REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0066.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: renal cell carcinoma; circulating DNA; CTC; diagnosis; follow-up; genetic alteration; target therapy
Online: 5 December 2018 (08:01:30 CET)
Liquid biopsy, based on the circulating tumor cells (CTCs) and cell-free nucleic acids has potential applications at multiple points throughout the natural course of cancer, from diagnosis to follow-up. The advantages of doing ctDNA assessment vs. tissue-based genomic profile are the minimal procedural risk, the possibility to serial testing in order to monitor disease-relapse and response to therapy over time and to reduce hospitalization costs during the entire process. However some critical issues related to ctDNA assays should be taken in consideration. The sensitivity of ctDNA assays depends on the assessment technique and genetic platforms used, on tumor-organ, stage, tumor heterogeneity, tumor clonality. The specificity is usually very high, whereas the concordance with tumor-based biopsy is generally low. In patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC) qualitative analyses of ctDNA have been performed with interesting results regarding selective pressure from therapy, therapeutic resistance, exceptional treatment response to everolimus and mutations associated with aggressive behavior. Quantitative analyses showed variations of cfDNA levels at different tumor stage. Compared to CTC assay, ctDNA is more stable than cells and easier to isolate. Splice variants, information at single-cell level and functional assays along with proteomics, transcriptomics and metabolomics studies can be performed only in CTCs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0127.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: electrospinning; porous carbon nanofibers; oxygen reduction reaction; oxygen evolution reaction
Online: 10 January 2022 (15:23:04 CET)
Recently, electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reactions (ORRs) as well as oxygen evolution reactions (OERs) hinged on electrospun nanofiber composites have attracted wide research attention. Transition metal elements and heteroatomic doping are important methods used to enhance their catalytic performances. Lately, the construction of electrocatalysts based on metal-organic framework (MOF) electrospun nanofibers has become a research hotspot. In this work, bimetallic NixCoy-ZIF nanocrystals were synthesized in an aqueous solution, followed by NixCoy-ZIF/PAN electrospun nanofiber precursors, which were prepared by a simple electrospinning method. Bimetal (Ni-Co) porous carbon nanofiber catalysts doped with nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur elements were obtained at high-temperature carbonization treatment in different atmospheres (Ar, Air, and H2S), respectively. The morphological properties, structures, and composition were characterized by SEM, TEM, SAED, XRD, and XPS. Also, the specific surface area of materials and their pore size distribution was characterized by BET. Linear sweep voltammetry curves investigated catalyst performances towards oxygen reduction and evolution reactions. Importantly, Ni1Co2-ZIFs/PAN-Ar yielded the best ORR activity, whereas Ni1Co1-ZIFs/PAN-Air exhibited the best OER performance. This work provides significant guidance for the preparation and characterization of multi-doped porous carbon nanofibers carbonized in different atmospheres.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0407.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: public health; physical activity; rural resident; physical exercise; epidemiology
Online: 26 October 2022 (09:51:36 CEST)
Physical inactivity is a well-known risk factor for various non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Sufficient physical activity (PA) is essential for the prevention of NCDs and thus it is imperative to study the current status of PA and its influencing factors among rural residents in China. A population-based survey was conducted in rural areas of Shandong, Shanxi and Yunnan Provinces using a stratified random sampling method. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire Short Form (IPAQ-S) was used to collect the data on PA. A total of 3780 rural residents participated in the survey. The result showed that 22.2% of rural residents were physical inactivity. The proportion of rural residents reporting practice of physical exercise was 54.4%. The most frequently performed physical exercise was walking/brisk walking(78.3%).Binary logistic regression analyses showed that being female, people at age between 15 to 34 years or 60 years old and above, employees of governmental departments/retirees, school students, the unemployed, people with NCDs were risk factors of PA and ethnic minority groups,smoking and alcohol consumption were risk factors of physical exercise. Health promotion programme aiming at increasing people’s PA in rural China is needed and it should focus on the populations groups of the female, people at age 60 years and above ,school students, the unemployed, and people with NCDs.