ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0290.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: molecular hydrogen; hydrogen-rich water; xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes; membrane transporters; liver; oxidative stress
Online: 28 June 2019 (07:36:20 CEST)
Molecular hydrogen (H2) has been shown to have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities that may reduce the development and progression of many diseases. In this study, Hydrogen-rich water (HRW) was obtained by reacting hybrid magnesium-carbon hydrogen storage materials with water. Then the effects of intake of HRW on the activities of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes, membrane transporters, and oxidative stress in rats were investigated. Rats were given HRW ad libitum for 4 weeks. Results showed that intake of HRW had no significant effect on the activities of various cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes (CYP1A1, 1A2, 2B, 2C, 2D, 2E1, 3A, 4A), glutathione-S-transferase and UDP-glucuronosyltransferase. Except for a slight lower plasma glucose concentration, intake of HRW had no effect on other plasma biochemical parameters in rats. P-Glycoprotein and multidrug resistance-associated protein (Mrp)2 protein expressions in liver were elevated after intake of HRW. However, HRW had no significant effects on glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, or lipid peroxidation in liver. Results from this study suggest that consumption of HRW may not affect xenobiotic metabolism or oxidative stress in liver. However, intake of HRW may increase the efflux of xenobiotics or toxic substances from the liver into bile by enhancing the expression of p-glycoprotein and Mrp2 protein.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: adlay; adlay bran oil; cytochrome P450; food-drug interactions; rats
Online: 10 September 2019 (03:16:30 CEST)
Adlay (Coix lachryma-jobi L. var. ma-yuen Stapf) contains various phytonutrients for treating many diseases in Asia. To investigate whether orally administered of adlay bran oil (ABO) can cause drug interactions, the effects of ABO on the pharmacokinetics of five cytochrome P450 (CYP) probe drugs were evaluated. Rats were given a single oral dose (2.5 mL/kg BW) of ABO 1 h before administration of a drug cocktail either orally or intravenously, and blood was collected at various time points. A single oral dose of ABO administration did not affect the pharmacokinetics of five probe drugs when given as a drug cocktail intravenously. However, ABO increased plasma theophylline, dextromethorphan, and diltiazem when co-administered an oral drug cocktail. After 7-days of feeding with an ABO-containing diet, plasma concentrations of theophylline and chlorzoxazone were increased after oral administration of drug cocktail. The major CYP enzyme activities in liver and intestinal were not affected by ABO treatment. Results from this study indicate that a single oral dose or short-term administration of ABO may increase plasma drug concentrations when ABO is given concomitantly with drugs. ABO is likely to enhance intestinal drug absorption. Therefore, caution is needed to avoid food-drug interactions between ABO and co-administered drugs.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; animal models; vaccines; future prospects
Online: 2 August 2021 (13:15:48 CEST)
The worldwide pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become an unprecedented challenge to global public health. With the intensification of the COVID-19 epidemic, the development of vaccines and therapeutic drugs against the etiological agent severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are also widespread. To prove the effectiveness and safety of these preventive vaccines and therapeutic drugs, available animal models that faithfully recapitulate clinical hallmarks of COVID-19 are urgently needed. Currently, animal models including mice, golden hamsters, ferrets, nonhuman primates and other susceptible animals have been involved in the study of COVID-19. 92 vaccine candidates have entered clinical trials after the primary evaluation in animal models, of which inactivated vaccines, subunit vaccines, virus-vectored vaccines and mRNA vaccines are promising vaccine candidates. In this review, we summarize the landscape of animal models and advanced vaccines with efficacy range from about 50% to more than 95%. In addition, we point out future directions for animal models and vaccine development, aiming at providing valuable information and accelerating the breakthroughs confronting SARS-CoV-2.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0313.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Aging Keywords: SAMP8 and SAMR1 mice; DNLA (Dendrobium nobile Lindl. alkaloids); Cognition; Nissl staining; Phosphorylated Proteomics; Bioinformatics
Online: 19 December 2022 (03:32:01 CET)
Senescence-accelerated mouse prone 8 (SAMP8) mice exhibit cognitive defects and neuron loss with aging, and are used to study anti-aging effects of Dendrobium nobile alkaloids (DNLA). SAMP8 mice were orally given DNLA from ages 6 to 10 months. At 10 months of age, behavioral tests and neuron damage were evaluated. Protein was extracted and subjected to phosphorylated proteomic analysis. The cognitive deficits and neuron loss in hippocampus and cortex of aged SAMP8 mice were improved by DNLA. Hippocampal proteomic analysis showed differentially expressed protein/genes in SAMP8 compared to age-matched senescence-accelerated resistant mice, including altered tubulin binding, microtubule binding, etc. via Gene Oncology. KEGG revealed endocytosis, mRNA surveillance, tight junction, protein processing in endoplasmic reticulum, aldosterone synthesis and secretion, and glucagon signaling pathway changes. Upregulated protein/genes in the hippocampus of SAMP8 mice, such as Lmtk3, Usp10, Dzip1, Csnk2b, and Rtn1, were attenuated by DNLA; whereas downregulated protein/genes, such as Kctd16, Psd3, Bsn, Atxn2l, and Kif1a, were rescued by DNLA. The aberrant protein/gene expressions of SAMP8 mice were correlated with transcriptome changes of Alzheimer’s disease in the GEO database, and were attenuated by DNLA. Thus, DNLA improved cognitive dysfunction and ameliorated neuronal injury in aged SAMP8 mice, and attenuated aberrant protein/gene expressions.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0225.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy And Rehabilitation Keywords: cancer; chemotherapy; nausea; vomiting; progressive muscle relaxation
Online: 19 October 2019 (16:11:44 CEST)
(1) Background: Previous systematic review suggested a beneficial effect of progressive muscle relaxation (PMR) for cancer patients receiving chemotherapy. However, poor quality of eligible studies impaired the reliability and validity of findings. Moreover, additional potential studies with good quality published in Chinese language have been published recently. The aim of the present systematic review was to investigate the value of PMR training in preventing and alleviating nausea and vomiting caused by chemotherapy among cancer patients. (2) Methods: We assigned two independent investigators to search all potential studies in PubMed, Cochrane Controlled Register of Trial (CENTRAL), Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), China Biomedical Literature database (CBM), China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), and Wanfang data. We used data extraction sheet extracted all essential information, and used the Cochrane risk of bias assessment tool to appraise the quality of eligible studies. Finally, we qualitatively summarized the results of all included studies. (3) Results: Six studies enrolling 288 patients were considered to meet our selection criteria finally. Of these 6 studies, three were labeled as moderate quality, and the remaining studies were low quality. All included studies consistently suggested that PMR has a positive impact on nausea and vomiting caused by chemotherapy among cancer patients especially alleviating the incidence, frequency and degree of delayed nausea and vomiting. (4) Conclusions: Independent studies indicated that PMR was a beneficial approach to prevent and alleviate nausea and vomiting caused by chemotherapy among cancer patients. However, further studies considering other types of primary tumors should be designed in order to increase the generality of PMR because studies included in the present systematic review mainly enrolled lung cancer and breast cancer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0486.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: Histone deacetylase, metabolism, peanut, hairy roots, RNA-seq
Online: 25 September 2018 (12:40:05 CEST)
Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) is a crop plant with high economic value, but the epigenetic regulation of its growth and development has only rarely been studied. The peanut histone deacetylase 1 gene (AhHDA1) has been isolated and is known to be ABA- and drought-responsive. In this paper, we investigate the role of AhHDA1 in more detail, focussing on the effect of altered AhHDA1 expression in hairy roots at both the phenotypic and transcriptional levels. Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated transformation of A. hypogaea hairy roots was used to analyse how overexpression or RNA interference of AhHDA1 affects this tissue. In both types of transgenic hairy root, RNA sequencing was adopted to identify genes that were differentially expressed, and these genes were assigned to specific metabolic pathways. AhHDA1-overexpressing hairy roots were growth-retarded after 20 d in vitro cultivation, and superoxide anions and hydrogen peroxide accumulated to a greater extent than in control or RNAi groups. Overexpression of AhHDA1 is likely to accelerate flux through various secondary synthetic metabolic pathways in hairy roots, as well as reduce photosynthesis and oxidative phosphorylation. Genes encoding the critical enzymes caffeoyl-CoA O-methyltransferase (Araip.XGB85) and caffeic acid 3-O-methyltransferase (Araip.Z3XZX) in the phenylpropanoid biosynthesis pathway, chalcone synthase (Araip.B8TJ0) and polyketide reductase (Araip.MKZ27) in the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway, and hydroxyisoflavanone synthase (Araip.0P3RJ) and isoflavone 2'-hydroxylase (Araip.S5EJ7) in the isoflavonoid biosynthesis pathway were significantly upregulated by AhHDA1 overexpression, while their expression in AhHDA1-RNAi and control hairy roots remained at a lower level or was unchanged. Our results suggest that alteration of secondary metabolism activities is related to overexpression of AhHDA1, which is mainly reflected in phenylpropanoid, flavonoid and flavonoid biosynthesis. Future studies will focus on the function of AhHDA1 interacting proteins and their action on cell growth and stress responses.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0957.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Water Science And Technology Keywords: Frost; Cold region; M-K test; Meteorological factors; Temporal and spatial variations
Online: 14 August 2023 (04:40:26 CEST)
In this study, based on frost formation data provided by Harbin Meteorological Bureau, combined with geographical factors, temperature and population density, linear fitting, Mann-Kendall mutation test, pettitt method and sliding T test were used to analyze the spatio-temporal variation characteristics of frost date in Harbin Municipality and the effects of geographical factors, temperature and population density on frost regularity. The results showed that (1) The earliest year of FSD appeared was 1966 and 1967, on the 255th, i.e., August 18th, and the latest was 283 days, i.e., October 10th, 2006. The earliest year in which the FED appeared was April 24th of 2015, the 114th day of that year, and the latest was April 21st of 1974, the 141st day of that year. The year with the most frost was 2012, with 161 days, and the year with the shortest was 1966, with 123 days. (2) Throughout the study period, FSD increased by 7.8 days at a rate of -1.27d/10a, FED increased by 10.9 days at a rate of 1.77d/10a, and FFS increased by 18.9 days at a rate of 3.05d/10a. The tendency rate of FSD and FFS at each site in Harbin showed an increasing trend. For FED, the tendency rate of some sites showed an increasing trend. In general, FSD showed a delayed trend, FED showed an advanced trend, and FFS showed a prolonged trend. Using the method of unary linear regression, FSD of each site showed an increasing trend, FFS showed an increasing trend, and FED showed a decreasing trend in general. (3) Throughout the study period, FSD was mutated in 2000, and the arrival time of it in the study area averaged the 265th, i.e., September 22nd, and after that, the arrival time of it changed to the 272nd, i.e., September 29th of that year. FED was mutated in 2006, and the arrival time of it in the study area averaged 128th, i.e., April 8th. After the mutation, the arrival time of FED changed to 121st, i.e., April 1st of that year. FFS was mutated in 2004. Before the mutation, with an average arrival time of 137days in the study area .But after that, the time changed to 150 days.(4) FSD and FFS in Harbin Municipality were negatively correlated with latitude and positively correlated with temperature, while FED was positively correlated with latitude and negatively correlated with temperature. The FSD, FED and FFS in the central part of Harbin Municipality were the earliest, the latest and the longest, respectively, so the Pearson correlation coefficient method and the influence of longitude could not be reflected in the multiple regression. Several factors were judged by grey correlation analysis method. The longitude is significantly related to FSD, FED and FFS.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: Andrographis paniculata; 14-deoxy-11,12-didehydroandrographolide; NLRP3 inflammasome; liver injury; steatohepatitis
Online: 16 January 2020 (03:07:25 CET)
14-Deoxy-11,12-didehydroandrographolide (deAND), a diterpenoid in Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f.) Nees, acts as a bioactive phytonutrient that can treat many diseases. To investigate the protective effects of deAND on reducing fatty liver disease, male mice were fed a high-fat and high-cholesterol (HFHC) diet without or with 0.05% and 0.1% deAND supplementation. Cholesterol accumulation, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities in liver and liver injury were evaluated after deAND treatment. The results show that deAND treatment for 7 weeks reduced plasma alanine aminotransferase activity and lowered hepatic cholesterol accumulation, tumor nuclear factor-α, and histological lesions. 0.1% deAND treatment reduced HFHC diet-induced apoptosis by lowering the caspase 3/pro-caspase 3 ratio. After 11-weeks of deAND treatment, increased NOD-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3), capase-1, and interleukin-1β protein levels in liver were suppressed by deAND treatment. In addition, nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) mRNA expression, heme oxygenase-1 protein expression, and the activities of glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase were increased in mice fed the HFHC diet. However, those activities of antioxidant enzymes or proteins were also upregulated by 0.1% deAND treatment. Furthermore, deAND treatment tended to lower hepatic lipid peroxides. Finally, deAND treatment reversed the depletion of hepatic glutamate level induced by HFHC diet. These results indicate that deAND may ameliorate HFHC diet-induced steatohepatitis and liver injury by increasing antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0068.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: strawberry; high-temperature and high-light; AsA-GSH cycle
Online: 3 February 2023 (09:54:45 CET)
Chitosan (CTS) is widely used in agriculture as a soil amendment, plant growth regulator and promoter of cold resistance. However, the effects of CTS on strawberry seedlings under the combined stress of high-temperature and high-light are unclear. In this study, Xuelixiang strawberry was used as a test material, and 100 mg·kg-1 CTS solution was sprayed onto the leaves. We measured the chlorophyll content, membrane peroxidation, reactive oxygen species content, antioxidant enzyme content, AsA-GSH cycle activity and other related indicators of strawberry seedling leaves under the combined stress of high-temperature and high-light and found that CTS can increase the contents of antioxidants, increase the contents of osmotic adjustment substances, increase the activity of antioxidant enzymes activity,; remove reactive oxygen species over time, reduce the damage of reactive oxygen species to photosynthetic organs and cell membranes, and improve the photosynthesis efficiency of leaves of strawberry plants under high-temperature and high-light stress, thereby reducing damage to strawberry seedlings caused by high-temperature and high-light.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2266.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Polymers And Plastics Keywords: Acrylamide; Sodium alginate; Double network hydrogel; Large amplitude oscillatory shear; Fourier transform rheology
Online: 31 May 2023 (14:35:55 CEST)
Hydrogels, soft materials with 3D polymer networks in aqueous solution, have been developed for engineering and bio-related fields. However, these conventional hydrogels are weak and brittle due to lack of energy dissipation mechanisms. Recently, dual-network hydrogels have been proposed, combining rigid and flexible networks and exhibiting high strength, stretchability, and toughness. This paper explores the rheological properties of dual-network hydrogels based on acrylamide and sodium alginate under large deformations. This dual network is a combination of a covalently crosslinked polyacrylamide network and a supramolecular crosslinked sodium alginate network at the presence of divalent calcium cations. Small and large amplitude oscillatory shear methods with Fourier transform rheology, stress decomposition method, and Chebyshev polynomial analysis of large amplitude oscillatory shear (LAOS) data were employed to evaluate non-linearity limit, toughness, and network rigidity. The concentration of calcium ions affects (concentrations 0-80 mg/ml) the nonlinear transition and limit points, and all gel samples exhibit strain hardening, shear thickening, and shear densification.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0149.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Metals, Alloys And Metallurgy Keywords: Alloy 625; aging sensitization treatment; intergranular corrosion; ASTM G28A methods
Online: 29 September 2017 (04:13:44 CEST)
This paper investigates the evolution of microstructures and precipitations of an ultra-low iron alloy 625 subjected to long term aging treatment by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffraction(XRD). Use ASTM G28A acid Fe3(SO4)2 erosion to represent intergranular corrosion weightlessness and corrosive morphology. The result shows that alloy at 750C by aging treatment for 40h, precipitated γ'' phase in the grain boundary. In high density area of γ'' phase, occurs γ'' phase to δ phase degeneration transformation by aging treatment for 200h and the needle-like δ phase becomes more with time prolonged. And γ'' phase degenerated to δ phase completely until treated for 1000h. The sample which has aging treatment tends to have intergranular corrosion and mainly because alloy element spreading leads to dilution area and grain boundary precipitated phase, plus interlaced δ phase’s dissolving, which makes sample grain particle fall off and this results in apparent weightlessness. The weightlessness rate(WLR) is related with precipitated volume score. With aging sensitization time change, can be described by Johnson-Mehl-Avrami equation, i.e.:
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0054.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dentistry And Oral Surgery Keywords: periodontitis; diagnosis; saliva; biomarkers; matrix metalloproteinase; cytokines.
Online: 3 September 2020 (04:43:01 CEST)
This study was to investigate and assess salivary biomarkers as a means of diagnosing periodontitis. A total of 121 subjects were included: 28 periodontally healthy subjects, 24 with stage I, 24 with stage II, 23 with stage III, and 22 with stage IV periodontitis. Salivary proteins including active matrix metalloproteinase-8 (MMP-8), pro-MMP-8, total MMP-8, C-reactive protein, secretory immunoglobulin A and planktonic bacteria including Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia, Treponema denticola, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Prevotella intermedia, Porphyromonas nigrescens, Parvimonas micra, Campylobacter rectus, Eubacterium nodatum, Eikenella corrodens, Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus mutans, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, and Actinomyces viscosus were measured from salivary samples. The performance of the diagnostic models was assessed by receiver operating characteristics (ROC) and area under the ROC curve (AUC) analysis. The diagnostic models were constructed based on the subjects’ proteins and/or microbial profiles, resulting in two potential diagnosis models, which achieved better diagnostic powers with an AUC value > 0.750 for the diagnosis of stage II, III, and IV periodontitis (Model PC-I; AUC: 0.796, sensitivity: 0.754, specificity: 0.712) and for the diagnosis of stage III and IV periodontitis (Model PC-II; AUC: 0.796, sensitivity: 0.756, specificity: 0.868). This study can contribute to screening for periodontitis based on salivary biomarkers.