ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0372.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Applied Chemistry Keywords: Keywords carbochlorination; spent lithium-ion batteries; circular economy; recycle; LiCl.
Online: 25 October 2022 (02:05:51 CEST)
The abundant use of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) in a wide variety of electric devices and vehicles will generate a large number of depleted batteries, which contain several valuable metals such as Li, Co, Mn, and Ni present in the structure of the cathode material (LiMO2). The present work investigates chemical, technological, and environmental aspects in the treatment of such wastes, development of a methodology for the extraction of lithium, cobalt, nickel, manganese, and graphite by a carbochlorination pyrometallurgical process. Mixtures of cathode and anode materials (called black mass, mixed oxides of Li, Co, Ni, Mn, and graphite) from different LIBs, carbon black (as reducing agent), and CaCl2 (as chlorinating agent) were used. Non-isothermal thermogravimetric tests up to 850°C and isothermal tests at 700°C of the mixtures in an inert atmosphere were carried out. It was experimentally observed that the LiMO2-C-CaCl2 reaction takes place at 700°C. LiCl, Ni, and Co were obtained as final products, and to a lesser extent, CoO, NiO, and MnO2. CaCO3 was also obtained as a by-product. The obtained results show that carbochlorination is an efficient and effective alternative route for the extraction and recovery of metals from different LIBs, focused on the sustainability and circular economy
TECHNICAL NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0030.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Marine invertebrates; RNA extraction by LiCl precipitation; electron microscopy of blood cells; cytology stains; tunicate culture
Online: 1 March 2021 (14:19:14 CET)
Marine invertebrates are model organisms in several areas of biological sciences, being a source of massive biological information. Although, the scientific relevance of marine invertebrates, the research with them can be limited for their tissue characteristics and troubles for the replication of physical and chemical properties of seawater. Thence, the main goal of this laboratory workflow is to provide a useful methodological approach to reduce the experimental limitations during the study of marine invertebrates. The present study describes experimental methodologies for the collection, transport, and maintenance of sessile tunicates. Also, an approach to observe and characterize, a diverse population of blood cells in marine invertebrates, by several cytological stains and electron microscopy. Lastly, suggestions and protocols to extract quality RNA from samples with high concentrations of salts, pigments, secondary metabolites, and polysaccharides. This methodological approach can be easily adapted to other marine invertebrates, moreover uses low-cost reagents and widely available laboratory equipment. Making possible the study of different types of marine animals in diverse locations.