ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0736.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: forest fire; image recognition; graph neural network; convolutional neural network; dynamic features
Online: 28 April 2021 (09:58:49 CEST)
Forest fire identification is important for forest resource protection. Effective monitoring of forest fires requires the deployment of multiple monitors with different viewpoints, while most traditional recognition models can only effectively recognize images from a single source, often because they ignore the correlation information between images from different viewpoints, resulting in inaccurate visual similarity estimation for multiple source samples and generating the problems of missed and high false alarm rates. In order to solve the problems, a similarity-guided graph neural network model based on the dynamic characteristics of images is proposed in this paper. The method converts the input features of the nodes on the graph into relational features of different gallery pairs by establishing pairs (nodes) that represent different viewpoint images and gallery images. The dynamic feature update of the image gallery using the new feature-bank relationship enables the estimation of the similarity between images and improves the image recognition rate of the model. Besides, to reduce the complicated pre-processing process and extract the key features in the images effectively, this paper also proposes a dynamic feature extraction method for fire regions based on image segment ability. By setting the threshold value of HSV color space, the fire region is segmented from the image and the fire region frames are calculated for dynamic feature extraction. The experimental results on the open-source forest fire dataset and our collected forest fire dataset show that the performance of the method in this paper is improved by 4% compared with Resnet, the theme during this paper may be tailored to totally different fire eventualities and has sensible generalization and interference resistance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0363.v3
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Severe Thunderstorms, Tornadoes
Online: 24 September 2019 (11:06:33 CEST)
The 24 September 2001 College Park, Maryland, tornado was a long-track and strong tornado that passed within a close range of two Doppler radars. It was the third in a series of three tornadoes associated with a supercell storm that developed in Stafford County, Virginia, and initiated 3 - 4 km southwest of College Park and dissipated near Columbia, Howard County. The supercell tracked approximately 120 km and lasted for about 126 minutes. This study presents a synoptic and mesoscale overview of favorable conditions and forcing mechanisms that resulted in the severe convective outbreak associated with the College Park tornado. Results show many critical elements of the tornadic event, including a negative-tilted upper-level trough over the Ohio Valley, a jet stream with moderate vertical shear, a low-level warm, moist tongue of the air associated with strong southerly flow over south-central Maryland and Virginia, and significantly increased convective available potential energy (CAPE) during the late afternoon hours. A possible role of the urban heat island effects from Washington, DC in increasing CAPE for the development of the supercell is discussed. Satellite imagery reveals banded convective morphology with high cloud tops associated with the supercell that produced the College Park tornado. Operational WSR-88D data exhibits a high reflectivity “debris ball” or tornadic debris signature (TDS) within the hook echo, the evolution of the parent storm from a supercell structure to a bow echo, and a tornado cyclone signature (TCS). Many of the mesoscale features could be captured by contemporary numerical model analyses. This study concludes with a discussion of the effectiveness of the coordinated use of satellite and radar observations in the operational environment of nowcasting severe convection.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1351.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: KV channel; KV channel-interacting proteins; neurodegenerative disorders; cardiovascular diseases
Online: 19 June 2023 (11:46:08 CEST)
KV channel-interacting proteins (KChIPs) belong to a family of Ca2+-binding EF-hand proteins that are able to bind to the N-terminus of the KV4 channel α-subunits. As the auxiliary subunit, KChIPs are critically involved in regulating the amplitude and gating properties of KV4 channels by modulating their cell surface trafficking, voltage-dependent activation, inactivation kinetics, and recovery rate from inactivation. IKs, ICa,L, and INa can also be regulated by KChIPs. KChIPs are predominantly expressed in the brain and heart, where they contribute to the maintenance of the excitability of neurons and cardiomyocytes by modulating the KV4 currents. Interestingly, all KChIPs can act as transcription factors to control the expression of genes involved in pain, memory, and circadian regulation. Altered expression of KChIPs has been implicated in the pathogenesis of many diseases, such as arrhythmia, heart failure, Alzheimer's disease, etc. In this review, we summarize the research progress of KChIPs in their structural properties, physiological functions, and pathological roles in disease progression, and provide an overview of the therapeutic potential of KChIPs as pharmacological targets for associated disorders.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0225.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-Cov-2; arbidol; treatment
Online: 26 April 2022 (04:07:48 CEST)
Background The spread of COVID-19 continues, the mutation of SARS-COV-2 is still difficult to control, and the need for antiviral drugs to treat COVID-19 remains urgent. The use of arbidol in the treatment of COVID-19 is limited and controversial. Methods To clarify the efficacy of arbidol on COVID-19, we collected 25 cases and 178 related studies. We analyzed the treatment information of arbidol based on the obtained cases, expanded the scope of the study, and collected current studies on the treatment of COVID-19 in various databases for in-depth analysis. Results History analysis showed that arbidol was effective (76% cure rate) compared with other drugs. However, compared with other antiviral drugs or standard therapy, the arbidol group had no significant advantage in reducing the time to negative virus transformation, length of hospital stays, or improvement in CT (MD=0.22, 95%CI -0.29-0.73; MD = 0.61, 95% CI 1.46 to 2.67; RR=1.15, 95%CI 0.88-1.50); Analysis of adverse events showed no significant difference between the arbidol group and the other groups (RR=0.82, 95%CI 0.25-2.71). Conclusion Our study showed that arbidol had no significant effect on COVID-19, but showed a slight advantage in CT improvement and adverse events. Our study objectively evaluated the efficacy of arbidol in the treatment of COVID-19 and provided some guidance for arbidol in the treatment of COVID-19.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1650.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Organic Chemistry Keywords: Porous organic polymer; biomass conversion; lignocellulose; 5-hydroxymethylfurfural; eco-friendly catalysts
Online: 23 May 2023 (11:04:40 CEST)
In the face of the current energy and environment problems, the full use of biomass resources instead of fossil energy to produce a series of high-value chemicals has great application prospects. 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), which can be synthesized from lignocellulose as raw material, is an important biological platform molecule. Its preparation and catalytic oxidation of subsequent products have important research significance and practical value. In the actual production process, porous organic polymer (POPs) catalysts are highly suitable for biomass catalytic conversion due to its high efficiency, low cost, good designability, and environmentally friendly features. Here, we briefly described the application of various types of POPs (including COFs、PAFs、HCPs、CMPs) in the preparation and catalytic conversion of HMF from lignocellulosic biomass, and analyzed the influence of the structural properties of catalysts for the catalytic performance. Finally, we summarized some challenges that POPs catalysts will face in biomass catalytic conversion, and prospected the important research directions in future. This review would provide valuable references for the efficient conversion of biomass resources into high-value chemicals in practical applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0161.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: multi-agent systems; multi-agent reinforcement learning; internet of vehicles; urban area
Online: 11 March 2022 (05:13:15 CET)
Smart Internet of Vehicles (IoVs) combined with Artificial Intelligence (AI) will contribute to vehicle decision-making in the Intelligent Transportation System (ITS). Multi-Vehicle Pursuit games (MVP), a multi-vehicle cooperative ability to capture mobile targets, is becoming a hot research topic gradually. Although there are some achievements in the field of MVP in the open space environment, the urban area brings complicated road structures and restricted moving spaces as challenges to the resolution of MVP games. We define an Observation-constrained MVP (OMVP) problem in this paper and propose a Transformer-based Time and Team Reinforcement Learning scheme (T3OMVP) to address the problem. First, a new multi-vehicle pursuit model is constructed based on decentralized partially observed Markov decision processes (Dec-POMDP) to instantiate this problem. Second, by introducing and modifying the transformer-based observation sequence, QMIX is redefined to adapt to the complicated road structure, restricted moving spaces and constrained observations, so as to control vehicles to pursue the target combining the vehicle’s observations. Third, a multi-intersection urban environment is built to verify the proposed scheme. Extensive experimental results demonstrate that the proposed T3OMVP scheme achieves significant improvements relative to state-of-the-art QMIX approaches by 9.66%~106.25%. Code is available at https://github.com/pipihaiziguai/T3OMVP.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0014.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: thymidylate synthase (TYMS); dimer; octamer; biochemical reconstitution; overexpression and purification
Online: 2 April 2018 (09:37:29 CEST)
Thymidylate synthase (TYMS) is an essential enzyme for the de novo synthesis of dTMP and has been a primary target for cancer chemotherapy. Although the physical structure of TYMS and the molecular mechanisms of TYMS catalyzing the conversion of dUMP to dTMP have been conducted thorough studies, oligomeric structure remains unclear. Here, we show that human TYMS not only exists in dimer but also octamer by intermolecular Cys43-disulfide formation. We optimize the expression condition of recombinant human TYMS using Escherichia coli system. Using HPLC-MS/MS, we show that purified TYMS has catalytic activity for producing dTMP. In the absence of reductant β-mercaptoethanol, SDS-PAGE and size exclusion chromatography (SEC) showed size of TYMS protein is about 35 KDa, 70 KDa, and 280 KDa. While the Cys43 was mutated to Gly, the band of ~280 KDa and the peak of octamer disappeared. Therefore, TYMS was determined to form octamer, dependent on the presence of Cys43-disulfide. By measuring Steady-State Parameters for monomer, dimer and octamer, we found the kcat of octamer is increased slightly than monomer. On the basis of these findings, we suggest that octamer in the active state might have a potential influence on the design of new drug targets.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1717.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: natural language processing (NLP); abstractive summarization (ABS); factual extraction; Electroencephalography (EEG); Representational similarity analysis (RSA)
Online: 27 November 2023 (14:58:56 CET)
(1) Background: Information overload challenges decision-making in the Industry 4.0 era. While Natural Language Processing (NLP), especially Automatic Text Summarization (ATS), offers solutions, issues with factual accuracy persist. This research bridges cognitive neuroscience and NLP, aiming to improve model interpretability. (2) Methods: This research examined four fact extraction techniques: dependency relation, named entity recognition, part-of-speech tagging, and TF-IDF, in order to explore their correlation with human EEG signals. Representational Similarity Analysis (RSA) was applied to gauge the relationship between language models and brain activity. (3) Results: Named entity recognition showed the highest sensitivity to EEG signals, marking the most significant differentiation between factual and non-factual words with a score of -0.99. The dependency relation followed with -0.90, while part-of-speech tagging and TF-IDF resulted in 0.07 and -0.52, respectively. Deep language models such as GloVe, BERT, and GPT-2 exhibited noticeable influences on RSA scores, highlighting the nuanced interplay between brain activity and these models. (4) Conclusions: Our findings emphasize the crucial role of named entity recognition and dependency relations in fact extraction and demonstrate the independent effects of different models and TOIs on RSA scores. These insights aim to refine algorithms to reflect human text processing better, thereby enhancing ATS models’ factual integrity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0106.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Ultra-wideband; conformal antenna array; coupled tightly; three-dimensional printing technique; fused deposition modelling; microdroplet injection molding
Online: 7 September 2022 (08:15:53 CEST)
In order to enhance the gain of antenna suitable for the airplane mounted platform, a conformal tightly coupled antenna array is investigated in this paper. Especially, three-dimensional (3-D) inkjet printing technique is used to implement the conformal property. The printing of antenna substrate and radiation layer is implemented by combining the fused deposition modelling and microdroplet injection molding technologies based on the existing 3-D printer. Here, through a unique combination of 3-D and 2-D inkjet printing of dielectric material and metallic ink, respectively, we demonstrate a monolithically integrated to a nonplanar antenna for the first time. Antenna measurements show that the complete characterization of this new process in terms of minimum feature sizes and achievable conductivities. This antenna configuration offers a high-gain performance with low-cost and rapid fabrication technique by using 3-D printing. The voltage standing wave ratio and radiation patterns are tested after adding the newly designed feed structure. Results shown the design process much efficient. Both antenna element and the array with good properties, which are in very good agreement with the specially mounted platform.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1459.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Horticulture Keywords: gesneriad; coloration mechanism; chlorophyll metabolism; comparative proteomics
Online: 23 November 2023 (04:55:59 CET)
Primulina serrulata is a valuable ornamental herb with rosette leaves and vibrant flowers. Some leaves exhibit a bright and distinct white color along the upper veins, enhancing their ornamental value, while others are less white or entirely green. This variation is observed among adult leaves in natural habitats and among young leaves from seedlings grown in the laboratory. TMT-labeled proteomic technology was employed to study the protein-level biogenesis of white-veined (WV) leaves of P. serrulata. The chlorophyll (Chl) content was significantly lower in the WV group than in the control group. A total of 6,261 proteins were identified, revealing 69 differentially expressed proteins (DEPs), with 44 down-regulated and 25 up-regulated in WV plants. Some DEPs associated with chloroplasts and Chl biosynthesis were down-regulated, leading to the absence of green coloration. Concurrently, gene ontology enrichment analysis further underscored an insufficiency of magnesium , the key element in Chl biosynthesis. Many DEPs associated with abiotic or biotic stresses were down-regulated, suggesting an overall weakening of stress resistance with certain compensatory mechanisms in place. Similarly, many DEPs related to biomacromolecule modification were down-regulated, possibly influenced by the decrease in proteins involved in photosynthesis and stress resistance. Some DEPs containing iron were up-regulated, indicating that iron was mainly used to synthesize heme and ferritin instead of Chl. Additionally, several DEPs related to sulfur or sulfate were up-regulated, implying strengthened respiration. Expansin-A4 and pectinesterase displayed up-regulation, coinciding with the emergence of a rough and bright surface in the white area, indicative of the elongation and gelation processes in cell walls. These findings provide new insights that could be utilized by future studies to explore the mechanism of color formation in WV leaves.
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Health Policy And Services Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; Infection Control; Epidemic Surveillance; International Cooperation
Online: 3 March 2020 (11:30:01 CET)
The disease COVID-19 is highly infectious, and infectious in asymptomatic incubation period. The national epidemic development has been effectively controlled and continues improving, especially in areas outside Hubei province. Such periodical results were achieved by the joint efforts of the whole society, including not only the hard work and dedication of the front-line medical workers but also the active cooperation of the general public. The strict epidemic prevention and control measurements have brought remarkable control results. In the present study, the basic infection number of the coronavirus R0 (basic replication number of the infection) before and after prevention and control measurements was simulated to elaborate the measurements of the Chinese government on epidemic prevention and control, providing reference for the people around the world.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0084.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: Bacillus coagulans; intestinal function; gut microbiota; weaned piglet
Online: 4 May 2018 (05:31:44 CEST)
This research was to investigate beneficial impact and molecular mechanism of B. coagulans on piglets intestine. Twenty-four 21 days old weaned piglets were allotted to three treatments: control group (basal diet), B6 group (basal diet + 2×106 CFU/g B. coagulans), B7 group (basal diet + 2×107 CFU/g B. coagulans). The results showed that compared with control group, B6 and B7 group significantly decreased diarrhea rate and the concent of CHOL, GGT and DAO in plasma; decreased villus height and increase crypt depth in jejunum and ileum; increased the activities of SOD and CAT and decreased the concent of MDA and H2O2 in intestine. These data suggested that supplementing B. coagulans had beneficial impacts on promoting nutrients metabolism, maintaining intestinal integrity and alleviating oxidative stress and diarrhea. Futher research of molecular mechanisms showed that, these beneficial impacts were regulated by changing expression levels of related proteins (including HSP70, Caspase-3, Bax, Villin and Occludin), and genes (including RPL4, IFN-α, IFN-β, IFN-γ, MX1, MX2, OAS1, IL-1β, IL-4, CXCL-9, CCL-2, AQP3, SGLT-1, LPL, INSR and b0,+AT), and altering community composition of gut microbiota (particularly family Clostridiaceae, Enterobacteriaceae, and Veillonellaceae and genus Prevotella, Turicibacter, and Lactobacillus).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0049.v2
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: mental accounting; agricultural water fee; behavioral economics; decision making; information processing; representativeness; negative psychological externalities
Online: 25 August 2016 (10:12:08 CEST)
To better understand farmers’ refusal and corresponding negative emotions to pay agricultural water fee under current policy in rural China, this paper applies mental accounting, a behavioral economics framework, to explore how the governmental policies of reform of rural taxes and fees, direct agricultural subsidy programs and agricultural water fee individually influence farmers’ decisions in paying agricultural water fee. Using fieldwork data from 577 farmers and 20 water managers in Sichuan, we explore farmers’ information processing regarding paying agricultural water fee via three sequential mental accounting processes, with the associated underlying principles and measures behind each process. We find that the information processing in three mental accounting scenarios related to the agricultural water fee elucidates farmers’ observed behaviors in rural China. Generally, in the three mental accounting scenarios, two conditional intuitive expectations and nine conditional intuitive preferences are formed, however, the conditions of those expectations or preferences cannot be matched with the facts due to the reform of rural taxes and fees, the direct agricultural subsidy programs and the internal attributes of agricultural water fee, which interpret those negative behaviors in rural China. Additionally, this paper offers a view into how previous policies create negative psychological externalities (such as farmers’ psychological dependence on the government) through mental accounting to negatively influence agents’ subsequent decision making; it highlights the significance of underlying mental factors and information processing of negative behaviors in policymaking for managing or conserving common pool resources.