ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0093.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: reduced graphene oxide nanosheets; gold nanoparticles; composite materials; glucose oxidase; direct electron transfer
Online: 9 September 2019 (08:14:26 CEST)
Graphene-based composites have been widely explored for electrode and electrocatalyst materials for electrochemical energy systems. In this paper, a novel composite material of the reduced graphene oxide nanosheets (rGON) with gold nanoparticles (NPs) (rGON-AuNP) is synthesized, and its morphology, structure and composition are characterized by SEM, HRTEM, XRD, EDX, FTIR, Raman, and UV-Vis techniques. To confirm this material’s electrochemical activity, a glucose oxidase (GOD) is chosen as the target reagent to modify the rGON-AuNP layer to form GOD/rGON-AuNP/glassy carbon (GC) electrode. Two pairs of distinguishable redox peaks, corresponding to the redox processes of two different conformational GOD on AuNP, are observed on the cyclic voltammograms of GOD/rGON-AuNP/GC electrode. Both cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy are employed to study the mechanism of direct electron transfer from GOD to GC electrode on the rGON-AuNP layer. In addition, this GOD/rGON-AuNP/GC electrode shows catalytic activity toward glucose oxidation reaction.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0163.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: equol; bioavailable testosterone; total testosterone; sex hormone-binding globulin
Online: 17 June 2019 (10:53:28 CEST)
Little is known about the association between equol and bioavailable testosterone (BT) in adults. We examined the associations of urinary equol concentrations with serum total, bioavailable and free testosterone (FT), dehydroepiandrosterone sulfide (DHEAS), free androgen index (FAI) and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) concentrations. This cross-sectional study included 1904 women aged 59.7 years. Urinary equol and serum sex hormone concentrations were measured. Overall, urinary equol tended to be inversely associated with bioactive forms of androgenic indices (BT, FT or FAI) but not with total testosterone (TT) or DHEAS. Urinary equol was also positively associated with SHBG. In multi-covariate-adjusted analyses stratified by menopausal status, graded and inverse associations between urinary equol and bioactive forms of androgenic indices (BT, FT and FAI) were observed in postmenopausal women (all p-trends <0.05), but not in premenopausal women. A significant positive association between urinary equol and SHBG was observed only in postmenopausal women. No significant associations were observed between urinary equol and TT or DHEAS in either group. A path analysis indicated that these associations of equol with androgens in postmenopausal women might be mediated by SHBG. Our findings indicated urinary equol exhibited graded and inverse associations with BT or FT but not TT in women.