ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0017.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: childhood malnutrition; community-based management of acute malnutrition–CMAM; moderate acute malnutrition–MAM; supplementary feeding programs–SFP; Zambia
Online: 1 June 2018 (12:04:50 CEST)
Background: Evaluation of nutrition programs is essential to guarantee the effectiveness of community-based management of acute malnutrition (CMAM). Methods: The Rainbow Project Supplementary Feeding Programs (SFPs) in Zambia were evaluated between years 2015-17, following implementation of new recommendations based on previous evaluations (years 2012-14). Outcomes of the program were compared with International Standards and with those of 2012-14. Cox proportional risk regression analysis was performed to identify predictors of mortality and defaulting. Results: Data for 900 under age 5 years malnourished children (48.8% male; mean age 19.7months ±9.9) were analyzed. Rainbow 2015-17 program outcomes met International Standards, for general malnutrition or stratified moderate acute malnutrition (MAM) and severe acute malnutrition (SAM). When comparing with 2012-14 outcomes, better performance was noted: mortality rates were reduced by half (5.6% vs 3.1%, p = 0.01; for SAM: 12.4% vs 6.7%, p = 0.006), with significant improvement in average weight gain and mean length of stay (p<0.001), and increased awareness of HIV status (+30%; p < 0.001). HIV infection (5.5; 1.9–15.9), WAZ < −3 at baseline (4.6; 1.3–16.1) and kwashiorkor (3.5; 1.2–9.5) remained the major predictors of mortality. Conclusion: The effectiveness of the Rainbow SFPs for child malnutrition treatment and prevention in Zambia has significantly improved after evaluation and implementation activities, with impressive outcomes which resulted in a 50% reduction in mortality.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0052.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: weather-related SARS-CoV-2 virulence; specific enthalpy of atmospheric moist air; temperature and humidity effects on COVID-19 outbreak; correlating equation; COVID-19 spread prediction risk scale
Online: 5 October 2020 (08:10:08 CEST)
Following the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, several studies have examined the possibility of correlating the virulence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the virus that causes COVID-19, to the climatic conditions of the involved sites; however, inconclusive results have been generally obtained. Although either air temperature or humidity cannot be independently correlated with virus viability, a strong relationship between SARS-CoV-2 virulence and the specific enthalpy of moist air appears to exist, as confirmed by extensive data analysis. Given this framework, the present study involves a detailed investigation based on the first 20–30 days of the epidemic before public health interventions in 30 selected Italian provinces with rather different climates, here assumed as being representative of what happened in the country from North to South, of the relationship between COVID-19 distributions and the climatic conditions recorded at each site before the pandemic outbreak. Accordingly, a correlating equation between the incidence rate of the pandemic and the average specific enthalpy of atmospheric air was developed, and an enthalpy-based seasonal virulence risk scale was proposed as a tool to predict the potential danger of COVID-19 spread due to the persistence of weather conditions favorable to SARS-CoV-2 viability. For practical applications, a conclusive risk chart expressed in terms of coupled temperatures and relative humidity (RH) values was provided, showing that safer conditions occur in case of higher RH at the highest temperatures, and of lower RH at the lowest temperatures. The proposed risk scale was in agreement with the available infectivity data in the literature for a number of cities around the world.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0152.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Other Keywords: extreme weather; heat waves; anvironment and public healt; aged; older adults; social behaviour; interpersonal relation; social isolation; mortality; lonelliness
Online: 11 October 2021 (08:59:11 CEST)
Background: Heat waves are correlated with increased mortality in the aged population. Social isolation is known as a vulnerability factor. This study aims at evaluating the correlation between an intervention to reduce social isolation and the increase in mortality in the population over 80 during heat waves. Methods: The study adopts a retrospective ecologic design. We compared the excess mortality rate (EMR) in the over 80 population during heat waves in urban areas of Rome (Italy), where a program to reduce social isolation was implemented compared to others where it was not implemented. We measured mortality of the summer periods from 2015 to 2019 compared with 2014 (a year without heat waves). Winter mortality, cadastral income and proportion of over 90 were included in the multivariate Poisson regression. Results: The EMR in the intervention and controls was 2.70% and 3.81%, respectively. Rate ratio 0.70 (c.i. 0.54 - 0.92, p-value 0.01). The Incidence Rate Ratio (IRR) of the interventions with respect to the controls is 0.76 (c.i. 0.59 - 0.98). After adjusting for other variables, the IRR was 0.44 (c.i. 0.32 - 0.60). Conclusions: Reducing social isolation could limit the impact of heat waves on the mortality of the elderly population.