ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0078.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: entrepreneurship; entrepreneurial competency; entrepreneurial intention; entrepreneurial mindset; SEM; sustainable entrepreneurship
Online: 6 September 2022 (03:28:34 CEST)
Entrepreneurship has been viewed as an opportunity for economic development and changing economic scenarios in global markets. Women are viewed as a reservoir of entrepreneurial talent, so they can be growth engines in novel markets. Previous studies have considered entrepreneurship as the most effective way towards the economic empowerment of women. Female students engaged in entrepreneurial education have been addressed persistently, while what transforms them in an education process is still unclear. Considering the transforming global economy and its influence on higher education, this study aims to detect female students transforming entrepreneurial competency, mindset, and intention into sustainable entrepreneurship. Using a self-compiled survey, we targeted 752 female students to investigate their entrepreneurial competency, mindset, and intention. SPSS and AMOS were used to transform the data for interpretation. We assumed that the impact of female students’ entrepreneurial competency could be modified by an entrepreneurial mindset and result in entrepreneurial intention. To detect this causal relationship, this study employed reliability, factor, structural equation modeling (SEM), and bootstrap-ping analyses to verify the evidence. The result of the SEM confirms that female students’ entrepreneurial competency will, through their entrepreneurial mindset, impact entrepreneurial intention. With bootstrapping, 5000 samples were collected, and it was demonstrated that the measure constructs were still reliable in the model. This study found that there is a mediation effect between entrepreneurial competency and entrepreneurial intention. The entrepreneurial mindset plays a crucial role in the transformation process. Without an entrepreneurial mindset, entrepreneurial competency cannot exert a significant effect on entrepreneurial intention. The findings can help reinvent related entrepreneurial education in higher education.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0187.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: GDP per capita; Gender parity index (GPI); higher education expansion; trend analysis; gross enrollment ratio (GER)
Online: 12 July 2022 (09:37:40 CEST)
Ensuring equal access to affordable higher education for women and men has become a crucial target of UNESCO’s SDG4-Education 2030. Currently, about one-third of the world's college-age population participates in higher education, while the gender disparity persists in various systems. This study employed GDP per capita, gross enrollment ratio (GER), and the gender parity index (GPI) to demonstrate how the education systems have expanded resulting in the transformation of gender parity. We selected Japan, Korea, Taiwan, and the UK as research targets using a cross-correlation function and trend analysis to detect concurrent relationships and future trends with GDP per capita, GER, and GPI. The findings suggest Japan, Korea, and the UK continue to show gender disparity and need to respond to this issue in their policy intervention for SDG4-Education 2030. The results reveal a potential problem in the UK when GPI growth might become unlimited with females dominated. This study suggests the higher education expansion phenomenon and gender diversity in mass and universal systems can be detected by the trend analysis with GDP per capita, GER, and GPI in different settings. The design of the study provides an example to explore the gender diversity patterns in higher education systems for sustainable development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0916.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Signal Processing Keywords: Massive MIMO; Conjugate Gradient; Jacobi; Gauss-Seidel; Kronecker Channel
Online: 16 October 2023 (08:38:10 CEST)
For massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) communications, the minimum mean square error (MMSE) scheme provides close to optimal recognition but involves inverting the high-dimensional matrix. A Gauss-Seidel (GS) detector based on conjugate gradient and Jacobi iteration (CJ) joint processing is introduced to address this problem. Firstly, the signal is initialized with the best of the three initialization regimes for faster algorithm convergence. Secondly, the signal is processed together with CJ. Finally, the pre-processed result is transferred to the GS detector. The simulation results indicate that the proposed iterative algorithm has a lower BER performance than the GS and improved iterative scheme based on GS in channels with different correlation levels.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0372.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: breakdown voltage; electric field; floating-poly; lattice temperature; n-LDMOS
Online: 6 May 2023 (04:05:34 CEST)
This study employed a TSMC 0.18-µm 50 V process to establish a high-voltage n-LDMOS structure. In the reference device, the number of floating-poly (poly-2) turns was 7, and the width and spacing of each turn was 1 µm. Although increasing the number of turns reduces the peak field, directly reducing or increasing the number of poly-2 turns is a common practice. The present experiment was realized in three steps, namely fixing the number of occupied area adjustment turns, adjusting the width of each turn, and adjusting the distance between turns. The first step was fixing the number of occupied area adjustment turns. The number of turns was increased from 7 to 9, and the number of turns was reduced to 5 and 3 in the reference group. A reduction in the number of turns led to a greater decrease in the peak field and increase in the breakdown voltage despite the area remaining unchanged. A comparison of the use of three turns with that of seven turns revealed that the maximum electric field decreased by 42%, from 4.17e+3 to 2.46e+3 V/cm, and that the breakdown voltage (VBK) increased from 30.2 to 35.84 V. The second step was adjusting the width of each turn from 1 to 1.4, 1.2, 0.8, and 0.6 µm in the reference group. This increase in width reduced the maximum electric field and led to a greater increase in VBK. When the width was increased to 1.4 µm, the maximum electric field decreased by 29% from 1.95e+3 to 1.4e+3 V/cm, and the VBK increased by 183% from 30.2 to 85.6 V. The third step was adjusting the spacing of each turn from 1 to 1.4, 1.2, 0.8, and 0.6 µm in the reference group. The results revealed that a reduction in the spacing led to a greater reduction in the maximum electric field and an in-crease in the VBK. When the pitch was reduced to 0.6 µm, the maximum electric field decreased by 33%, from 1.95e+3 to 1.32e+3 V/cm, and the VBK increased by 345%, from 30.2 to 134.4 V.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1153.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Tourism, Leisure, Sport And Hospitality Keywords: Technology Acceptance Model, Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs, Golf Croquet, Mobile Applications, Companion Robot, AIoT, Senior
Online: 16 August 2023 (20:28:42 CEST)
In 2020 the world experienced the threat of the COVID-19 epidemic, as seniors and chronic disease patients typically try to reduce their exercise and social activities to avoid increasing the risk of infection, which could lead to increased loneliness and even many diseases. This research combining golf croquet games with AIoT companion robots constructs a home-based intelligent exercise system thus uses the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), deduces users’ intention to use this system based on perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use, and adds the needs of love and belonging, esteem, cognitive, aesthetic, and self-actualization in Maslow’s needs theory to conduct system needs analysis. The analysis results show that participants have a high level of acceptance of this system, believing that it is easy to learn and operate, can increase interaction with others, also found that this system can improve self-confirmation, satisfying the third for knowledge, feeling happy, and self-actualization needs are easier to fulfill. In the future, we shall collect and record the seniors in the process of use, so as to find out their health problems as soon as possible, expand their daily life through this exercise, and achieve the goal of happy living and health care.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1607.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Vortex-Induced vibration; Wake oscillator equation; Numerical simulation; Nonlinear modeling
Online: 25 September 2023 (13:04:13 CEST)
The oscillation of an elastically mounted rigid cylinder excited by steady fluid flow is investigated. Regarding the nonlinearity of real practical structures like marine risers and the stay cable of a long-span bridge, the dynamic behavior of the circular cylinder is described by double Duffing equations and the aerodynamic force performance of the wake flow is expressed by wake oscillator equation. Unlike previous studies, in the present investigation, attention is focused on coupling the wake oscillator equations, taking into account quadratic terms. Following this approach, the cylinder's combined cross-flow and in-line Vortex-Induced Vibrations (VIV) are modeled more accurately. Empirical coefficients are adjusted through comparison with previous credible experimental studies and the effects of changing coefficients of the quadratic terms on major VIV parameters are investigated. The oscillating amplitude calculated by the present model is close to that of the experiment. The relative error of results obtained by the present coupled model is lower than the previous model. Moreover, the present model successfully predicts the moving trajectories of a circular cylinder under VIV in a figure-of-eight shape.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0171.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: field emission; integrated; vacuum microelectronic; cathode tips array; interface ASIC
Online: 23 May 2017 (09:26:38 CEST)
In this paper, a novel integrated high precision vacuum microelectronic accelerometer is put forward based on the theory of field emission, the accelerometer consists of sensitive structure and interface ASIC. The sensitive structure has a mass of a cathode cone tips array, a folded beam, an emitter electrode and a feedback electrode. The sensor is fabricated on a double side polished (1 0 0) N-type silicon wafer, the tips array of cathode are shaped by wet etching with HNA (HNO3, HF and CH3COOH) and metalized by TiW/Au thin film. The structure of sensor is released by ICP process finally. The interface ASIC was designed and fabricated based on the P-JFET high voltage bipolar process. The accelerometer is tested through static field rollover test, and the test results show the integrated vacuum microelectronic accelerometer has good performances, which sensitivity is 3.081V/g and non-linearity is 0.84% in the measuring range of −1g~1g.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1138.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: melittin; N-terminal fatty acid conjugation; antimicrobial activity; hemolysis; proteolytic stability
Online: 17 November 2023 (07:51:08 CET)
Melittin, a natural antimicrobial peptide, displays a broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity, which has caused increasing attention as a potential antibiotic alternative. However, melittin has not been used widely at present due to its high hemolysis and low proteolytic stability. In this study, N-terminal fatty acid was conjugated to melittin to develop new melittin-derived lipopep-tides (MDLs) for improving the limitation of melittin. Our results showed that, the antimicrobial activity of MDLs was increased by 2 to 16 times compared with native melittin, and the stability of these MDLs against trypsin and pepsin degradation was increased by 50 to 80%. Besides, the hemolytic of the MDLs decreased when the length of the carbon chain of fatty acids exceeded 10. Among them, the newly designed analog Mel-C8 showed optimal antimicrobial activity and protease stability. The antimicrobial mechanism studied revealed that the MDLs showed a rapid bactericidal effect by interacting with LPS or LTA and penetrating the bacterial cell membrane. In conclusion, we designed and synthesized a new class of MDLs with potent antimicrobial activity, high proteolytic stability, and low hemolysis through N-terminal fatty acid conjugation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0466.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: plant metabolomics; metabolite identification; data visualisation; omics data; bioinformatics tools
Online: 10 July 2023 (13:49:20 CEST)
The advancement of mass spectrometry technologies has revolutionised plant metabolomics research by enabling the acquisition of raw metabolomics data. However, the identification, analysis, and visualisation of these data require specialised tools. Existing solutions lack a dedicated plant-specific metabolite database and pose usability challenges. To address these limitations, we developed PlantMetSuite, a web-based tool for comprehensive metabolomics analysis and visualisation. PlantMetSuite encompasses interactive bioinformatics tools and databases specifically tailored for plant metabolomics data, facilitating upstream-to-downstream analysis in metabolomics and supporting integrative multi-omics investigations. PlantMetSuite can be accessed directly through a user's browser without the need for installation or programming skills. The tool is freely available at https://plantmetsuite.verygenome.com/ and will undergo regular updates and expansions to incorporate additional libraries and newly published metabolomics analysis methods. The tool's significance lies in empowering researchers with an accessible and customisable platform for unlocking plant metabolomics insights.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0264.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: concussion; mild traumatic brain injury; working memory; long-term cognitive outcome; support vector machine classifier; personalized prediction
Online: 16 December 2021 (10:24:08 CET)
Concussion, also known as mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), commonly causes transient neurocognitive symptoms, but in some cases, it causes cognitive impairment, including working memory (WM) deficit, which can be long-lasting and impede a patient’s return to work. The predictors of long-term cognitive outcomes following mTBI remain unclear because abnormality is often absent in structural imaging findings. The purpose of the study was to determine whether machine learning-based models using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) biomarkers and demographic or neuropsychological measures at baseline could effectively predict 1-year cognitive outcomes of concussion. We conducted a prospective, observational study of patients with mTBI who were compared with demographically-matched healthy controls enrolled between September 2015 to August 2020. Baseline assessments were collected within the first week of injury, and follow-ups were conducted at 6 weeks, 3 months, 6 months, and 1 year. Potential demographic, neuropsychological, and fMRI features were selected according to the significance of correlation with the estimated changes in WM ability. The support vector machine classifier was trained using these potential features and estimated changes in WM between the predefined time periods. Patients demonstrated significant cognitive recovery at the third month, followed by worsened performance after 6 months, which persisted until 1 year after concussion. Approximately half of the patients experienced prolonged cognitive impairment at 1-year follow up. Satisfactory predictions were achieved for patients whose WM function did not recover at 3 months (accuracy=87.5%), 6 months (accuracy=83.3%), 1 year (accuracy=83.3%), and performed worse at 1-year follow-up compared to baseline assessment (accuracy=83.3%). This study demonstrated the feasibility of personalized prediction for long-term postconcussive WM outcomes based on baseline fMRI and demographic features, opening a new avenue for early rehabilitation intervention in selected individuals with possible poor long-term cognitive outcomes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0008.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: 25-hydroxyvitamin D3; depression, anxiety; perceived stress; hostility
Online: 3 June 2020 (04:55:29 CEST)
We aimed to test the hypothesis that serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 [25(OH)D] concentration is associated with mental health and life stress measures in young adults, and investigate sex and racial disparities in these associations. This study comprised 327 black and white participants. Depression, trait anxiety, perceived stress, and hostility were measured by validated instruments: Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), and Cook-Medley Hostility Scale (CMHS). Linear regression was used to estimate correlations between serum 25(OH)D concentration and mental health measurements in total population and in subgroups stratified by sex and race. In this sample (28.2 ± 3.1 years, 48% male, 53% black), serum 25(OH)D concentration was negatively related to BDI, STAI, PSS, total CMHS score and the majority of CMHS subscale scores (p-values < 0.05). Stratified by sex, most of these associations remained significant only in women (p-values < 0.05). Stratified by race, higher 25(OH)D concentrations in the whites were significantly related to lower BDI, STAI, PSS, and CMHS-cynicism subscale (p-values < 0.05); 25(OH)D concentrations in the blacks were only inversely associated with CMHS and most CMHS subscales (p-values < 0.05), but not with BDI, STAI and PSS. We present novel findings of consistent inverse relationships between serum 25(OH)D concentration and various measures of mental health and life stress. Long-term interventional studies are warranted to investigate the roles of vitamin D supplementation in prevention and mitigation of depression, anxiety and psychological stress in young adults.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1441.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: bovine embryonic stem cells (bESCs); pluripotent; H3K4me1 modification; DNA methylation modification
Online: 20 June 2023 (12:21:40 CEST)
Mixed lineage leukemia 1 (MLL1) introduces 1-, 2- and 3-methylation into histone H3K4 through the evolutionarily conserved set domain. In this study, bovine embryonic stem cells (bESCs, named bESCs-F7) were established from the in vitro fertilized (IVF) embryos by Wnt signaling inhibition, while its contribution to endoderm in vivo is limited. To improve the quality of bESCs, MM-102, an inhibitor of MLL1, was applied to the culture. The results showed that MLL1 inhibition along with GSK3 and MAP2K inhibition (3i) at the embryonic stage did not affect bESCs establishment and pluripotency. MLL1 inhibition improves the pluripotency and differentiation potentials of bESCs via up-regulation of stem cell signaling pathways such as PI3K-Akt and WNT. MLL1 inhibition decreases H3K4me1 modification at promoters in bESCs and altered the distribution of DNA methylation in bESCs. In summary, MLL1 inhibition enables bESCs to acquire better pluripotency, and its application may provide high quality pluripotent stem cells for domestic animals.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0081.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: Berberine; Lipophilic substituent; Anti-cancer activity; Photocytotoxicity; Reactive oxygen species
Online: 9 January 2020 (11:30:40 CET)
The objective of this study was to synthesize 9-/13-position substituted berberine derivatives and evaluated their cytotoxic and photocytotoxic effects against three human cancer cell lines. Among all the synthesized compounds, 9-O-dodecyl- (5e), 13-dodecyl- (6e) and 13-O-dodecyl-berberine (7e) exhibited stronger growth inhibition against three human cancer cell lines, (HepG2, HT-29 and BFTC905), in compare with structurally related berberine (1). These three compounds also showed the photocytotoxicity in human cancer cells in a concentration-dependent and light dose-dependent manner. Through flow cytometry analysis, we found out a lipophilic group at 9-/13-position of berberine may have facilitated its penetration into test cell and hence enhanced its photocytotoxicity on human liver cancer cell HepG2. Further, in cell cycle analysis, 5e, 6e and 7e induced HepG2 cells to arrest at S phase and caused apoptosis upon irradiation. In addition, photodynamic treatment of berberine (1) and its derivatives 5e, 6e and 7e again showed a significant photocytotoxic effects on HepG2 cells, induced remarkable cell apoptosis, greatly increased intracellular ROS level and the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential. These results over and again confirmed that berberine derivatives 5e, 6e and 7e greatly enhanced photocytotoxicity. Taking together, the test data led us to conclude that berberine derivatives with a dodecyl group at 9-/13-position could be great candidates for the anti-liver cancer medicines developments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0525.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Sweetpotato; Stem rot; Transcriptome; Gene; Transcription factor
Online: 8 November 2023 (16:15:22 CET)
Sweetpotato is an important miscellaneous grain crop in China, which is threatened by a variety of diseases and insect pests in the process of cultivation and production. sweetpotato stem rot is one of the common sweetpotato diseases, which seriously affects the yield and quality of sweetpotato. However, there are few studies on the mechanism of resistance to stem rot in sweetpotato. In this study, transcriptome sequencing analysis was carried out on the samples at different stages (T1, T2, T3) of stem rot pathogen infecting Xushu 48, and 44839 (T1-VS-T2), 81436 (T1-VS-T2) and 61932 (T2-VS-T3) differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were obtained. The DEGs were mainly concentrated in Alanine, aspartate and glutamate metabolism (ko00250), Carbon fixation in photosynthetic organisms (ko00710) and Amino sugar and nucleotide sugar metabolism (ko00520) and some candidate genes related to plant pathogen infection, such as receptor-like protein kinase (RLK5, RLK7), LRR receptor-like serine/threonine-protein kinase (SERK1), bHLH137, ERF9, MYB73 and NAC053, were screened. The results of this study provide genetic resources for the research on stem rot resistance of sweetpotato and provide theoretical basis for sweetpotato resistance breeding.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1976.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Horticulture Keywords: pineapple; ripening; yellowing; fruit quality; metabolomics; transcriptomics
Online: 28 September 2023 (18:24:50 CEST)
To understand the molecular mechanism underlying yellowing in pineapples during ripening, coupled with alterations in fruit quality, comprehensive metabolome and transcriptome investigations were carried out. These investigations were conducted using the pulp samples collected at three distinct stages of maturity: young fruit (YF), mature fruit (MF), and fully mature fruit (FMF). This study revealed a noteworthy increase in the levels of total phenols and flavones, coupled with a concurrent decline in lignin and total acid content, as the fruit transitioned from YF to FMF. Furthermore, the analysis yielded 167 differentially accumulated metabolites (DAMs) and 2194 differentially expressed genes (DEGs). Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes enrichment analysis based on DAMs and DEGs revealed that the biosynthesis of plant secondary metabolites, particularly the flavonol, flavonoid, and phenypropanoid pathways, plays a pivotal role in fruit yellowing. Additionally, a comprehensive regulatory network encompassing genes that contribute to metabolisms of flavones, flavonols, lignin, and organic acids was proposed. This network sheds light on the intricate processes that underlies fruit yellowing and quality alterations. These findings enhance our understanding of the regulatory pathways governing pineapple ripening and offer valuable scientific insight into the molecular breeding of pineapples.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1297.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: Heart failure; β-adrenergic receptor; cardiac fibrosis; cardiac inflammation; Bruton’s tyrosine kinase; Zanubrutinib
Online: 19 June 2023 (05:23:12 CEST)
(1) Background: Heart failure (HF) is the final stage of multiple cardiac diseases, which has now become a severe public health problem worldwide. β-Adrenergic receptor (β-AR) overactivation is a major pathological factor associated with multiple cardiac diseases and mediates cardiac fibrosis and inflammation. Previous study has demonstrated that Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) mediated cardiac fibrosis by TGF-β related signal pathways, indicating that BTK was a potential drug target for cardiac fibrosis. Zanubrutinib, a second-generation BTK inhibitor, has shown anti-fibrosis effects in previous research. However, it is unclear whether Zanubrutinib can alleviate cardiac fibrosis induced by β-AR overactivation;(2) Methods: In vivo: Male C57BL/6J mice were treated with or without the β-AR agonist isoproterenol (ISO) to establish cardiac fibrosis animal model. Here, results showed that BTK inhibitor Zanubrutinib (ZB) had a great effect on cardiac fibrosis and inflammation induced by β-AR. In vitro: Results showed that ZB alleviated β-AR-induced cardiac fibroblast activation and macrophage proinflammatory cytokine production. Further mechanism studies demonstrated that ZB inhibited β-AR-induced cardiac fibrosis and inflammation by BTK、STAT3、NF-κB and PI3K/Akt signal pathways both in vivo and in vitro; (4) Conclusions: our research provides evidence that ZB ameliorates β-AR-induced cardiac fibrosis and inflammation.