTCFs). The transition from the familiar home environment to the foreign LTCF introduces a number of stressors that can precipitate depression. However, recent studies reveal that VR therapy (VRT) can promote positive emotionality and improve cognitive abilities in the elderly, both at home and in LTCFs. VR thus holds potential in allowing elderly individuals to gradually adapt to their new environments – thereby mitigating the detrimental effects of place attachment and social exclusion. Nevertheless, while the current psychological literature is promising, the implementation of VR in LTCFs faces many challenges. LTCF residents must gain trust in VR technologies, care providers require training to maximize the positive effects of VRT, and decision makers must evaluate both the opportunities and obstacles in adopting VR. Here, we concisely review the implications of depression related to place attachment in LTCFs, and explore the potential therapeutic applications of VR.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0722.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Dementia; multicomponent training; long-term care home; social ethical approach
Online: 31 May 2021 (09:45:37 CEST)
Multicomponent training is recommended for people with dementia living in long-term care homes. Nevertheless, evidence is limited and people with severe dementia are often excluded from trials. Hence, the aim of this study was to investigate (1) the feasibility and (2) the requirements regarding a multicomponent training for people with moderate to severe dementia. The study was conducted as an uncontrolled single arm pilot study with a mixed methods approach. 15 nursing home residents with a mean age of 82 years (range: 75-90 years; female: 64%) with moderate to severe dementia received 16 weeks of multicomponent training. Feasibility and requirements of the training were assessed by a standardized observation protocol. Eleven participants regularly attended the intervention. The highest active participation was observed during gait exercises (64%), the lowest during strength exercises (33%). It was supportive if exercises were task-specific or related to everyday life. This study confirms that a multicomponent training for the target group is (1) feasible and well accepted. To enhance active participation (2) individual instructions and the implementation of exercises related to everyday life is required. The effectiveness of the adapted training should be tested in future randomized controlled trials.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202312.0459.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: intrauterine growth restriction; diagnostic accuracy; acute and long-term sequels; oxidative stress; antioxidants
Online: 7 December 2023 (07:09:49 CET)
Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and being born small for gestational age (SGA) are two distinct conditions with different implications for child development. IUGR is associated with greater perinatal morbidity and mortality and can be identified by additional abnormalities (pathological Doppler sonography, oligohydramnios, lack of growth in the interval, estimated weight <3rd percentile). IUGR may also be present in neonates with birth weights above the 10th percentile. Recognizing fetuses being “at risk” of a higher perinatal mortality and morbidity rate in order to monitor them accordingly and deliver them in good time is still challenging. This review article summarizes approaches to increase the diagnostic accuracy of IUGR and presents current concepts of pathophysiology with a focus on oxidative stress and consecutive inflammatory and metabolic changes. Since prenatal influences affect the risk of later diseases, we also discuss the need for interdisciplinary follow-up strategies during childhood and look at future scientific challenges. It should be emphasized that prenatal and postnatal care of IUGR neonates should be regarded as a continuum.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1605.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: air pollution; long-term exposure; particles; nitrogen oxides; Cox regression; proportional hazard; hazard ratio
Online: 23 August 2023 (09:12:45 CEST)
In this study, long-term mortality effects associated with exposure to PM10, PM2.5, BC (black carbon), and NOx were analyzed in a cohort in southern Sweden during the period from 1991‒2016. Participants (those residing in Malmö, Sweden, born between 1923‒1950) were randomly recruited from 1991‒1996. At enrollment, 30,438 participants underwent a health screening, which consisted of questionnaires about lifestyle and diet, a clinical examination, and blood sampling. Mortality data were retrieved from the Swedish national cause of death register. The modeled concentrations of PM10 (particles with an aerodynamic diameter smaller than or equal to 10 µm), PM2.5 (particles with an aerodynamic diameter smaller than or equal to 2.5 µm), BC (black carbon), and NOx (nitrogen oxides) at the cohort participants' home addresses were used to assess air pollution exposure. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate the associations between long-term exposure to PM10, PM2.5, BC, and NOx and the time until death among the participants during the period from 1991‒2016. The hazard ratios (HRs) associated with an interquartile range (IQR) increase in each air pollutant were calculated based on the exposure lag windows of the same year (lag0), 1‒5 years (lag1‒5), and 6‒10 years (lag6‒10). Three models were used with varying adjustments for possible confounders including both single-pollutant estimates and two-pollutant estimates. With adjustments for all covariates, the HRs for PM10, PM2.5, BC, and NOx in the single-pollutant models at lag1‒5 were 1.06 (95% CI: 1.02‒1.11), 1.01 (95% CI: 0.95‒1.08), 1.07 (95% CI: 1.04‒1.11), and 1.11 (95% CI: 1.07‒1.16) per IQR increase, respectively. The HRs were in most cases decreased by the inclusion of a larger number of covariates in the models. The most robust associations were shown for NOx, with statistically significant positive HRs in all models. An overall conclusion is that road traffic-related pollutants had a significant association with mortality in the cohort.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0376.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; long-COVID; sequalae; symptoms; Latin America; high altitude
Online: 22 August 2022 (06:04:53 CEST)
Background: Some patients who have recovered from COVID-19 have experienced a range of persistent symptoms or the appearance of new ones after a SARS-CoV-2 infection. These symptoms can last from weeks to months, impacting everyday functioning to a significant number of patients. Methods: A cross-sectional analysis based on an online, self-reporting questionnaire was conducted in Ecuador from April to July 2022. Participants were invited by social media, radio, and TV to voluntarily participate in our study. A total of 2103 surveys were included in this study. We compared socio-demographic variables and long-term persisting symptoms at low (< 2,500 m) and high altitude (>2,500 m).Results: Overall, 1100 (52.3%) responders claimed to have long-term symptoms after SARS-CoV-2 infection. Most of these symptoms were reported by women (64.0%), the most affected group was young adults (68.5%), and the majority of long-haulers were mestizos (91.6%). We found that high altitude residents were more likely to report persisting symptoms (71.7%) versus those living at lower altitudes (29.3%). The most common symptoms were fatigue or tiredness (8.4%), hair loss (5.1%) and difficulty concentrating (5.0%). The highest proportion of persisting symptoms was observed among those who received an incomplete vaccine scheme.Conclusions: This is the first study describing post-COVID symptoms' persistence in low and high-altitude residents. Our findings demonstrate that women, especially those aging between 20-40, are more likely to describe sequalae associated with post-COVID. We also found that living at a high altitude was associated with earlier onset and longer symptom duration. Finally, we found a greater risk to report long lasting symptoms among women, those with previous comorbidities and those who had a severer acute SARS-CoV-2 infection.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0161.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Condensed Matter Physics Keywords: long–range memory; 1/f noise; absolute value estimator; anomalous diffusion; ARFIMA; first–passage times; fractional Lèvy stable motion; Higuchi’s method; Mean squared displacement; multiplicative point process
Online: 6 August 2021 (11:22:25 CEST)
In the face of the upcoming 30th anniversary of econophysics, we review our contributions and other related works on the modeling of the long–range memory phenomenon in physical, economic, and other social complex systems. Our group has shown that the long–range memory phenomenon can be reproduced using various Markov processes, such as point processes, stochastic differential equations and agent–based models. Reproduced well enough to match other statistical properties of the financial markets, such as return and trading activity distributions and first–passage time distributions. Research has lead us to question whether the observed long–range memory is a result of actual long–range memory process or just a consequence of non–linearity of Markov processes. As our most recent result we discuss the long–range memory of the order flow data in the financial markets and other social systems from the perspective of the fractional Lèvy stable motion. We test widely used long-range memory estimators on discrete fractional Lèvy stable motion represented by the ARFIMA sample series. Our newly obtained results seem indicate that new estimators of self–similarity and long–range memory for analyzing systems with non–Gaussian distributions have to be developed.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0683.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: gut microbiota; early-life gut microbiota; gut dysbiosis; long-term health and disease; Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD)
Online: 27 November 2020 (11:22:07 CET)
Abstract: Early life gut microbiota have been increasingly recognized as major contributors to short and/or long-term human health and diseases. Numerous studies have demonstrated that human gut microbial colonization begins at birth but continues to develop a succession of taxonomic abundances for two to three years until the gut microbiota reaches adult-like diversity and proportions. Several factors, including gestational age (GA), delivery mode, birth weight, feeding types, antibiotic exposure, maternal microbiome and diet influence the diversity, abundance and function of the early life gut microbiota. Gut microbial life is essential for assisting with the digestion of food substances to release nutrients, exerting control over pathogens, stimulating or modulating the immune system and influencing many systems such as the liver, brain, and endocrine system. Microbial metabolites play multiple roles in these interactions. Furthermore, studies provide evidence supporting that imbalances of the gut microbiota in early life, referred to as dysbiosis, are associated with specific childhood or adult disease outcomes, such as asthma, atopic dermatitis, diabetes, allergic diseases, obesity, cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and neurological disorders. These findings support that the human gut microbiota may play a fundamental role in the risk of acquiring diseases that may be programmed during the early life stage. In fact, it is critical to explore the role of the human gut microbiota in early life. In this review, we summarize the general understanding of the colonization and development of the gut microbiota in early life, highlighting the recent findings regarding the relationship between the gut microbiota composition and their metabolites, and immune functions, which could significantly influence long-term health and disease. We then review known pathophysiological interactions of the early gut microbiome with a number of well characterized diseases and pose potential etiological mechanisms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0295.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Hepatitis B virus; hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 alpha; long-term infection; ERK signaling pathway
Online: 25 January 2020 (15:25:57 CET)
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major factor in development of various liver diseases such as hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Among HBV encoded proteins, HBV X protein (HBx) is known to play key role in development of HCC. Hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α (HNF4α) is a nuclear transcription factor which is critical for hepatocyte differentiation. However, the expression level as well as its regulatory mechanism in HBV infection have yet to be clarified. Here, we observed the suppression of HNF4α in cells which stably express HBV whole genome or HBx protein alone, while transient transfection of HBV replicon or HBx plasmid had no effect on the HNF4α level. Importantly, in the stable HBV- or HBx-expressing hepatocytes, the downregulated level of HNF4α was restored by inhibiting ERK signaling pathway. Our data showed that HNF4α was suppressed during long-term HBV infection in cultured HepG2-NTCP cells as well as in mouse model following hydrodynamic injection of pAAV-HBV or in mice intravenously infected with rAAV-HBV. Importantly, HNF4α downregulation increased cell proliferation which contributed to the formation and development of tumor in xenograft nude mice. The data presented here provided several proofs for the effect of HBV infection in manipulating HNF4α regulatory pathway in HCC development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0046.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: urbanization; long-term settlement patterns; built-up land data; global human settlement layer; historical maps; topographic map processing; data integration.
Online: 2 July 2021 (10:03:54 CEST)
Abstract: Spatially explicit, fine-grained datasets describing historical urban extents are rarely available prior to the era of operational remote sensing. However, such data are necessary to better understand long-term urbanization and land development processes and for the assessment of coupled nature-human systems, e.g., the dynamics of the wildland-urban interface. Herein, we propose a framework that jointly uses remote sensing derived human settlement data (i.e., the Global Human Settlement Layer, GHSL) and scanned, georeferenced historical maps to automatically generate historical urban extents for the early 20th century. By applying unsupervised color segmentation to the historical maps, spatially constrained to the urban extents derived from the GHSL, our approach generates historical settlement extents for seamless integration with the multi-temporal GHSL. We apply our method to study areas in countries across four continents, and evaluate our approach for two U.S. study sites against historical settlement extents derived from the Historical Settlement Data Compilation for the US, HISDAC-US, achieving Area-under-the-Curve values >0.9. Our results are largely in agreement with model-based urban areas from the HYDE database, and demonstrate that the integration of remote sensing derived observations and historical cartographic data sources opens up new, promising avenues for assessing urbanization, and long-term land cover change in countries where historical maps are available.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1055.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: caregivers; mental health; older adults; long-term care; photovoice; art-based research; focus group; meaningful engagement; quality of life.
Online: 14 August 2023 (14:02:54 CEST)
Background: Carers (or care partners) of adults in LTC contribute substantially to the health and well-being of their loved ones by providing physical care, emotional support, and companionship. Despite their critical role, little is known about how caregivers have been impacted by the pandemic. The purpose of this study was to explore the lived experiences of caregivers of people living in long-term care (LTC) homes during the initial phases of the COVID-19 pandemic and potential supports and resources needed to improve caregivers’ quality of life.Design: An interpretive descriptive approach that incorporated photovoice method was used. Methods: Using purposive sampling strategy, six family carers in Ontario, Canada were recruited between September and December 2021. Over a four-week period, caregivers took pictures depicting their experience of the pandemic that were shared in a virtual focus group. Visual and text data were analyzed using thematic analysis with an inductive approach.Findings: Caregivers expressed feelings of frustration, confusion, and joy. Emerging themes included: (i) feeling like a “criminal” amidst visitor restrictions and rules; (ii) experiencing uncertainty and disappointment in the quality of care of long-term care homes; (iii) going through burnout; and (iv) focusing on small joys and cherished memories.Conclusions: The combination of visual and textual methods provided unique insight into the mental distress, isolation, and intense emotional burdens experienced by caregivers during the pandemic. Impact: Our findings underscore the need for LTC organizations to work in unison with caregivers to optimize the care of residents and support mental health of caregivers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0431.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: idiopathic scoliosis surgery; pre-, postoperative and long-term neurophysiological recordings; electromyography; electroneurography; motor evoked potentials
Online: 7 November 2023 (09:47:32 CET)
Evaluation of the patients after the surgical correction of idiopathic scoliosis in long-term follow-up the clinical neurophysiology methods has not been presented in detail. This study aimed to compare the results of the neurophysiological studies in 45 girls with scoliosis of Lenke 1-3 types performed pre- (T0), postoperatively (T1, one week after surgery), and 6 months after the surgery (T2). Parameters of surface electromyography during the attempt of maximal contraction (mcsEMG) and transcranially evoked motor evoked potentials (MEP) recorded from anterior tibial muscles, as well as the electroneurography (ENG) of peripheral transmission in the peroneal nerve motor fibers were compared. The results indicate that efferent neural conduction function both centrally and peripherally as well as TA muscle function improve immediately after surgical correction of scoliosis (at p=0.05) and further normalization appears after six months in long-term follow-up (at p=0.03). It has been found in sEMG recordings, that the TA muscle motor unit recruitment function after half a year from surgical treatment in IS patients is comparable to the normal condition. ENG recordings indicated the gradual retreat of the symptoms of motor fibers injury mainly the axonal type in peroneal nerves, the surgeries improved also the lumbar ventral roots’ neural transmission to the functional status considered normal. MEPs amplitude parameters recorded after the surgical scoliosis correction in T1 indicated a slight improvement in the efferent transmission of neural impulses within the fibers of the spinal tracts; in long-lasting T2 observation, they reached values comparable to those recorded in healthy volunteers bilaterally. Preoperatively (T0) the results of all neurophysiological study parameters in IS patients were asymmetrical at p=0.036-0.05 and recorded as worse on the concave side, suggesting the lateralization of neurological motor deficits. One week postoperatively (T1), this asymmetry was recorded as gradually reduced, showing almost no difference between the right and left sides six months later (T2). The presented algorithm of the diagnostic proceeding pre-, early post- and long-lasting postoperatively using mcsEMG, MEP, and ENG neurophysiological examinations can be significant not only in making the final decision regarding surgical treatment and its personalization but also helps in precise ascertaining its effects as well as in predicting the final result of IS treatment.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0597.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: monarch butterflies; Danaus plexippus; population status; conservation; long-term studies; milkweed limitation
Online: 28 October 2020 (15:32:14 CET)
There are a large number of wildlife and insect species that are in trouble on this planet, and most believe that monarch butterflies in eastern North America are too, because of the well-publicized declines of their winter colonies in central Mexico in the last 25 years. A small number of studies over the last decade have cast doubt on this claim by showing declines are not evident at other stages of the annual cycle. To determine how extensive this pattern is, I conducted an exhaustive review of peer-reviewed and grey literature on (eastern) monarch population censuses and studies, conducted across all seasons, and extracted data from these sources to evaluate how monarch abundance has or has not changed over time. I identified 20 collections of data that included butterfly club reports, compilations of citizen-science observations, migration roost censuses, long-term studies of isotopic signatures, and even museum records. These datasets range in duration from 15 years to over 100 years, and I endeavored to also update each with information from the most current years. I also re-examined the winter colony data after incorporating historical records of colony measurements dating back to 1976. This represents the most complete and up-to-date synthesis of information regarding this population. When I examined the long-term trajectory within each dataset a distinct pattern emerged. Modest declines are evident within the winter colonies (over the full 45 year dataset), and, within three censuses conducted during the spring recolonization. Meanwhile, 16 completely separate monitoring studies conducted during the summer and fall (and from varying locations) revealed either no trend at all or in fact an increase in abundance. While each of these long-term studies has inherent limitations, the fact that all 16 sources of data show the same pattern is undeniable. Moreover, this evidence is consistent with recently-conducted genetic work that shows a lack of decline. Collectively, these results indicate that despite diminishing winter colonies and spring migrations, monarchs in eastern North America are capable of rebounding fully each year, implying that milkweed is not limiting within their collective range. Moreover, there is no indication from these data that the summer population was ever truly diminished by changing agricultural practices in the Midwest that reduced milkweed in crop fields within that region. It is possible that the larger population is not as dependent on Midwestern agricultural milkweed as once thought, and/or that monarchs are adapting to increasingly human-altered landscapes. These results are timely and should bear on the upcoming USFWS decision on whether the monarch requires federal protection in the United States. Importantly, they argue that despite losses of many insects globally, the eastern North American monarch population is not in the same situation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0208.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: soil organic carbon; soil health; long-term experiments; RothC model; climate change; "4 per 1000" initiative; Podzols
Online: 8 December 2020 (17:30:04 CET)
Soil organic carbon (SOC) is an essential condition for soil health and a potential sink for greenhouse gases. SOC dynamics in a long-term field experiment with mineral and organic fertilization on loamy sand Podzol in Vladimir Region, Russia, was traced with the dynamic carbon model RothC since 1968 until the present time. During this period, C stock increased 21% compared with the initial level in the treatment with the application of manure in an average annual rate of 10 t·ha-1. The model was also used to forecast SOC changes until 2090 for two contrasting RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 climatic scenarios. Until 2090, the steady growth of SOC stocks is expected in all compared treatments for both climate scenarios. This rate of growth was the highest until 2040, decreased in 2040-2070 and increased again in 2070-2090 for RCP4.5. The highest annual gain was within 21-27‰ under RCP4.5 and 16-21‰ in 2020-2040 in 0-20 cm soil layer. The expected accumulation of C allows increasing current C stock 1.6-1.7 times for RCP4.5 and 2.0-2.2 times for RCP8.5 scenario. Modelling demonstrated potentially more favourable conditions for SOC stability in arable Podzols than in Retisols in Central Russia in the 21st century.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0130.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Anesthesiology And Pain Medicine Keywords: Breast Cancer; Acute Postoperative Pain; Postoperative analgesia; Patient-Controlled Analgesia; Levobupivacaine; Diclofenac; Hand Grip Strength; Quality of life; Treatment Outcome; Long term survival.
Online: 2 August 2023 (04:37:34 CEST)
Breast cancer is the most common malignant disease in women. Preclinical studies have confirmed that the local anesthetic levobupivacaine has a cytotoxic effect on breast cancer cells. We examined whether postoperative wound infiltration with levobupivacaine influences survival in 120 patients who were operated on for breast cancer and underwent quadrantectomy or mastectomy with axillary lymph node dissection. Groups with continuous levobupivacaine wound infiltration, bolus wound infiltration, and diclofenac analgesia were compared. Long-term outcomes examined were quality of life, shoulder disability, and hand grip strength (HGS) after one year, and survival after 5 and 10 years. Groups that had infiltration analgesia had better shoulder function compared to diclofenac after one year. Levobupivacaine PCA group had the best preserved HGS after 1 year (P=0.022). The most significant predictor of the 5-year outcome was HGS (P=0.03). Although the best survival after 5 and 10 years was registered in the bolus levobupivacaine group, statistical significance was not reached (P=0.36). The extent of the disease at the time of surgery is the most important predictor of long-term survival. A larger prospective clinical study could better confirm the effect of levobupivacaine wound infiltration on outcomes after breast cancer surgery observed in this pilot study. Trial number NCT05829707
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0721.v3
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: eutrophication; water management; hypolimnetic warming; boundary mixing; mixing events; internal waves; long-term series; Valle de Bravo; biogeochemistry; nutrient flux
Online: 28 October 2021 (16:12:32 CEST)
Physical processes play important roles in controlling eutrophication and oligotrophication. In stratified lakes, internal waves can cause vertical transport of heat and nutrients without breaking the stratification, through boundary mixing events. Such is the case in tropical Valle de Bravo (VB) lake, where strong diurnal winds drive internal waves, boundary mixing and hypolimnetic warming during stratification periods. We monitored VB during 18 years (2001-2018) when important water-level fluctuations (WLF) occurred, affecting mixing and nutrient flux. Mean hypolimnetic temperature increase (0.06–1.04°C month-1) occurred in all the stratifications monitored. We analyzed temperature distributions and modeled the hypolimnion heat budget to assess vertical mixing between layers (26,618–140,526 m-3h-1), vertical diffusivity coefficient KZ (6.2x10-7–3.3x10-6 m2s-1) and vertical nutrient entrainment to epilimnion on monthly scale. Stability also varied as a function of WLF. Nutrient flux to the epilimnion ranged 0.36–5.99 mg m-2d-1 for soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) and 5.8–97.1 mg m-2d-1 for dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN). During low water-level years, vertical nutrient fluxes increase and can account for up to >40% of the total external nutrients load to the lake. Vertical mixing changes related to WLF affect nutrient recycling, their flux to sediments, ecosystemic metabolic balance and planktonic composition of VB.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0300.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Physical Chemistry Keywords: polyelectrolytes; charge regulation; long-range interactions; Debye-Hückel interactions; transfer matrix; Ising models; semi-grand canonical ensemble; Monte Carlo simulations; conformational equilibria; variational methods
Online: 19 June 2018 (12:33:38 CEST)
The classical Rotational Isomeric State (RIS) model, originally proposed by Flory, has been used to rationalize a wide range of physicochemical properties of neutral polymers. However, many weak polyelectrolytes of interest are able to regulate their charge depending on the conformational state of the bonds. Recently, it has been shown that the RIS model can be coupled with the Site Binding (SB) model, for which the ionizable sites can adopt two states: protonated or deprotonated. The resulting combined scheme, the SBRIS model, allows to analyse ionization and conformational equilibria on the same foot. In the present work this approach is extended to include pH-dependent electrostatic Long Range (LR) interactions, ubiquitous in weak polyelectrolytes at moderate and low ionic strengths. With this aim the original LR interactions are taken into account by defining effective Short Range (SR) and pH-dependent parameters, such as effective microscopic protonation constants and rotational bond energies. The new parameters are systematically calculated using variational methods. The machinery of statistical mechanics for SR interactions, including the powerful and fast transfer matrix methods, can then be applied. The resulting technique, to which we will refer as Local Effective Interaction Parameters (LEIP) method, is illustrated with a minimal model of a flexible linear polyelectrolyte containing only one type of rotating bonds. LEIP reproduces very well the pH dependence of the degree of protonation and bond probabilities obtained by semi-grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations, where LR interactions are taken explicitly into account. The reduction in the computational time in several orders of magnitude suggests that the LEIP technique could be useful in a range of areas involving linear weak polyelectrolytes, allowing direct fitting of the relevant physical parameters to the experimental quantities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0011.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: long covid; symptom cluster; persistent symptoms; long-term; Mexico; survey
Online: 1 June 2021 (09:44:47 CEST)
Recently, several reports have emerged describing the long-term consequences of COVID-19 that may affect multiple systems, suggesting its chronicity. As further research is needed, we conducted a longitudinal observational study to report the prevalence and associated risk factors of long-term health consequences of COVID-19 by symptom clusters in patients discharged from the Temporary COVID-19 Hospital (TCH) in Mexico City. Self-reported clinical symptom data were collected via telephone calls over 90 days post-discharge. Among 4670 patients discharged from the TCH, we identified 45 symptoms across eight symptom clusters (neurological; mood disorders; systemic; respiratory; musculoskeletal; ear, nose, and throat; dermatological; and gastrointestinal). We observed that the neurological, dermatological, and mood disorder symptom clusters persisted in >30% of patients at 90 days post-discharge. Although most symptoms decreased in frequency between day 30 and 90, alopecia and the dermatological symptom cluster significantly increased (p<0·00001). Women were more prone than men to develop long-term symptoms and invasive mechanical ventilation also increased the frequency of symptoms at 30-days post-discharge. Overall, we observed that symptoms often persisted regardless of disease severity. We hope these findings will help promote public health strategies that ensure equity in the access to solutions focused on the long-term consequences of COVID-19.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0342.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: long COVID; PASC; long haulers; NETosis; T cell; NK cell; DC; neutrophil; macrophage
Online: 24 October 2022 (02:12:06 CEST)
A significant number of persons with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) experience persistent, recurrent, or new symptoms several months after the acute stage of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS‑CoV‑2) infection. This phenomenon, termed Post-Acute Sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 (PASC) or Long COVID, is associated with high viral titers during acute infection, a persistently hyperactivated immune system, tissue injury by NETosis-induced micro-thrombofibrosis (NETinjury), microbial translocation, complement deposition, fibrotic macrophages, the presence of auto-antibodies, and lymphopenic immune environments. Here, we review the current literature on the immunological imbalances that occur during PASC. Specifically, we focus on data supporting common immunopathogenesis and tissue injury mechanisms shared across this highly heterogenous disorder including NETosis, coagulopathy, and fibrosis. Mechanisms include changes in leukocyte subsets/functions, fibroblast activation, cytokine imbalances, lower cortisol, autoantibodies, co-pathogen reactivation, and residual immune activation driven by persistent viral antigens and/or microbial translocation. Taken together, we develop the premise that SARS-CoV-2 infection results in PASC as a consequence of acute and/or persistent single or multiple organ injury mediated by PASC determinants to include degree of host response (inflammation, NETinjury), residual viral antigen (persistent antigen) and exogenous factors (microbial translocation). Determinants of PASC may be amplified by co-morbidities, age, and sex. Keywords: long COVID, PASC, long haulers, NETosis, T cell, NK cell, DC, neutrophil,
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0004.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: Long-COVID; cognitive disorders; rehabilitation
Online: 1 June 2022 (05:50:58 CEST)
There is mounting evidence that patients with severe COVID-19 disease may have symptoms that continue beyond the acute phase, extending into the early chronic phase. Often referred to as 'Long COVID'. Simultaneously, case investigations have shown that COVID-19 individuals might have a variety of neurological problems. The accurate and accessible assessment of cognitive function in patients post COVID-19 infection is thus of increasingly high importance for both public and individual health. Little is known about the influence of COVID-19 on the general cognitive levels but more importantly, at sub functions level. Therefore, we first aim to summarize current level of evidence supporting a negative impact of COVID-19 infection on cognitive functions. 27 studies have been included in the systematic review representing a total of 94,103 participants (90,317 COVID-19 patients and 3,786 healthy controls). We then performed a meta-analysis summarizing the results of 5 studies (959 participants, 513 patients) to quantify the impact of COVID-19 on cognitive functions. The overall effect, expressed in Standardized Mean Differences, is -0.56 [95%CI -0.79 ; -0.34]. To prevent disability, we finally discuss the different approaches available in rehabilitation to help these patients and to avoid long-term complication.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0469.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Hematology Keywords: Long COVID; Laboratory Markers; Haematological Tests
Online: 27 February 2023 (09:53:40 CET)
Long COVID affects a significant number of people after acute coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), and haematological changes can persist in the COVID-19 phase. This study aimed to evaluate these haematological laboratory markers, linking them to clinical findings and long-term outcomes in patients with long COVID. This cross-sectional study selected participants from a ‘long COVID’ clinical care programme in the Amazon region. Clinical data and baseline demographics were obtained, and blood samples were collected for quantification of erythrogram-, leukogram-, and plateletgram-related markers. Long COVID was reported for up to 985 days. Patients hospitalised in the acute phase had higher mean red/white cell, platelet, and plateletcrit levels and red cell distribution width. In addition, haematimetric parameters were higher in shorter periods of long COVID. Patients presenting with more than six concomitant long COVID symptoms had a higher white blood cell count, shorter prothrombin time (PT), and increased PT activity. Within up to 985 days of long COVID, our results suggest a probable benign compensation for erythrogram-related markers. Increased levels of leukogram-related markers and increased coagulation activity were observed in the worse long COVID groups, also indicating an exacerbated response after the acute disturbance, which is uncertain and requires further investigation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0271.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: long covid; children; SARS-CoV-2
Online: 9 March 2021 (12:37:24 CET)
Background The World Health Organization has recently recognized Long COVID, calling the international medical community to strengthen research and comprehensive care of patients with this condition. However, if Long COVID pertains to children as well is not yet clear. Methods An anonymous, online survey was developed by an organization of parents of children suffering from persisting symptoms since initial infection. Parents were asked to report signs and symptoms, physical activity and mental health issues. Only children with symptoms persisting for more than four weeks were included. Results 510 children were included (56.3% females) infected between January 2020 and January 2021. At their initial COVID-19 infection, 22 (4.3%) children were hospitalized. Overall, children had persisting COVID-19 for a mean of 8.2 months (SD 3.9). Most frequent symptoms were: Tiredness and weakness (444 patients, 87.1% of sample), Fatigue (410, 80.4%), Headache (401, 78.6%), Abdominal pain (387, 75.9%), Muscle and joint pain (309, 60.6%), Post-exertional malaise (274, 53.7%), rash (267, 52.4%). 484 (94.9%) children had had at least four symptoms. 129 (25.3%) children have suffered constant COVID-19 infection symptoms, 252 (49.4%) have had periods of apparent recovery and then symptoms returning, and 97 (19.0%) had a prolonged period of wellness followed by symptoms. Only 51 (10.0%) children have returned to previous levels of physical activity. Parents reported a significant prevalence of Neuropsychiatric symptoms. Conclusions Our study provides further evidence on Long COVID in children. Symptoms like fatigue, headache, muscle and joint pain, rashes and heart palpitations, and mental health issues like lack of concentration and short memory problems, were particularly frequent and confirm previous observations, suggesting that they may characterize this condition. A better comprehension of Long COVID is urgently needed..
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0634.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Particle And Field Physics Keywords: Neutrino oscillations; neutrino mixing; long baseline
Online: 30 November 2018 (11:07:53 CET)
We study the possibility of determining the octant of the neutrino mixing angle 23, that is, whether 23 > 45 or 23 < 45, in long baseline neutrino experiments. Here we numerically derived the sensitivity limits within which these experiments can determine, by measuring the probability of the ! e transitions, the octant of 23 with a 5 certainty. The interference of the CP violation angle with these limits, as well as the effects of the baseline length and the run-time ratio of neutrino and antineutrino modes of the beam have been analyzed.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1602.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Life Sciences Keywords: long non-coding RNAs; cancer; multi-omics
Online: 25 October 2023 (08:02:42 CEST)
In this review, we will cover a general overview of the current panorama on lncRNAs with an actual or potential role as biological markers in cancer. We will discuss examples of multi-omics approaches that integrates information on somatic aberrations, gene expression and epigenomics, with the scope of providing a more comprehensive view of the functional impact of lncRNA profiles and how these paradigm can be exploited for the discovery and selection of lncRNAs with a functional role and their use as variables informing on progression and prognostic and help guiding the selection of therapeutic strategies for cancers. Finally, we propose a perspective for future evolution of the study of lncRNAs and the discovery of their functional and harnessing their potential to assist in clinical management of malignancies.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0033.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: Clustering; COVID-19; Long COVID; disease severity
Online: 2 November 2022 (01:02:16 CET)
The increasing number of people living with Long COVID requires the development of more personalized care, as for now limited treatment options and rehabilitation programs adapted to the variety of Long COVID presentations are available. Our objective was to design an easy-to-use Long COVID classification to help stratifying people with Long COVID. Individual characteristics and a detailed set of 62 self-reported persisting symptoms together with quality of life indexes 12 months after initial COVID-19 infection were collected in a cohort of SARS-CoV-2 infected people in Luxembourg. A hierarchical ascendant classification (HAC) was used to identify clusters of people. We identified 3 patterns of Long COVID symptoms with a gradient in disease severity. Cluster-Mild encompassed almost 50% of the study population and was composed of participants with less severe initial infection, fewer comorbidities, and fewer persisting symptoms (mean=2.9). Cluster-Moderate was characterized by a mean of 11 persisting symptoms and a poor sleep and respiratory quality of life. Cluster-Severe was characterized by a higher proportion of women and smokers as in the other clusters, with a higher number of Long COVID symptoms, in particular of vascular, urinary, and skin symptoms. Our study evidenced that Long COVID can be stratified in 3 sub-categories in terms of severity. If replicated in other populations, this simple classification will help clinicians to personalize the care of people with Long COVID.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0054.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: Cameroon; rainfall; long-term variability; trend tests
Online: 6 October 2022 (08:17:50 CEST)
The rainfall study in the long term is essential for climatic change understanding and socioeconomic development. The main goal of this study is to explore the spatial and temporal variations of precipitation in different time scales (seasonal and annual) in Cameroon. The Mann–Kendall and Pettitt tests were applied to analyze the precipitation variability. On temporal plan, the different regions of Cameroon have recorded significant drops in annual rainfall that Pet-titt's test generally situates around the 1970s. The decreases observed for the northern part of Cameroon regions are between –5.4% (Adamawa) and –7.4% (Far North). Those of west-ern part regions oscillate between –7.5% (South-West) and –12.5% (West). The southern part of Cameroon regions recorded decreases varying between –4.3% (East) and –5.9% (Center). On spatial plan, the divisions of the northern, western and southern parts of Cameroon respectively recorded after the 1970s (a pivotal period in the evolution of precipitation on temporal plan), a precipitation decrease towards the South, the South-West and the West. This study's findings could be helpful for planning and managing water resources in Cameroon.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0277.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: Long Covid; post Covid; Post-acute COVID
Online: 21 March 2022 (08:25:20 CET)
Abstract: COVID-19 Long Haulers, an estimated 3% to 12% of people infected globally with coronavirus having latter devasting symptoms 12 weeks after the initial infection is on the rise. We conducted a collaborative study with the long covid patient organization in Greece in order to estimate the prevalence, symptoms and problems that adult long haulers experience and then propose a management plan for these patients. Symptoms were obtained from 208 patients using unstructured qualitative free text entries in an anonymized online questionnaire. The majority of respondents (68.8%) were not hospitalized and had been diagnosed more than six months ago with lingering symptoms (66,8%). Eighteen different symptoms (fatigue, tachycardia, shortness of breath, parosmia etc) were mentioned in both hospitalized and community patients. Interestingly, patients with initial mild symptoms suffer from the same persistent symptoms as those who were hospitalized. Awareness of long covid sequelae seems to be low even among medical doctors. Treatment options incorporating targeted rehabilitation programs are either not available or still excluded from the management plan of long covid patients. Since long COVID is a multi-systemic entity, we propose a holistic interventional approach using a multidisciplinary medical team in order to securely and effectively diagnose and treat these specific patients. Academic and medical community must collaborate with long covid patients’ organizations so as to provide personalized medicine.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0270.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Analysis Keywords: Road accidents; Brazil; fractional integration; long memory
Online: 19 January 2022 (11:45:26 CET)
This paper deals with the analysis of trends in road accidents on major highways in Brazil. Using updated time series techniques, our results indicate that a low degree of long memory was detected in the series with shocks having transitory effects over time. We further find that the number of accidents taking place in Brazil has been reducing over time, though in the presence of negative shocks, the recovery is not going to be immediate due to the long memory nature of the data. Despite the absence of relevant investment relating to infrastructure expansion, it is worth mentioning the consolidation of a nationwide tolled road system in Brazil involving concessions to private administrators, alongside more severe traffic laws that can impose limitations on driving licences.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0117.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: sorghum; Canu; Miniasm; MinION; long-read sequencing
Online: 13 June 2019 (09:26:20 CEST)
The whole genome sequencing (WGS) has become a crucial tool to understand genome structure and genetic variation. The MinION sequencing of Oxford Nanopore Technologies (ONT) is an excellent approach for performing WGS and has advantages in comparison with other Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS): It is relatively inexpensive, portable, has simple library preparation, can be monitored in real-time, and has no theoretical limits on read length. Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench is diploid (2n = 2x = 20) with a genome size of about 730 Mb, and its genome sequence information is released in the Phytozome database. Therefore, sorghum can be be used as a good reference. However, plant species have complex and large genomes compared to animals or microorganisms. As a result, complete genome sequencing is difficult for plant species. MinION sequencing that produces long-reads can be an excellent tool to overcome the weak assembly of short-reads generated from NGS by minimizing the generation of gaps or covering the repetitive sequence that appears on the plant genome. Here, we conducted the genome sequencing for S. bicolor cv. BTx623 using the MinION platform and obtained 895,678 reads and 17.9 gigabytes(Gb) (ca. 25X coverage of reference) from long-read sequence data. Through a de novo assembly using two different tools and mapped assembled contigs against the sorghum reference genome, a total of 6,124 contigs (covering 45.9%) were generated from Canu, and a total of 2,661 contigs (covering 50%) were generated from Minimap and Miniasm with a Racon pipeline. Our results provide a pipeline of long-read sequencing analysis for plant species using the MinION platform and a clue to determine the total sequencing scale for optimal coverage based on various genome sizes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0241.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics And Photonics Keywords: Long afterglow; tunneling model; F centers; PDT
Online: 26 February 2019 (12:45:04 CET)
Here, we have discovered a X-ray excited long afterglow phosphor β-NaYF4: Tb3+. After the irradiation of X-ray, the green emission can persist for more than 240 h. After 36 h, the afterglow intensity arrived at 0.69 mcd•m-2, which can clearly be observed by naked eyes. Even after 84 h, the afterglow emission brightness still reached 0.087 mcd•m-2. Also, combined with the results of thermoluminescence and photoluminescence, the super long afterglow emission of β-NaYF4: Tb3+ can be ascribed to the tunneling model associated with F centers. More importantly, the super long green afterglow emission of β-NaYF4: Tb3+ has been successfully used as in vivo light source to activate g-C3N4 for photodynamic therapy（PDT）and bacteria destruction. Furthermore, super long persistent luminescence of β-NaYF4: Tb3+ could be repeatedly charged by X-ray for many circulations, which indicates that the phosphors have high photo stability under repeated cycles of alternating X-ray irradiation.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: CA3-CA1 synapses; NMDA; AMPA; systems biology; multiscale modeling; synaptic plasticity; long term potentiation; long term depression; hippocampus
Online: 8 January 2021 (13:17:31 CET)
Inside hippocampal circuits, neuroplasticity events that individual cells may undergo during synaptic transmissions occur in the form of Long Term Potentiation (LTP) and Long Term Depression (LTD). The high density of NMDA receptors expressed on the surface of the dendritic CA1 spines confers to hippocampal CA3-CA1 synapses, the ability to easily undergo NMDA-mediated LTP and LTD, that is essential for some forms of explicit learning in mammals. Providing a comprehensive kinetic model that can be used for running computer simulations of the synaptic transmission process is currently a major challenge. Here, we propose a compartmentalized kinetic model for CA3-CA1 synaptic transmission. Our major goal was to tune our model in order to predict the functional impact caused by disease associated variants of NMDA receptors related to severe cognitive impairment. Indeed, for variants Glu413Gly and Cys461Phe, our model predicts negative shifts in the glutamate affinity and changes in the kinetic behavior, consistent with experimental data. These results pinpoint to the predictive power of this multiscale viewpoint, which aims to integrate the quantitative kinetic description of large interaction networks typical of system biology approaches with a focus on the quality of few, key, molecular interactions typical of structural biology ones.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0619.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: long longitudinal slope; permeable pavement; porosity; road performance
Online: 9 November 2023 (11:12:47 CET)
Permeable asphalt pavement refers to an asphalt mixture layer with an air void content of more than 18% and internal water permeability and drainage capabilities, which can quickly drain away water on the road surface, improve rainy day travel safety and ride comfort. This paper aims to explore the optimal asphalt mixture mix design for long longitudinal slope roads. By using CT scanning technology to analyze the air void content of different rotated and compacted asphalt mixture specimens, and extensively testing and evaluating the performance of permeable pavement mixtures, the following conclusions are drawn: Based on the research philosophy of functional integration, a new asphalt mixture gradation suitable for long longitudinal slope roads is proposed, with the optimal key factor composition being: 0.075mm passing rate of 7%, 2.36mm passing rate of 20%, 9.5mm passing rate of 55%, and oil-stone ratio of 4.8%. The FAM mixture was divided into three parts for air void analysis, with the upper part having a slightly higher air void content than the lower part. The air void distribution diagram of the FAM mixture is concave, with higher air void rate curves on both sides and a lower middle curve. Compared with laboratory dry measurement method, CT scanning test showed slightly higher air void content in specimens. Through dynamic modulus testing, the strength requirement for road asphalt mixture in pavement structure design was evaluated. It was found that at high temperature conditions (50℃), the minimum dynamic modulus value of the FAM mixture was 323 MPa, with a peak value of 22746MPa at a temperature of -10℃ and a frequency of 25HZ. The dynamic modulus value at high temperature conditions is lower than at low temperature conditions, while the dynamic modulus value at high frequency conditions is higher than at low frequency conditions. This study provides useful information and experimental data for the design of new asphalt mixtures for long longitudinal slope roads, and has conducted in-depth research on the air void distribution and performance of the mixture, providing strong support for related research fields and practical applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.2174.v2
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: Time-series; data availability; aggregation; long-term analyses
Online: 1 September 2023 (10:10:24 CEST)
Landsat and Sentinel-2 data archives provide ever-increasing amounts of satellite data for studying land cover and land use change (LCLUC) over the past four decades. However, the availability of cloud-, shadow-, and snow-free observations varies spatially and temporally due to climate and satellite data acquisition schemes. Spatio-temporal heterogeneity poses a major issue for some time-series analysis approaches, but can be addressed with pixel-based compositing that generates temporally equidistant cloud-free or near-cloud free synthetic images. Although much consideration is given to methods identifying the ‘best’ pixel value for each composite, determining the aggregation period receives less attention and is often done arbitrary, or based on expert intuition. Here, we evaluated data compositing windows ranging from five days to one year for 1984-2021 Landsat and 2015-2021 Sentinel‑2 time series across Europe. We considered separate and joint use of both data archives and analyzed spatio-temporal availability of composites during each calendar year and pixel-specific growing season. We reported mean annual composites’ availability investigating differences among biogeographical regions, checked feasibility of pan‑European analyses for three LCLUC applications based on annual, monthly and 10-day composites, and analyzed the shortest feasible compositing window ensuring ≥50% temporal data availability and interpolation of the remaining composites for individual years and across a variety of medium- and long‑term time windows. Our results highlighted low data coverage in the 1980s, 1990s, and in 2012, as well as spatial variability in data availability driven by climate and orbit overlaps, which altogether impact spatio-temporal consistency of medium- and long-term time series, limiting feasibility of some LCLUC analyses. We demonstrated that prior to 2011 monthly composites ensured overall 50-62% data coverage for each calendar year, and ~75% afterwards, with further increase to ~82% when Landsat and Sentinel-2 were combined. Temporal consistency of monthly composites was overall low and temporal interpolation augmenting up to 50% missing data each year and across a time window of interest, ensured feasibility of analyses. Applications based on shorter than monthly composites were challenging without joining Landsat and Sentinel‑2 archives after 2015, and beyond the Mediterranean biogeographical region. Using pixel-specific growing season data typically boosted data availability in most geographies and diminished most of the latitudinal differences, but feasibility of complete time series with sub-monthly compositing windows was still restricted to the most recent years, and required data interpolation. Overall, our analyses provided a detailed assessment of Landsat and Sentinel-2 data availability over Europe, and based on selected application examples, highlighted often lacking spatio-temporal consistency of time series with sub-monthly compositing windows and long-time periods, which might hinder feasibility of some LCLUC applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1570.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Pollution Keywords: Asian dust; polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; long-range transportation
Online: 23 August 2023 (03:35:05 CEST)
Asian dust (AD) events and total suspended particle (TSP) was observed at Kanazawa University Wajima Air Monitoring Station (KUWAMS), a Japanese background site, during the East Asian winter monsoon periods (from November to May of the following year) from 2010 to 2021. Nine kinds of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined in each TSP sample. In this study, a total of 54 AD events were observed. According to the different pathways of long-range transportation, AD events were divided into AD-high (transported at higher altitude, around 4000 m) and AD-low (transported at lower altitude, around 2500 m). The TSP concentrations in-creased sharply in the AD and was higher in AD-high (39.8 ± 19.5 μg/m³) than that in AD-low (23.5 ± 10.5 μg/m³). While AD didn’t have significant effect on ΣPAHs characteristic variation, as ΣPAHs concentration in non-AD periods, AD-high, AD-low were 543 ± 374, 404 ± 221, 436 ± 265 pg/m³, respectively. PAHs compositions were also consistent. As a result, TSP concentration was affected by the input air mass transported at higher altitude from the desert region while PAHs concentration was under the impact of air mass at lower altitude which carried the PAHs emitted from fossil fuels and biomass combustion in northeastern China. Moreover, the health risks of PAHs were calculated by inhalation lifetime cancer risk which ranged from 10−6 to 10−5 ng/m3, in-dicating a potential carcinogenic risk at KUWAMS during the East Asian winter monsoon period.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1679.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Vision And Graphics Keywords: long-tailed image classification; contrastive learning; data augmentation
Online: 23 June 2023 (12:17:21 CEST)
To solve the problem that the common long-tailed classification method does not use the semantic features of the original label text of the image, and the difference between the classification accuracy of most classes and minority classes is large, the long-tailed image classification method based on enhanced contrast visual language trains the head class and tail class samples separately, uses text image to pre-train the information, and uses enhanced momentum contrast loss function and RandAugment enhancement to improve the learning of tail class samples. On the ImageNet-LT long-tailed dataset, the enhanced contrastive visual-language based long-tailed image classification method has improved all class accuracy, tail class accuracy, middle class accuracy, and F1 values by 3.4%, 7.6%, 3.5%, and 11.2%, respectively, compared to the BALLAD method. The difference in accuracy between the head class and tail class is reduced by 1.6% compared to the BALLAD method. The results of three comparative experiments indicate that the long-tailed image classification method based on enhanced contrastive visual-language has improved the performance of tail classes and reduced the accuracy difference between majority and minority classes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0192.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: COVID-19; Long COVID; EC16; EGCG-palmitate; Formulations
Online: 11 April 2023 (04:55:46 CEST)
Background: Chronic neurologic diseases are common sequelae of COVID. They severely impact the quality of life and increase the burden on healthcare systems. The long COVID neurological symptoms are due to the robust replication of SARS-CoV-2 in the nasal neuroepithelial cells, leading to neuroinvasion and inflammation of the central nerve system (CNS). Currently used medications and vaccines do not inhibit the robust SARS-CoV-2 replication in the nasal epithelial cells. EGCG-palmitate (EC16), a multifunctional compound, has the potential to become a novel intranasal-delivered drug for minimizing post-COVID neurologic symptoms. Method: EC16-containing formulations were developed and tested in vitro against human β coronavirus OC43 (CoV-OC43) using a TCID50 assay following three test protocols differing in exposure sequence. Results: EC16 formulations in normal saline, phosphate buffered saline, and cell culture medium were found to effectively inhibit human β-coronavirus infection (>99.99%) after a 30-min contact. A single 10-min application to cells after infection (i.e., without direct contact with the virus) resulted in >99% inhibition of viral replication. Conclusion: With its antiviral, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and neuroprotective properties, EC16 in nasal formulations could be further developed for clinical applications to COVID-19 patients for minimizing long COVID neurological symptoms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0368.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: Long Covid; rehabilitation; virtual methods; multi-disciplinary team
Online: 19 November 2021 (15:00:47 CET)
Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has disproportionately affected people from more deprived communities. The experience of Long Covid is similarly distributed but very few investigations have concentrated on the needs of this population. The aim of this project was to co-produce an acceptable intervention for people with Long Covid, living in communities recognised as more deprived. Methods: The intervention was based on a multi-disciplinary team using approaches from sport and exercise medicine and functional rehabilitation. The co-production process was undertaken with a stakeholder advisory group and patient public involvement representation. This study identified participants by postcode and the indices of multiple deprivation (IMD); recruitment and engagement were supported by an existing health and wellbeing service. A virtual ‘clinic’ was offered with a team of professional practitioners who met participants three times each; to directly consider their needs and offer structured advice. The acceptability of the intervention was based on the individual’s participation and their completion of the intervention. Results: Ten participants were recruited with eight completing the intervention. The partnership with an existing community health and wellbeing service was deemed to be an important way of reaching participants. Two men and six women ages ranging from 38 to 73 were involved and their needs were commonly associated with fatigue, anxiety and depression with overall de-conditioning. None reported serious hardship associated with the pandemic although most were in self-employment/part-time employment or were not working due to retirement or ill-health. Two older participants lived alone, and others were single parents and had considerable challenges associated with managing a household alongside their Long Covid difficulties. Conclusions: This paper presents the needs and perspectives of eight individuals involved in the process and discusses the needs and preferences of the group in relation to their support for self- managed recovery from Long Covid.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0185.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: atmosphere; aerosol; background; particle size; long term; Mediterranean
Online: 8 February 2021 (10:56:35 CET)
The Eastern Mediterranean is a highly populated area with air quality problems as well where climate change already is noticed by higher temperatures and changing precipitation pattern. The anthropogenic aerosol affects health and changing concentra-tions and properties of the atmospheric aerosol affect radiation balance and clouds. Continuous long-term observations are essential in assessing the influence of anthro-pogenic aerosols on climate and health. We present 6 years of observations from Navarino Environmental Observatory (NEO), a new station located at the south west tip of Pelo-ponnese, Greece. The two sites at NEO, were evaluated to show the influence of the local meteorology but also to assess the general background aerosol possible. It was found that the background aerosol was originated from aged European aerosols and was strongly influenced by biomass burning, fossil fuel combustion, and industry. When subsiding into the boundary layer, local sources contributed in the air masses moving south. Mesoscale meteorology determined the diurnal variation of aerosol properties such as mass and number by means of typical sea breeze circulation, giving rise to pronounced morning and evening peaks in pollutant levels. While synoptic scale meteorology, mainly large-scale air mass transport and precipitation, strongly influenced the season-ality of the aerosol properties.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0095.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: long noncoding RNA; PVT1; MYC; bromodomain; multiple myeloma
Online: 4 August 2020 (11:31:37 CEST)
Abstract: Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are deregulated in human cancers and are associated with disease progression. Plasmacytoma Variant Translocation 1 (PVT1), an lncRNA, is located adjacent to MYC, linked to multiple myeloma (MM). PVT1 is expressed in MM and is associated with carcinogenesis, however, its role and regulation machinery remain uncertain. We examined PVT1/MYC expression through real time PCR in plasma cells purified from 59 MGUS and 140 MM patients. MM cell lines KMS11, KMS12PE, OPM2, and RPMI8226 were treated with JQ1, a MYC superenhancer inhibitor, or MYC inhibitor 10058-F4. The expression levels of PVT1 and MYC were significantly higher in MM than in MGUS (p < 0.0001), and showed positive correlation with disease progression (r = 0.394, p < 0.0001). JQ1 inhibited cell proliferation and decreased the expression levels of MYC and PVT1. However, 10054-F4 did not alter the expression level of PVT1. The positive correlation between MYC and PVT1 in patients, synchronous downregulation of MYC and PVT1 by JQ1, and no effect of MYC inhibitor on PVT1 expression suggest that the expression of these two genes is coregulated by a superenhancer. Cooperative effects between these two genes may contribute to MM pathogenesis and progression.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0157.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: long non-coding RNA; hESC; cardiomyocyte; RNA-seq
Online: 15 March 2019 (02:11:52 CET)
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been found to be involved in many biological processes, including the regulation of cell differentiation, but a complete characterization of lncRNA is still lacking. Additionally, there is evidence that lncRNAs interact with ribosomes, raising questions about their functions in cells. Here, we used a developmentally staged protocol to induce cardiogenic commitment of hESCs and then investigated the differential association of lncRNAs with polysomes. Our results identified lncRNAs in both the ribosome-free and polysome-bound fractions during cardiogenesis and showed a very well-defined temporal lncRNA association with polysomes. Clustering of lncRNAs was performed according to the gene expression patterns during the five timepoints analyzed. In addition, differential lncRNA recruitment to polysomes was observed when comparing the differentially expressed lncRNAs in the ribosome-free and polysome-bound fractions or when calculating the polysome-bound vs ribosome-free ratio. The association of lncRNAs with polysomes could represent an additional cytoplasmic role of lncRNAs, e.g., in translational regulation of mRNA expression.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0056.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: long-acting injectable; antipsychotic; decision-making; guidelines; schizophrenia
Online: 10 November 2016 (07:00:52 CET)
The purposes of this study were to identify clinician’s characteristics associated with higher prescription rates of long-acting injectable (LAI) antipsychotics, as well as the information sources influencing medical decision-making about treatment of schizophrenia. We surveyed 202 psychiatrists during 6 regional French conferences (Bordeaux, Lyon, Marseille, Nice, Paris, Strasbourg). Data on the characteristics of practice, prescription rates of antipsychotic and information sources about their clinical decisions were collected. Most of psychiatrists used second-generation antipsychotic (SGA), and preferentially an oral formulation, in the treatment of schizophrenia. SGA LAI was prescribed to 30.4% of schizophrenic patients. The duration and the type of practice did not influence the class or formulation of antipsychotics used. The clinicians following the higher percentage of schizophrenic patients were associated with the higher use of LAI antipsychotics and the lower use of oral SGA. Personal experience, government regulatory approval and guidelines for the treatment of schizophrenia were the 3 main contributing factors guiding the clinical decision-making of clinicians about treatment of schizophrenia. The more clinicians follow schizophrenic patients, the more they use LAI antipsychotic. The development of specialised programmes with top specialists should lead to better use of LAI in the treatment of schizophrenia.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2111.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: COVID-19; Post COVID syndrome; Concept map for management of long COVID; Health informatics; Public health; Management of long COVID
Online: 29 June 2023 (10:59:21 CEST)
The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has profoundly affected millions of lives globally, with some individuals experiencing persistent symptoms even after recovering. Understanding and managing the long-term sequelae of COVID-19 is crucial for research, prevention, and control. As a result, to monitor the health of individuals affected by these conditions, they must maintain up-to-date health records using digital health informatics apps for surveillance. In this review, we provide an overview of the existing literature on identifying long COVID manifestations through hierarchical classification and the characterization of long COVID by different hierarchical groups based on the Human Phenotype Ontology (HPO). We outline the aspects of the National COVID Cohort Collaborative (N3C) and Researching COVID to Enhance Recovery (RECOVER) in artificial intelligence (AI) to identify long COVID. Knowledge exploration, using the concept map for the clinical pathways of long COVID presented in this paper, provides an overview of the data needed to explore tackling the long-term effect of COVID-19 by integrating innovative cohesive frameworks and designing health informatics-based applications. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first paper to explore the potential incorporation of long COVID as a variable risk factor within a digital health informatics application.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1097.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: Atherosclerosis; psoriasis; microRNA; extracellular vesicles; long non-coding RNA
Online: 17 November 2023 (02:35:39 CET)
It is generally accepted that atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease. The link between atherosclerosis and other inflammatory diseases such as psoriasis, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) via metabolic, inflammatory, and immunoregulatory pathways is well established. The aim of our review was to summarize the associations between selected microRNAs (miRs) and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) and atherosclerosis, psoriasis, T2DM, and RA. MicroRNAs are short noncoding RNA molecules involved in cell signaling, intracellular communication, and gene expression. We reviewed the role of miR-146a, miR-210, miR-143, miR-223, miR-126, miR-21, miR-155, miR-145, miR-200, miR-133, miR-135, miR-221, miR-424, and let-7 in atherosclerosis, psoriasis, T2DM, and RA. LncRNAs are RNA transcripts longer than 200 nucleotides that are involved in cellular processes such as apoptosis, metabolism, inflammation, cell differentiation, and proliferation. We evaluated the role of lncRNA-H19, lncRNA-MEG3, lncRNA-UCA1, and lncRNA-XIST in atherosclerosis and psoriasis, T2DM, and RA. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are a method of intracellular signal transduction. Their function depends on surface expression, cargo, and the cell from which they originate.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1572.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics And Photonics Keywords: axicons; thermo-optical devices; long focusing devices; THz radiation
Online: 25 September 2023 (05:42:04 CEST)
THz radiation has assumed a great importance thanks to the efforts in the development of technological tools used in this versatile band of the electromagnetic spectrum. Here we propose a reflecting bi-mirror axicon-like device with wavelength-independent long focusing performances in the THz band, by exploiting the high thermo-mechanical deformation of the elastomer polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). This deformation permits to achieve significant optical path modulations in the THz band and effective focusing. The surface of a PDMS layer is covered with a gold thin film, acting as heater thanks to its absorption for wavelengths below ~500 nm . An invariance property of the Fresnel integral has been exploited to verify experimentally the THz performances of the device with an ordinary visible laser source, finding excellent agreement with the theoretical predictions at 1 and 3 THz. The same property allowed also to verify experimentally that the axicon focus has a longitudinal extension much greater than that one exhibited by a benchmark cylindrical mirror with the same optical power. The axicon is thermo-mechanically stable up to a heating power of 270 mW, although it might be potentially exploited at higher powers with a minor degradation of the optical performances.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0776.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; IgG4; Tregs; long COVID; immune tolerance
Online: 9 August 2023 (11:18:47 CEST)
SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes theCOVID-19 disease, has been demonstrated to cause immune suppression in certain individuals. This can manifest as a reduced ability for the host's immune system to effectively control the infection. Studies have reported that patients with COVID-19 can exhibit a decline in white blood cell counts, including natural killer cells and T cells, which are integral components of the immune system's response to viral pathogens. These cells play critical roles in the immune response to viral infections, and their depletion can make it harder for the body to mount an effective defense against the virus. Additionally, the virus can also directly infect immune cells, further compromising their ability to function. Some individuals with severe COVID-19 pneumonia may develop a "cytokine storm," an overactive immune response that may result in tissue damage and organ malfunction. The underlying mechanisms of immune suppression in SARS-CoV-2 are not entirely comprehended at this time, and ongoing research is being conducted to gain a more comprehensive understanding. Research has shown that severe SARS-CoV-2 infection promotes the synthesis of IgG4 antibodies. In this work, we propose the hypothesis that the IgG4 antibody produced by B cells in response to infection by SARS-CoV2 generates immunological tolerance that prevents its elimination, and leads to persistence and chronic infection. In sum, we believe that this constitutes another immune evasion mechanism that bears striking similarities to that developed by cancer cells to evade immune surveillance.