ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0218.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: deep learning; machine learning; applied deep learning
Online: 10 October 2018 (11:37:13 CEST)
Deep learning is an emerging area of machine learning (ML) research. It comprises multiple hidden layers of artificial neural networks. The deep learn- ing methodology applies nonlinear transformations and model abstractions of high level in large databases. The recent advancements in deep learning architec- tures within numerous fields have already provided significant contributions in artificial intelligence. This article presents a state of the art survey on the contri- butions and the novel applications of deep learning. The following review chron- ologically presents how and in what major applications deep learning algorithms have been utilized. Furthermore, the superior and beneficial of the deep learning methodology and its hierarchy in layers and nonlinear operations are presented and compared with the more conventional algorithms in the common applica- tions. The state of the art survey further provides a general overview on the novel concept and the ever-increasing advantages and popularity of deep learning.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1901.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Drones; Machine Learning; Artificial Intelligence; Supervised learning; Unsupervised Learning; Reinforcement Learning
Online: 27 June 2023 (12:27:38 CEST)
The use of drones for various applications has become increasingly popular in recent years, and machine learning has played a significant role in this trend. In this paper, we provide a comprehensive survey of the classification and application of machine learning in drones. The paper begins with an overview of the different types of machine learning algorithms and their applications in drones, including supervised learning, unsupervised learning, and reinforcement learning. Next, we present a detailed analysis of various real-world applications of machine learning in drones, such as object recognition, route planning, obstacle avoidance, search area optimization, and autonomous search. The paper also discusses the challenges and limitations of using machine learning in drones, such as data privacy, data quality, and computational requirements. Finally, the paper concludes with a discussion of the future directions of machine learning in drones and its potential impact on various industries and fields. This paper provides a valuable resource for researchers, practitioners, and students interested in the intersection of machine learning and drones.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0092.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: Federated Learning; Learning Analytics
Online: 5 January 2023 (02:39:04 CET)
Federated learning techniques aim to train and build machine learning models based on distributed datasets across multiple devices, avoiding data leakage. The main idea is to perform training on remote devices or isolated data centers without transferring data to centralized repositories, thus mitigating privacy risks. Data analytics in education, in particular learning analytics, is a promising scenario to apply this approach to address the legal and ethical issues related to processing sensitive data. Indeed, given the nature of the data to be studied (personal data, educational outcomes, data concerning minors), it is essential to ensure that the conduct of these studies and the publication of the results provide the necessary guarantees to protect the privacy of the individuals involved and the protection of their data. In addition, the application of quantitative techniques based on the exploitation of data on the use of educational platforms, student performance, use of devices, etc., can account for educational problems such as the determination of user profiles, personalized learning trajectories, or early dropout indicators and alerts, among others. This paper presents the application of federated learning techniques to two learning analytics problems: dropout prediction and unsupervised student classification. The experiments allow us to conclude that the proposed solutions achieve comparable results from the performance point of view with the centralized versions, avoiding centralizing the data for training the models.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0015.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Deep learning; Machine learning
Online: 1 February 2022 (13:34:28 CET)
We study the brain segmentation by dividing the brain into multiple tissues. Given possible brain segmentation by deep, machine learning can be efficiently exploited to expedite the segmentation process in the clinical practice. To accomplish segmentation process, a MRI and tissues transfer using generative adversarial networks is proposed. Given the better result, we propose the transfer model using GAN. For the case of the brain tissues, white matter (WM), gray matter (GM) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) are segmented. Empirical results show that this proposed model significantly improved segmentation results compared to the stat-of-the-art results. Furthermore, a dice coefficient (DC) metric is used to evaluate the model performance.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0577.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: online learning; e-learning; hybrid learning; innovation; education
Online: 31 January 2023 (08:07:58 CET)
In recent years, online learning has become one of the most popular methods of educational delivery due to advances in technology, which has been made even more evident in the COVID-19 lockdown period. Online education has evolved into a distinct field of study within the educational system over the last few years. It is also important to note that parallel with the growth in this field, there has also been an increase in the number of scholarly journals that regularly publish research in this field, reflecting the importance of this field in the modern day. In spite of the fact that online learning offers a wide range of educational options, from short courses to full-time degrees, as well as being accessible, flexible, environmentally friendly, and affordable, there are also certain challenges associated with this educational approach. These challenges include the lack of social interaction, technical errors, a lack of hands-on training, and difficulties in assessing students. It is, therefore, imperative to ask the crucial question of whether online learning can replace traditional classroom learning or whether it can supplement it in hybrid models with it, as well as what factors and conditions are likely to determine this in the short- and long-term, as well as how it will be blended together in the future. The purpose of this commentary is to provide a brief summary of the current status of both learning models, as well as their pros and cons, in order to answer the question that was posed above.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0309.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: economics; deep reinforcement learning; deep learning; machine learning
Online: 20 March 2020 (07:13:42 CET)
The popularity of deep reinforcement learning (DRL) methods in economics have been exponentially increased. DRL through a wide range of capabilities from reinforcement learning (RL) and deep learning (DL) for handling sophisticated dynamic business environments offers vast opportunities. DRL is characterized by scalability with the potential to be applied to high-dimensional problems in conjunction with noisy and nonlinear patterns of economic data. In this work, we first consider a brief review of DL, RL, and deep RL methods in diverse applications in economics providing an in-depth insight into the state of the art. Furthermore, the architecture of DRL applied to economic applications is investigated in order to highlight the complexity, robustness, accuracy, performance, computational tasks, risk constraints, and profitability. The survey results indicate that DRL can provide better performance and higher accuracy as compared to the traditional algorithms while facing real economic problems at the presence of risk parameters and the ever-increasing uncertainties.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0524.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Deep learning; image representation learning; self-supervised learning; masked image modeling; contrastive learning
Online: 9 October 2023 (12:52:30 CEST)
Self-supervised learning is a method that learns general representation from unlabeled data. Masked image modeling (MIM), one of the generative self-supervised learning methods, has drawn attention showing state-of-the-art performance on various downstream tasks, though showing poor linear separability resulting from the token-level approach. In this paper, we propose a contrastive learning-based multi-view masked autoencoder for MIM, exploiting an image-level approach by learning common features from two different augmented views. We strengthen MIM by learning long-range global patterns from contrastive loss. Our framework adopts simple encoder-decoder architecture, learning rich and general representation by following a simple process: 1) two different views are generated from an input image with random masking and by contrastive loss, we can learn semantic distance of the representations generated by an encoder. By applying a high mask ratio, 80%, it works as strong augmentation and alleviates the representation collapse problem. 2) With reconstruction loss, decoder learns to reconstruct an original image from the masked image. We assess our framework by several experiments on benchmark datasets of image classification, object detection, and semantic segmentation. We achieve 84.3% fine-tuning accuracy on ImageNet-1K classification and 76.7% in linear probing, exceeding previous studies and show promising results on other downstream tasks. Experimental results demonstrate that our work can learn rich and general image representation by applying contrastive loss to masked image modeling.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0199.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: machine learning; deep reinforcement learning; transfer learning; fire; evacuation
Online: 4 July 2023 (10:38:05 CEST)
There is only a very short reaction time for people to find the best way out of a building in a fire outbreak. Software applications can be used to assist the rapid evacuation of victims; however, this is an arduous task, which requires an understanding of advanced technologies. Since well-known pathway algorithms (such as, Dijkstra, Bellman-Ford and A*) can lead to serious problems over performance, we decided to make use of deep reinforcement learning techniques. A wide range of strategies including a random initialization of replay buffer and transfer learning were assessed in three projects involving schools of different sizes. The results showed the proposal was viable and that in most cases the performance of transfer learning was superior. In addition, the study raised challenges that had to be faced in the future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0483.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: deep reinforcement learning; data efficient; curriculum learning; transfer learning
Online: 30 September 2022 (10:35:06 CEST)
Sparse reward long horizon task is a major challenge for deep reinforcement learning algorithm. One of the key barriers is data-inefficiency. Even in the simulation environment, it usually takes weeks to training the agent. In this study, a data-efficiency training framework is proposed, where a curriculum learning is design for the agent in the simulation scenario. Different distributions of the initial state are set for the agent to get more informative reward during the whole training process. A fine-tuning of the parameters in the output layer of the neural network for value function is conduct to bridge the gap between sim-to-real. An experiment of UAV maneuver control is conducted in the proposed training framework to verify the method more efficient. We demonstrate that data-efficiency is different for the same data in different training stages.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1231.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Informal learning; Computers in education; Distance education and online learning; Learning communities; Mobile learning
Online: 17 May 2023 (10:31:13 CEST)
This article discusses the comparison between digital and traditional face-to-face coaching within the scope of shadow education institutions. While analyzing the differences and similarities between the two educational models, both their advantages and disadvantages are thoroughly discussed. In this context, interviews were conducted with students and teachers who receive education in both face-to-face and digital coaching, and the positive and negative aspects of both institutions, suitable and unsuitable courses, the future situation, and the effects on students' academic achievements were revealed. According to the results obtained from the research, it is noteworthy that students who do not receive education in digital coaching have prejudices against digitalization. Additionally, no significant difference was found between the academic achievements of students receiving education in digital coaching and those receiving education in face-to-face coaching.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0389.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: Deep learning; Variational Autoencoders (VAEs); data representation learning; generative models; unsupervised learning; few shot learning; latent space; transfer learning
Online: 22 September 2021 (16:04:22 CEST)
Despite the importance of few-shot learning, the lack of labeled training data in the real world, makes it extremely challenging for existing machine learning methods as this limited data set does not represent the data variance well. In this research, we suggest employing a generative approach using variational autoencoders (VAEs), which can be used specifically to optimize few-shot learning tasks by generating new samples with more intra-class variations. The purpose of our research is to increase the size of the training data set using various methods to improve the accuracy and robustness of the few-shot face recognition. Specifically, we employ the VAE generator to increase the size of the training data set, including the basic and the novel sets while utilizing transfer learning as the backend. Based on extensive experimental research, we analyze various data augmentation methods to observe how each method affects the accuracy of face recognition. We conclude that the face generation method we proposed can effectively improve the recognition accuracy rate to 96.47% using both the base and the novel sets.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0457.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Vision And Graphics Keywords: graph neural networks; machine learning; transfer learning; multi-task learning
Online: 31 January 2022 (12:49:31 CET)
Graph neural networks (GNNs) build on the success of deep learning models by extending them for use in graph spaces. Transfer learning has proven extremely successful for traditional deep learning problems: resulting in faster training and improved performance. Despite the increasing interest in GNNs and their use cases, there is little research on their transferability. This research demonstrates that transfer learning is effective with GNNs, and describes how source tasks and the choice of GNN impact the ability to learn generalisable knowledge. We perform experiments using real-world and synthetic data within the contexts of node classification and graph classification. To this end, we also provide a general methodology for transfer learning experimentation and present a novel algorithm for generating synthetic graph classification tasks. We compare the performance of GCN, GraphSAGE and GIN across both the synthetic and real-world datasets. Our results demonstrate empirically that GNNs with inductive operations yield statistically significantly improved transfer. Further we show that similarity in community structure between source and target tasks support statistically significant improvements in transfer over and above the use of only the node attributes.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0060.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: deep learning; artificial neural network; artificial intelligence; discriminative learning; generative learning; hybrid learning; intelligent systems;
Online: 2 August 2021 (17:33:48 CEST)
Deep learning (DL), a branch of machine learning (ML) and artificial intelligence (AI) is nowadays considered as a core technology of today's Fourth Industrial Revolution (4IR or Industry 4.0). Due to its learning capabilities from data, DL technology originated from artificial neural network (ANN), has become a hot topic in the context of computing, and is widely applied in various application areas like healthcare, visual recognition, cybersecurity, and many more. However, building an appropriate DL model is a challenging task, due to the dynamic nature and variations in real-world problems and data. Moreover, the lack of core understanding turns DL methods into black-box machines that hamper development at the standard level. This article presents a structured and comprehensive view on DL techniques including a taxonomy considering various types of real-world tasks like supervised or unsupervised. In our taxonomy, we take into account deep networks for supervised or discriminative learning, unsupervised or generative learning as well as hybrid learning and relevant others. We also summarize real-world application areas where deep learning techniques can be used. Finally, we point out ten potential aspects for future generation DL modeling with research directions. Overall, this article aims to draw a big picture on DL modeling that can be used as a reference guide for both academia and industry professionals.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0306.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: online learning; face-to-face learning; learning effectiveness; challenges with online learning; lecture-based courses.
Online: 13 July 2021 (11:57:22 CEST)
During the COVID-19 outbreak, most university courses have been offered on online platforms. A sudden shift from face-to-face classroom learning to online formats could influence the learning effectiveness of classes. This study aims to investigate differences in the learning effectiveness of online and face-to-face lecture courses. It also explores factors that impact the effectiveness of online instruction. These factors include interactions among learners, interactions between learners and the instructor, the quality of online platforms, learners’ ability to use devices and follow instructions, and learners’ situational challenges. The study participants were 261 university students at King Mongkut’s University of Technology Thonburi in Bangkok, Thailand. All participants were enrolled in at least one lecture course, such as history, humans and the environment, the environment and development, or general philosophy, during the 2019 academic year. A questionnaire was distributed to participants after they completed these courses in May 2020. Paired simple t-test analyses were used to compare the effectiveness of online and face-to-face classes, and a multiple regression analysis was used to identify factors that impact the learning effectiveness of online classes. The results show that online classes are less effective than face-to-face courses. The multiple regression analysis also revealed that the effectiveness of online learning was significantly impacted by learners’ ability to interact with classmates during class, their ability to interact with instructors after the class, the quality of online platforms, and disturbances or distractions in learners’ environments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1552.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Fruit Quality; Machine Learning; Deep Learning
Online: 24 July 2023 (03:09:22 CEST)
Fruit quality is a critical factor in the produce industry, affecting producers, distributors, consumers, and the economy. High-quality fruits are more appealing, nutritious, and safe, boosting consumer satisfaction and revenue for producers. Artificial Intelligence can aid in assessing the quality of the fruit using images. This paper presents a general machine-learning model for assessing fruit quality using deep image features. The model leverages the learning capabilities of the recent successful networks for image classification called Vision Transformers (ViT). The ViT model is built and trained with a combination of various fruit datasets and learned to distinguish between good and rotten fruit images. The general model demonstrated impressive results in accurately identifying the quality of various fruits such as Apples (with a 99.50% accuracy), Cucumbers (99%), Grapes (100%), Kakis (99.50%), Oranges (99.50%), Papayas (98%), Peaches (98%), Tomatoes (99.50%), and Watermelons (98%). However, it showed slightly lower performance in identifying Guavas (97%), Lemons (97%), Limes (97.50%), mangoes (97.50%), Pears (97%), and Pomegranates (97%).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1522.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Recommendation system; Contrast learning; Deep Learning
Online: 22 May 2023 (11:55:55 CEST)
Modelling both long and short-term user interests from historical data is crucial for accurate recommendations. However, unifying these metrics across multiple application domains can be challenging, and existing approaches often rely on complex, intertwined models which can be difficult to interpret. To address this issue, we propose a lightweight, plug-and-play interest enhancement module that fuses interest vectors from two independent models. After analyzing the dataset, we identify deviations in the recommendation performance of long and short-term interest models. To compensate for these differences, we use feature enhancement and loss correction during training. In the fusion process, we explicitly split long-term interest features with longer duration into multiple local features. We then use a shared attention mechanism to fuse multiple local features with short-term interest features to obtain interaction features. To correct for bias between models, we introduce a comparison learning task that monitors the similarity between local features, short-term features, and interaction features. This adaptively reduces the distance between similar features. Our proposed module combines and compares multiple independent long-term and short-term interest models on multiple domain datasets. As a result, it not only accelerates the convergence of the models but also achieves outstanding performance in challenging recommendation scenarios.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0191.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: machine learning; deep learning; generative models
Online: 12 December 2022 (04:05:39 CET)
Over the past decade, research in the field of Deep Learning has brought about novel improvements in image generation and feature learning; one such example being a Generative Adversarial Network. However, these improvements have been coupled with an increasing demand on mathematical literacy and previous knowledge in the field. Therefore, in this literature review, I seek to introduce Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs) to a broader audience by explaining their background and intuition at a more foundational level. I begin by discussing the mathematical background of this architecture, specifically topics in linear algebra and probability theory. I then proceed to introduce GANs in a more theoretical framework, along with some of the literature on GANs, including their architectural improvements and image-generation capabilities. Finally, I cover state-of-the-art image generation through style-based methods, as well as their implications on society.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0284.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: deep learning; Machine Learning; Artificial Intelligence
Online: 19 October 2022 (11:04:23 CEST)
This study evaluated the using of machine vision in combination with deep learning to identify weeds in real-time for wheat production system. PMAS-Arid Agriculture university research farm were selected for collection of images (6000 total images) of weeds and wheat crops under different weather condition. During growing season, the database was constructed to identify the weeds. For this study two framework were used TensorFlow and PyTorch under CNNs and Deep learning. Deep learning perfromed better with in PyTourch value as compared to another model in Tensorflow. comparing with other networks such as YOLOv4, we concluded that our network reaches a better result between speed and accuracy. Specifically, the maximum precision of weed and wheat plants were 0.89 and 0.91 respectively with 9.43 ms and 12.38 ms inference time per image (640 × 640) NVIDIA RTX2070 GPU.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0583.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: quantum machine learning; quantum deep learning
Online: 24 March 2021 (13:00:45 CET)
Tremendous progress has been witnessed in artificial intelligence within the domain of neural network backed deep learning systems and its applications. As we approach the post Moore’s Law era, the limit of semiconductor fabrication technology along with a rapid increase in data generation rates have lead to an impending growing challenge of tackling newer and more modern machine learning problems. In parallel, quantum computing has exhibited rapid development in recent years. Due to the potential of a quantum speedup, quantum based learning applications have become an area of significant interest, in hopes that we can leverage quantum systems to solve classical problems. In this work, we propose a quantum deep learning architecture; we demonstrate our quantum neural network architecture on tasks ranging from binary and multi-class classification to generative modelling. Powered by a modified quantum differentiation function along with a hybrid quantum-classic design, our architecture encodes the data with a reduced number of qubits and generates a quantum circuit, loading it onto a quantum platform where the model learns the optimal states iteratively. We conduct intensive experiments on both the local computing environment and IBM-Q quantum platform. The evaluation results demonstrate that our architecture is able to outperform Tensorflow-Quantum by up to 12.51% and 11.71% for a comparable classic deep neural network on the task of classification trained with the same network settings. Furthermore, our GAN architecture runs the discriminator and the generator purely on quantum hardware and utilizes the swap test on qubits to calculate the values of loss functions. In comparing our quantum GAN, we note our architecture is able to achieve similar performance with 98.5% reduction on the parameter set when compared to classical GANs. With the same number of parameters, additionally, QuGAN outperforms other quantum based GANs in the literature for up to 125.0% in terms of similarity between generated distributions and original data sets.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0203.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: machine learning; deep learning; ensemble models
Online: 20 August 2019 (08:41:28 CEST)
The conventional machine learning (ML) algorithms are continuously advancing and evolving at a fast-paced by introducing the novel learning algorithms. ML models are continually improving using hybridization and ensemble techniques to empower computation, functionality, robustness, and accuracy aspects of modeling. Currently, numerous hybrid and ensemble ML models have been introduced. However, they have not been surveyed in a comprehensive manner. This paper presents the state of the art of novel ML models and their performance and application domains through a novel taxonomy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0023.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: deep learning; graph kernels; unsupervised learning
Online: 4 February 2018 (10:52:50 CET)
This paper presents a new method : HIVEC to learn latent vector representations of graphs in a manner that captures the semantic dependencies of sub-structures. The representations can then be used in machine learning algorithms for tasks such as graph classification, clustering etcetera. The method proposed is unsupervised and uses the information of co-occurrence of sub-structures. It introduces a notion of hierarchical embeddings that allows us to avoid repetitive learning of sub-structures for every new graph. As an alternative to deep learning methods, the edit distance similarity between sub-structures is also used to learn vector representations. We compare the performance of these methods against previous work.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0900.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: student learning, learning satisfaction; prior learning experience, first-year writing program
Online: 15 November 2023 (05:15:07 CET)
Undergraduate learning is a multifaceted concept that many researchers have investigated to promote student engagement, academic performance, etc. Exploring factors promoting learning among undergraduates in FYW programs, which are required for undergraduates might potentially contribute to sustainable, cross-disciplinary undergraduate education. This study used the 10-year longitudinal grade and survey data at San José State University (SJSU) and the data was collected from Academic Years (AYs) 2015 to 2020, and five student surveys constituted the sample size of 18,101 students. In 2016, SJSU changed the remedial writing course to college writing courses. Since then, students need to complete an online module course before placing themselves into a one-semester or two-semester writing course. The previous study showed that students with higher writing comfort and confidence tend to place themselves into a semester-long class. Regression analysis was applied to examine the relationships among factors promoting learning among those students. University admitted students from various diversity and backgrounds, the results of this study suggested that what students chose and persisted in were more important in advancing their academic success rather than prior learning experience or psychological factors before the class.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0441.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Other Keywords: Hybrid Learning; Collaborative Learning; Orchestration load; Smart Learning Environments; Teacher agency.
Online: 6 July 2023 (15:50:21 CEST)
The COVID-19 pandemic has led to the growth of hybrid and online learning environments and the trend to introduce more technology into the classroom. One such change would be the use of smart synchronous hybrid learning environments (SSHLE), which are settings with both in-person and online students concurrently, and in which technology plays a key role in sensing, analyzing, and reacting throughout the teaching and learning process. These changing environments and the incorporation of new technologies can place a greater orchestration load on participants and a reduction in teacher agency. In this context, the aim of this paper is to analyse the orchestration load and teacher agency in different SSHLEs. The NASA-TLX model was used to measure the orchestration load in several scenarios. Questionnaires and interviews were used to measure teacher agency. The results obtained indicate that the orchestration load of the teacher tends to be high (between 60 and 70 points out of 100 of the NASA-TLX workload), especially when they lack experience in synchronous hybrid learning environments, and the orchestration load of the students tends to have average values (between 50 and 60) in the SSHLEs analysed. Meanwhile, the teacher agency does not appear to be altered but shows potential for improvement.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0090.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: domain generalization; contrastive learning; classification; deep learning; encoder; Zero-Shot Learning
Online: 4 November 2022 (07:29:50 CET)
A common challenge in real-world classification scenarios with sequentially appending target domain data is insufficient training datasets during the training phase. Therefore, conventional deep learning and transfer learning classifiers are not applicable especially when individual classes are not represented or are severely underrepresented at the outset. Domain Generalization approaches reach their limits when domain shifts become too large, making them occasionally unsuitable as well. In many (technical) domains, however, it is only the defect/ worn/ reject classes that are insufficiently represented, while the non-defect class is often available from the beginning. The proposed classification approach addresses such conditions and is based on a CNN encoder. Following a contrastive learning approach, it is trained with a modified triplet loss function using two datasets: Besides the non-defective target domain class (= 1st dataset), a state-of-the-art labeled source domain dataset that contains highly related classes (e.g., a related manufacturing error or wear defect) but originates from a (highly) different domain (e.g., different product, material, or appearance) (= 2nd dataset) is utilized. The approach learns the classification features from the source domain dataset while at the same time learning the differences between the source and the target domain in a single training step, aiming to transfer the relevant features to the target domain. The classifier becomes sensitive to the classification features and – by architecture – robust against the highly domain-specific context. The approach is benchmarked in a technical and a non-technical domain and shows convincing classification results. In particular, it is shown that the domain generalization capabilities and classification results are improved by the proposed architecture, allowing for larger domain shifts between source and target domains.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0035.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: meta-learning; lie group; machine learning; deep learning; convolutional neural network
Online: 3 March 2020 (11:09:53 CET)
Deep learning has achieved lots of successes in many fields, but when trainable sample are extremely limited, deep learning often under or overfitting to few samples. Meta-learning was proposed to solve difficulties in few-shot learning and fast adaptive areas. Meta-learner learns to remember some common knowledge by training on large scale tasks sampled from a certain data distribution to equip generalization when facing unseen new tasks. Due to the limitation of samples, most approaches only use shallow neural network to avoid overfitting and reduce the difficulty of training process, that causes the waste of many extra information when adapting to unseen tasks. Euclidean space-based gradient descent also make meta-learner's update inaccurate. These issues cause many meta-learning model hard to extract feature from samples and update network parameters. In this paper, we propose a novel method by using multi-stage joint training approach to post the bottleneck during adapting process. To accelerate adapt procedure, we also constraint network to Stiefel manifold, thus meta-learner could perform more stable gradient descent in limited steps. Experiment on mini-ImageNet shows that our method reaches better accuracy under 5-way 1-shot and 5-way 5-shot conditions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0104.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: neural networks; statistical physics of learning; on-line learning; concept drift; continual learning; learning vector quantization;
Online: 5 September 2018 (16:27:10 CEST)
We introduce a modelling framework for the investigation of on-line machine learning processes in non-stationary environments. We exemplify the approach in terms of two specific model situations: In the first, we consider the learning of a classification scheme from clustered data by means of prototype-based Learning Vector Quantization (LVQ). In the second, we study the training of layered neural networks with sigmoidal activations for the purpose of regression. In both cases, the target, i.e. the classification or regression scheme, is considered to change continuously while the system is trained from a stream of labeled data. We extend and apply methods borrowed from statistical physics which have been used frequently for the exact description of training dynamics in stationary environments. Extensions of the approach allow for the computation of typical learning curves in the presence of concept drift in a variety of model situations. First results are presented and discussed for stochastic drift processes in classification and regression problems. They indicate that LVQ is capable of tracking a classification scheme under drift to a non-trivial extent. Furthermore, we show that concept drift can cause the persistence of sub-optimal plateau states in gradient based training of layered neural networks for regression.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1286.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: ransomware; malware classification; deep learning; few-shot learning; entropy features; transfer learning
Online: 21 November 2023 (10:20:15 CET)
Ransomware attacks have rapidly proliferated, inflicting severe financial damages on businesses and individuals. Machine learning approaches to automate ransomware detection have shown promise but grapple with challenges like limited training data. This study introduces a novel deep learning model for few-shot ransomware classification. The model employs entropy features derived directly from malware binaries coupled with a twin neural network architecture utilizing transfer learning. Tests on over 1000 samples across 11 families demonstrate a weighted F1-score of 85.8\%, surpassing existing methods. The approach mitigates biases in limited training data and preserves intricacies lost in image-based features. It exhibits precise classification capabilities even with sparse samples of new ransomware variants. The research highlights the potential of entropy-driven deep learning to equip defenses against emerging zero-day ransomware strains.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1820.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Breast Cancer; Deep Learning Methods; Image Classification; GAN; Transfer Learning; Lifelong Learning
Online: 27 September 2023 (05:17:09 CEST)
Breast cancer is a common malignant tumour and studies have shown that early and accurate detection is crucial for patients. With the maturity of medical imaging and deep learning development, significant progress has been made in breast cancer classification, which greatly improves the accuracy and efficiency of classification. This review focuses on deep learning, migration learning, GAN, and lifelong learning to elaborate and summarise the important roles arising from breast cancer detection. This review also examines the dataset and labeling issues required for breast cancer classification. In conclusion, at the end of the article, we look at future directions for breast cancer classification research, including cross-migration learning, multimodal data fusion, model interpretability, and lifelong learning, and also explore how to provide personalized treatment plans for patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1767.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: distance learning; distance learning exit model; distance learning financing; COVID-19 pandemic
Online: 25 August 2023 (09:16:32 CEST)
At the beginning of 2020, with the onset of the pandemic, the traditional learning environment for learners drastically changed globally. Since then, most students/teachers have started and practiced distance and virtual learning/teaching. Thus, a technological breakthrough in virtual learning has followed. In connection with this, many countries worldwide have commenced allocating additional financing and funds for educational institutions' technological improvement and development. The long-term stay in distance learning has revealed and highlighted new problems students face: their knowledge level has decreased, they lack socialization skills, and they face psychological and physical health problems. Due to this negative impact on students, a need to research and evaluate how much the EU countries allocated to solve the distance learning-caused problems and what programs or models they prepared has emerged and encouraged further studies. The research has found that many countries increased their allocations very minimally, e.g., 0.0.1%, but some increased their available budgets to 32%. Notably, most countries did not separate distance learning exit funding from distance learning preparation funding. Based on the problems the countries saw, only a few states identified withdrawal from distance learning as a problem. Considering this, we set ourselves the goal to evaluate exit models from distance learning and allocated funding amounts. The following objectives were planned to achieve the goal: · to evaluate the global practice of exit from distance learning; · to determine the scope of funding for pandemic management; · to evaluate the amounts of funding allocated to manage pandemic-caused consequences and the GDP ratio. Research methods: mathematical-statistical analysis, empirical analysis, and analysis of scientific literature.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0756.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: reinforcement learning； meta learning； deep reinforcement learning； autonomous driving； robot operating system
Online: 10 August 2023 (05:42:54 CEST)
Reinforcement Learning (RL) has demonstrated considerable potential in solving challenges across various domains, notably in autonomous driving. Nevertheless, implementing RL in autonomous driving comes with its own set of difficulties, such as the overestimation phenomenon, extensive learning time, and sparse reward problems. Although solutions like Hindsight Experience Replay (HER) have been proposed to alleviate these issues, the direct utilization of RL in autonomous vehicles remains constrained due to the intricate fusion of information and the possibility of system failures during the learning process. In this paper, we present a novel RL-based autonomous driving system technology that combines Obstacle Dependent Gaussian (ODG) RL, Soft Actor-Critic (SAC), and meta-learning algorithms. Our approach addresses key issues in RL, including the overestimation phenomenon and sparse reward problems, by incorporating prior knowledge derived from the ODG algorithm. We evaluated our proposed algorithm on official F1 circuits, using high-fidelity racing simulations with complex dynamics. The results demonstrate exceptional performance, with our method achieving up to 89% faster learning speed compared to existing algorithms in these environments.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0045.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Micro-credentials; Higher Education; Online Learning; E-learning; MOOCs; Digital Learning Ecosystems
Online: 2 March 2023 (12:40:42 CET)
This review paper delves into using micro-credentials in higher education ecosystems as a digital enablers. Micro-credentials, which are digital credentials that attest to a learner’s mastery of a specific skill or knowledge area, are becoming more popular in higher education. The paper examines the successful implementation of micro-credential frameworks in higher education, using case studies to demonstrate the advantages of micro-credentials. The review emphasizes the agility and flexibility of microcredentials, which enable learners to acquire new skills quickly and respond to changes in the job market. In addition, the paper discusses the digital nature of micro-credentials and how they allow institutionsto provide targeted, skills-based training that isrelevant to employers. It also explores how micro-credentials are delivered through online platforms, making them convenient and easily accessible for learners. The review underscores the significance of digital infrastructure, connectivity, and public utility for promoting micro-credentials. The paper argues that micro-credentials function as a digital enabler for higher edu- cation ecosystems, allowing learners to acquire targeted training and enabling institutions to expand their offerings and reach more students. The paper concludes by highlighting the potential for micro-credentials to help bridge the skills gap and equip learners with the skills necessary to succeed in today’s digital economy.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0208.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Tuberculosis; Artificial Intelligence; Machine Learning; Deep Learning; Transfer Learning; Computer-aided Diagnosis
Online: 14 September 2022 (12:00:44 CEST)
Tuberculosis (TB) disease still remain a major global threat due to the growing number of drug-resistant species and global warming. Despite the fact that there are new molecular diagnostic approaches, however, majority of developing countries and remote clinics depends on conventional approaches such as Tuberculin test, microscopic examinations and radiographic imaging (Chest X-ray). These techniques are hindered by several challenges which can lead to miss-diagnosis especially when interpreting large number of sample cases. Thus, in order to reduce workload and prevent miss-diagnosis, scientists incorporated computer-aided technology for detection of medical images known as Computer aided Detection (CADe) or Diagnosis (CADx). The use of AI-powered techniques has shown to improve accuracy, sensitivity, specificity. In this review, we discussed about the epidemiology, pathology, diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis. The review also provides background information on Artificial Intelligence (AI), Machine Learning (ML), Deep Learning (DL), Transfer Learning (TL) and their applications in detection of tuberculosis from both microscopic slide images and X-ray images. The review also proposed an IoT/AI powered system which allows transfer of results obtained from DL models with end users through internet networks. The concept of futuristic diagnosis, limitations of current techniques and open research issues are also discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0093.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: game-based learning; learning practicies; learning with mobility; oncological treatment; well-being
Online: 5 July 2021 (11:45:18 CEST)
The use of Information Communication Technologies (ICT) in education brings up new possibilities of promoting the learning and health experiences. In this sense, education contexts of 21st century must consider these two areas of knowledge, especially their integration. This article presents learning practices developed with mobile devices and games, in order to improve learning and well-being in children and adolescents undergoing cancer treatment in non-formal educational setting. The methodology is based on qualitative case studies with content-based data analysis, involving informal interviews and observation methods. The study considers data from 5 patients who participated in the research between 2015 and 2019. The results demonstrate a positive influence of the practices with mobile technologies and games in terms of learning and in the well-being feeling of patients during the treatment.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1152.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Artificial Intelligence; Machine Learning; Medicine; Deep Learning
Online: 18 July 2023 (13:39:56 CEST)
Artificial Intelligence (AI) is becoming increasingly important, especially in the medical field. While AI has been used in medicine for some time, its growth in the last decade has been remarkable. Specifically, Machine Learning (ML) and Deep Learning (DL) techniques in medicine have been increasingly adopted thanks to the growing abundance of health-related data, improved suitability of such techniques for managing large data-sets, and more computational power. The Italian scientific community has been instrumental in advancing this research area. This article aims to conduct a comprehensive investigation of the ML and DL methodologies and applications used in medicine by the Italian research community in the last five years.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0062.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Machine Learning; Natural Language Processing; Deep Learning
Online: 3 September 2021 (12:53:42 CEST)
Documenting cultural heritage by using artificial intelligence (AI) is crucial for preserving the memory of the past and a key point for future knowledge. However, modern AI technologies make use of statistical learners that lead to self-empiricist logic, which, unlike human minds, use learned non-symbolic representations. Nevertheless, it seems that it is not the right way to progress in AI. If we want to rely on AI for these tasks, it is essential to understand what lies behind these models. Among the ways to discover AI there are the senses and the intellect. We could consider AI as an intelligence. Intelligence has an essence, but we do not know whether it can be considered “something” or “someone”. Important issues in the analysis of AI concern the structure of symbols -operations with which the intellectual solution is carried out- and the search for strategic reference points, aspiring to create models with human-like intelligence. For many years, humans, seeing language as innate, have carried out symbolic theories. Everything seems to have skipped with the advent of Machine Learning. In this paper, after a long analysis of history, the rule-based and the learning-based vision, we propose KERMIT as a unit of investigation for a possible meeting point between the different learning theories. Finally, we propose a new vision of knowledge in AI models based on a combination of rules, learning and human knowledge.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0040.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: predictive maintenance; transfer learning; interpretable machine learning
Online: 1 July 2021 (22:38:28 CEST)
Using data-driven models to solve predictive maintenance problems has been prevalent for original equipment manufacturers (OEMs). However, such models fail to solve two tasks that OEMs are interested in: (1) Making the well-built failure prediction models working on existing scenarios (vehicles, working conditions) adaptive to target scenarios. (2) Finding out the failure causes, furthermore, determining whether a model generates failure predictions based on reasonable causes. This paper investigates a comprehensive architecture towards making the predictive maintenance system adaptive and interpretable by proposing (1) an ensemble model dealing with time-series data consisting of a long short-term memory (LSTM) neural network and Gaussian threshold to achieve failure prediction one week in advance and (2) an online transfer learning algorithm and a meta learning algorithm, which render existing models adaptive to new vehicles with limited data volumes. (3) Furthermore, the Local Interpretable Model-agnostic Explanations (LIME) interpretation tool and super-feature methods are applied to interpret individual and general failure causes. Vehicle data from Isuzu Motors, Ltd., are adopted to validate our method, which include time-series data and histogram data. The proposed ensemble model yields predictions with 100% accuracy for our test data on engine stalling problem and is more rapidly adaptive to new vehicles with smaller error following application of either online transfer learning or the meta learning method. The interpretation methods help elucidate the global and individual failure causes, confirming the model credibility.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0115.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: machine learning; virtual diagnostics; reinforcement learning control
Online: 6 January 2021 (11:58:41 CET)
We discuss the implementation of a suite of virtual diagnostics at the FACET-II facility currently under commissioning at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. The diagnostics will be used for prediction of the longitudinal phase space along the linac, spectral reconstruction of the bunch profile and non-destructive inference of transverse beam quality (emittance) using edge radiation at the injector dogleg and bunch compressor locations. These measurements will be folded in to adaptive feedbacks and ML-based reinforcement learning controls to improve the stability and optimize the performance of the machine for different experimental configurations. In this paper we describe each of these diagnostics with expected measurement results based on simulation data and discuss progress towards implementation in regular operations.
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: Deep learning; Big data; Machine learning; Biofuels
Online: 30 September 2020 (11:19:52 CEST)
The importance of energy systems and its role in economics and politics is not hidden for anyone. This issue is not only important for the advanced industrialized countries, which are major energy consumers, but is also important for oil-rich countries. In addition to the nature of these fuels which contains polluting substances, the issue of their ending up has aggravated the growing concern. Biofuels can be used in different fields for energy production like electricity production, power production or for transportation. Various scenarios have been written about the estimated biofuels from different sources in the future energy system. The availability of biofuels for the electricity market, heating and liquid fuels is very important. Accordingly, the need for handling, modelling, decision making and future forecasting for biofuels can be one of the main challenges for scientists. Recently, machine learning and deep learning techniques have been popular in modeling, optimizing and handling the biodiesel production, consumption and its environmental impacts. The main aim of this study is to evaluate the ML and DL techniques developed for handling biofuels production, consumption and environmental impacts, both for modeling and optimization purposes. This will help for sustainable biofuel production for the future generations.
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Crime prediction; Ensemble Learning; Machine Learning; Regression
Online: 14 September 2020 (00:53:30 CEST)
While the use of crime data has been widely advocated in the literature, its availability is often limited to large urban cities and isolated databases tend not to allow for spatial comparisons. This paper presents an efficient machine learning framework capable of predicting spatial crime occurrences, without using past crime as a predictor, and at a relatively high resolution: the U.S. Census Block Group level. The proposed framework is based on an in-depth multidisciplinary literature review allowing the selection of 188 best-fit crime predictors from socio-economic, demographic, spatial, and environmental data. Such data are published periodically for the entire United States. The selection of the appropriate predictive model was made through a comparative study of different machine learning families of algorithms, including generalized linear models, deep learning, and ensemble learning. The gradient boosting model was found to yield the most accurate predictions for violent crimes, property crimes, motor vehicle thefts, vandalism, and the total count of crimes. Extensive experiments on real-world datasets of crimes reported in 11 U.S. cities demonstrated that the proposed framework achieves an accuracy of 73 and 77% when predicting property crimes and violent crimes, respectively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0181.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Mathematics Keywords: Reinforcement learning; Cartpole; Q Learning; Mathematical Modeling
Online: 10 May 2020 (18:02:43 CEST)
The prevalence of differential equations as a mathematical technique has refined the fields of control theory and constrained optimization due to the newfound ability to accurately model chaotic, unbalanced systems. However, in recent research, systems are increasingly more nonlinear and difficult to model using Differential Equations only. Thus, a newer technique is to use policy iteration and Reinforcement Learning, techniques that center around an action and reward sequence for a controller. Reinforcement Learning (RL) can be applied to control theory problems since a system can robustly apply RL in a dynamic environment such as the cartpole system (an inverted pendulum). This solution successfully avoids use of PID or other dynamics optimization systems, in favor of a more robust, reward-based control mechanism. This paper applies RL and Q-Learning to the classic cartpole problem, while also discussing the mathematical background and differential equations which are used to model the aforementioned system.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0456.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Artificial Intelligence; Explainability; Deep Learning; Machine Learning
Online: 25 April 2020 (02:57:06 CEST)
The world has been evolving with new technologies and advances day-by-day. With the advent of various learning technologies in every field, the research community is able to provide solution in every aspect of life with the applications of Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning, Deep Learning, Computer Vision, etc. However, with such high achievements, it is found to lag behind the ability to provide explanation against its prediction. The current situation is such that these modern technologies are able to predict and decide upon various cases more accurately and speedily than a human, but failed to provide an answer when the question of why to trust its prediction is put forward. In order to attain a deeper understanding into this rising trend, we explore a very recent and talked-about novel contribution which provides rich insight on a prediction being made -- ``Explainability.'' The main premise of this survey is to provide an overview for researches explored in the domain and obtain an idea of the current scenario along with the advancements published to-date in this field. This survey is intended to provide a comprehensive background of the broad spectrum of Explainability.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0239.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: interpretable machine learning; deep learning; predictive biology
Online: 17 February 2020 (04:12:20 CET)
Machine learning (ML) has emerged as a critical tool for making sense of the growing amount of genetic and genomic data available because of its ability to find complex patterns in high dimensional and heterogeneous data. While the complexity of ML models is what makes them powerful, it also makes them difficult to interpret. Fortunately, recent efforts to develop approaches that make the inner workings of ML models understandable to humans have improved our ability to make novel biological insights using ML. Here we discuss the importance of interpretable ML, different strategies for interpreting ML models, and examples of how these strategies have been applied. Finally, we identify challenges and promising future directions for interpretable ML in genetics and genomics.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0510.v2
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: deep reinforcement learning; imitation learning; soft robotics
Online: 23 November 2018 (11:57:55 CET)
The increasing trend of studying the innate softness of robotic structures and amalgamating it with the benefits of the extensive developments in the field of embodied intelligence has led to sprouting of a relatively new yet extremely rewarding sphere of technology. The fusion of current deep reinforcement algorithms with physical advantages of a soft bio-inspired structure certainly directs us to a fruitful prospect of designing completely self-sufficient agents that are capable of learning from observations collected from their environment to achieve a task they have been assigned. For soft robotics structure possessing countless degrees of freedom, it is often not easy (something not even possible) to formulate mathematical constraints necessary for training a deep reinforcement learning (DRL) agent for the task in hand, hence, we resolve to imitation learning techniques due to ease of manually performing such tasks like manipulation that could be comfortably mimicked by our agent. Deploying current imitation learning algorithms on soft robotic systems have been observed to provide satisfactory results but there are still challenges in doing so. This review article thus posits an overview of various such algorithms along with instances of them being applied to real world scenarios and yielding state-of-the-art results followed by brief descriptions on various pristine branches of DRL research that may be centers of future research in this field of interest.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0467.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: crowdsourcing; organisational learning; paradigm; organisational learning paradigm
Online: 27 August 2018 (15:09:10 CEST)
Crowdsourcing is one of the new themes that has appeared in the last decade. Considering its potential, more and more organisations reach for it. It is perceived as an innovative method that can be used for problem solving, improving business processes, creating open innovations, building a competitive advantage, and increasing transparency and openness of the organisation. Crowdsourcing is also conceptualised as a source of a knowledge-based organisation. The importance of crowdsourcing for organisational learning is seen as one of the key themes in the latest literature in the field of crowdsourcing. Since 2008, there has been an increase in the interest of public organisations in crowdsourcing and including it in their activities. This article is a response to the recommendations in the subject literature, which states that crowdsourcing in public organisations is a new and exciting research area. The aim of the article is to present a new paradigm that combines crowdsourcing levels with the levels of learning. The research methodology is based on an analysis of the subject literature and exemplifications of organisations which introduce crowdsourcing. This article presents a cross-sectional study of four Polish municipal offices that use four types of crowdsourcing, according to the division by J. Howe: collective intelligence, crowd creation, crowd voting, and crowdfunding. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with the management personnel of those municipal offices. The research results show that knowledge acquired from the virtual communities allows the public organisation to anticipate changes, expectations, and needs of citizens and to adapt to them. It can therefore be considered that crowdsourcing is a new and rapidly developing organisational learning paradigm.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0117.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Continual Learning; Lifelong Learning; Prototypical Networks; Catastrophic Forgetting; Intransigence; Task-free; Incremental Learning; Online Learning; Human Activity Recognition
Online: 5 August 2022 (08:35:15 CEST)
Continual learning (CL), a.k.a lifelong learning, is an emerging research topic that has been attracting increasing interest in the field of machine learning. With human activity recognition (HAR) playing a key role in enabling numerous real-world applications, an essential step towards the long-term deployment of such systems is to extend the activity model to dynamically adapt to changes in people’s everyday behavior. Current research in CL applied to HAR domain is still under-explored with researchers exploring existing methods developed for computer vision in HAR. Moreover, analysis has so far focused on task-incremental or class-incremental learning paradigms where task boundaries are known. This impedes the applicability of such methods for real-world systems. To push this field forward, we build on recent advances in the area of continual learning and design a lifelong adaptive learning framework using Prototypical Networks, LAPNet-HAR, that processes sensor-based data streams in a task-free data-incremental fashion and mitigates catastrophic forgetting using experience replay and continual prototype adaptation. Online learning is further facilitated using contrastive loss to enforce inter-class separation. LAPNet-HAR is evaluated on 5 publicly available activity datasets in terms of its ability to acquire new information while preserving previous knowledge. Our extensive empirical results demonstrate the effectiveness of LAPNet-HAR in task-free CL and uncover useful insights for future challenges.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0311.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Networks And Communications Keywords: Botnet detection; Network traffic analysis; Machine learning; Deep learning Cybersecurity; Adversarial machine learning
Online: 6 November 2023 (08:17:49 CET)
Abstract: Botnets pose a grave cybersecurity threat, enabling widescale malicious activities through networks of compromised devices. Detecting botnets is challenging given their frequent use of evasion techniques like encryption. Traditional signature-based methods fail against modern botnets capable of zero-day attacks. This paper surveys recent advances applying machine learning for botnet detection based on analysis of network traffic payloads, flows, DNS data, and hybrid feature fusion. Core machine learning models include support vector machines, neural networks, random forests, and deep learning architectures, which extract patterns to separate benign and botnet behaviors automatically. Results demonstrate machine learning's capabilities in identifying heterogeneous botnets using artefacts in network streams. However, challenges remain around limited labeled data, real-time streaming, adversarial evasion, and model interpretability. Promising directions involve semi-supervised learning, adversarial training, scalable analytics, and explainable AI to address these gaps. Beyond the technical aspects, responsible development and deployment of botnet detection systems raise ethical considerations around privacy, transparency, and accountability. With diligent cross-disciplinary collaboration, machine learning promises enhanced, generalizable, and trustworthy techniques to combat the serious threat posed by continuously evolving botnets across the digital ecosystem.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0230.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Machine Learning
Online: 11 July 2020 (04:46:12 CEST)
In this paper, various machine learning techniques are discussed. These algorithms are used for many applications which include data classification, prediction, or pattern recognition. The primary goal of machine learning is to automate human assistance by training an algorithm on relevant data. This paper should also serve as a collection of various machine learning terminology for easy reference.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1758.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Ophthalmology Keywords: Blepharoplasty; Deep learning; Machine learning; Eye movement measurements
Online: 28 November 2023 (10:19:49 CET)
Measuring Marginal Reflex Distance-1 (MRD-1) is a crucial clinical tool used to evaluate the position of the eyelid margin in relation to the cornea. Traditionally, this assessment has been conducted manually by plastic surgeons, ophthalmologists, or trained technicians. However, with the advancements in Artificial Intelligence (AI) technology, there is a growing interest in the development of automated systems capable of accurately measuring MRD-1.In this context, we introduce novel MRD-1 measurement methods based on deep learning algorithms that can simultaneously capture images and compute the results. This prospective observational study involved 154 eyes of 77 patients aged over 18 years who visited Chungnam National University Hospital between September 1, 2023, and July 29, 2023. We collected four different MRD1 da-tasets from patients using three distinct measurement methods, each tailored to the individual patient. The mean MRD1 values, measured through the manual method using a penlight, the deep learning method, ImageJ analysis from RGB eye images, and ImageJ analysis from IR eye images in 56 eyes of 28 patients, were 2.64 ± 1.04 mm, 2.85 ± 1.07 mm, 2.78 ± 1.08 mm, and 3.07 ± 0.95 mm, respectively. Notably, the strongest agreement was observed between MRD1_deep learning (DL) and MRD1_IR (0.822, p < 0.01). In the Bland-Altman plot, the smallest difference was observed between MRD1_DL and MRD1_IR ImageJ, with a mean difference of 0.0611 and △LOA (limits of agreement) of 2.5162, which is the smallest among the other groups. In conclusion, this novel MRD1 measurement method, based on an IR camera and deep learning, demon-strates statistical significance and can be readily applied in clinical settings.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1975.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Language And Linguistics Keywords: foreign language learning; language learning strategies; iconic gestures
Online: 31 October 2023 (03:02:46 CET)
This review paper investigates the influence of gestures on foreign language (FL) vocabulary learning through a series of experiments conducted in our laboratory. The manipulation of the gesture-word relationship was a consistent factor across the studies. Firstly, we examined the impact of gestures on noun and verb learning. The results revealed that participants exhibited better learning outcomes when FL words were accompanied by congruent gestures compared to a no gesture condition. This suggests that gestures have a positive effect on FL learning when there is a meaningful connection between the words and the accompanying gestures. However, in general, the recall of words in conditions where gestures were incongruent or lacked meaning was lower than in the no gesture condition. This indicates that under certain circumstances, gestures may have a detrimental impact on FL learning. We analyzed these findings in terms of their implications for facilitating or interfering with FL acquisition. Secondly, we addressed the question of whether individuals need to physically perform the gestures themselves to observe the effects of gestures on vocabulary learning. To explore this, participants were divided into two experimental groups. In one group, participants learned the words by actively performing the gestures ("do" learning group), while the other group simply observed the gestures performed by others ("see" learning group). The processing of congruent gestures facilitated the recall of FL words in both the "see" and "do" learning groups. However, the interference effect associated with processing incongruent gestures was more pronounced in the "see" learning group than in the "do" learning group. Thus, the performance of gestures appears to mitigate the negative impact that gestures may have on the acquisition of FL vocabulary. In conclusion, our findings suggest that iconic gestures can serve as an effective tool for learning vocabulary in a FL, particularly when the gestures align with the meaning of the words. Furthermore, the active performance of gestures helps counteract the negative effects associated with inconsistencies between gestures and word meanings. Consequently, if a choice must be made, a FL learning strategy in which learners acquire words while making gestures congruent with their meaning would be highly desirable.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.2135.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: episodic memory; deep reinforcement learning; hierarchical reinforcement learning
Online: 31 August 2023 (09:39:49 CEST)
Deep reinforcement learning is one of the research hotspots in artificial intelligence and has been successfully applied in many research areas, however, the low training efficiency and high demand for samples are problems that limit the application To address these problems, a hierarchical episodic control model extending episodic memory to the domain of hierarchical reinforcement learning is proposed in this paper. The model is theoretically justified and employs a hierarchical implicit memory planning approach for counterfactual trajectory value estimation. Starting from the final step and recursively moving back along the trajectory, a hidden plan is formed within the episodic memory. Experience is aggregated both along trajectories and across trajectories, and the model is updated using a multi-headed backpropagation similar to bootstrapped neural networks. This model extends the parameterized episodic memory framework to the realm of hierarchical reinforcement learning and is theoretically analyzed to demonstrate its convergence and effectiveness. Experiments conducted in Four Room, Mujoco, and UE4-based active tracking , highlight that the hierarchical episodic control model effectively enhances training efficiency. It demonstrates notable improvements in both low-dimensional and high-dimensional environments, even in cases of sparse rewards.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1420.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: federated learning; multimodal learning; artificial intelligence of things
Online: 20 July 2023 (12:47:53 CEST)
Federated learning (FL) has become a burgeoning and attractive research area, which provides a collaborative training scheme for distributed data sources with privacy concerns. Most existing FL studies focus on taking unimodal data, such as images and text, as the model input and resolving the heterogeneity challenge, i.e., the non-identically distributed (non-IID) challenge caused by data distribution imbalance related to data labels and data amount. In real-world applications, data are usually described by multiple modalities. However, to the best of our knowledge, only a handful of studies have been proposed to improve the system performance by utilizing multimodal data. In this survey paper, we identify the significance of this emerging research topic – multimodal federated learning (MFL) and perform a literature review on the state-of-art MFL methods. Furthermore, we categorize multi-modal federated learning into congruent and incongruent multimodal federated learning based on whether all clients possess the same modal combinations. We investigate the feasible application tasks and related benchmarks for MFL. Lastly, we summarize the promising directions and fundamental challenges in this field for future research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2227.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dentistry And Oral Surgery Keywords: Dental education; Dental curriculum; E-learning; Video learning
Online: 30 June 2023 (12:31:48 CEST)
Introduction: Dental students use of online material to supplement their learning has been studied but it is unclear whether educators are aware of the findings of this research. This study aimed to investigate dental students use of online content as a learning tool from an educator’s perspective. Methods: Educators in the Dublin Dental University Hospital were invited to complete an online survey based on dental students' use of online learning. Quantitative descriptive statistical analyses were carried out as appropriate on the data collected. A focus group with interested survey participants was held to gain a deeper insight into educator’s opinions on this topic. The transcript from this discussion was analyzed by deductive and inductive coding methods. Results: From a sample of 20 educators, this study found that educators were not aware that students rely on Google and YouTube for educational videos more than university websites. Most educators believed that students are likely to refer to online videos to prepare for dental procedures that they have not done before. The same amount also believed that teachers should incorporate videos into their learning. However, 30% of educators have not uploaded or recommended online videos to their students. Most educators believed they have discussed accuracy and/or relevancy of online content with their students. Interestingly, only 20% believed that students would discuss a contradictory video with their lecturers. The focus group participants expressed concern over the accuracy of online content. They felt that this along with a lack of time were the main reasons that deter them from referring students to online videos. Conclusions: Dental educators are unaware that students access online dental content through Google and YouTube more often than through official academic platforms. Educators are concerned about the accuracy of online dental content. Many believe that they direct their students on how to determine the accuracy of online content which contrasts with other researchers’ findings. More communication is needed between educators and dental students to address each other’s concerns and enhance student’s learning.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1318.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Hybrid Deep Learning Models; Sentiment Analysis; Machine Learning
Online: 19 June 2023 (09:33:58 CEST)
Sentiment analysis of public opinion expressed in social networks has been developed into various applications, especially in English. Hybrid approaches are potential models for reducing sentiment errors on increasingly complex training data. This paper aims to test some hybrid deep learning models' reliability in some domains' Vietnamese language. Our research questions are to determine whether it is possible to produce hybrid models that outperform the Vietnamese language. Hybrid deep sentiment-analysis learning models are built and tested on reviews and feedback of the Vietnamese language. The hybrid models outperformed the accuracy of Vietnamese sentiment analysis on Vietnamese datasets. It contributes to the growing body of research on Vietnamese NLP, providing insights and directions for future studies in this area.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1162.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Reinforcement learning; Decision tree; Explainable AI; Rule learning
Online: 28 April 2023 (10:14:59 CEST)
The demand for explainable and transparent models increases with the continued success of reinforcement learning. In this article, we explore the potential of generating shallow decision trees (DT) as simple and transparent surrogate models for opaque deep reinforcement learning (DRL) agents. We investigate three algorithms for generating training data for axis-parallel and oblique DTs with the help of DRL agents ("oracles") and evaluate these methods on classic control problems from OpenAI Gym. The results show that one of our newly developed algorithms, the iterative training, outperforms traditional sampling algorithms, resulting in well-performing DTs that often even surpass the oracle from which they were trained. Even higher dimensional problems can be solved with surprisingly shallow DTs. We discuss the advantages and disadvantages of different sampling methods and insights into the decision-making process made possible by the transparent nature of DTs. Our work contributes to the development of not only powerful but also explainable RL agents and highlights the potential of DTs as a simple and effective alternative to complex DRL models.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0252.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Early Learning Assessment; Students Performance; Learning Communities; Motivation
Online: 13 January 2023 (10:52:23 CET)
In this paper, we have investigated the impact of an early learning assessment on students' motivation for improving their performance throughout the semester. An observation analysis was conducted on an entry level mechanical engineering course in which students are enrolled in during their first semester of engineering work. This study analyzes the effect that a first exam, with an average below a passing grade, has on student's outcome in the course. It was hypothesized that students were motivated to achieve their desired grade outcomes following inadequate performance on the first exam. This was investigated by diving into the results of the course and referencing initial performance to the remaining exam and assessment outcomes. Students were placed into grade bands ranging from 0 to 100 in 20% increments. Their results were tracked and it was shown that for the second mechanics exam, averages jumped 43.333%, 35.35%, and 30.055% for grade bands of 0 to 20, 20 to 40, and 40 to 60 respectively. Assessment grades increased as well with the remaining assessments being averaged to a score of 91.095%. Variables contributing to student performance came from both with-in and outside the classroom. Learning communities, material differentiation, and student and professor adaptation all contributed to the rise in performance. It was concluded that the internal and external variables acted in combination with one another to increase student dedication to achieve success.
DATA DESCRIPTOR | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0423.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: time series; machine learning; anomaly detection; transfer learning
Online: 27 October 2022 (07:58:28 CEST)
Machine learning methods have widely been applied to detect anomalies in machine and cutting tool behavior during lathe or milling. However, detecting anomalies in the workpiece itself did not get the same attention by researchers. That is why in this article, the authors present a pub-licly available multivariate time series dataset which was recorded during milling of 16MnCr5. Due to artificially introduced, though realistic anomalies in the workpiece the dataset can be ap-plied for anomaly detection. By using a convolutional autoencoder as a first model good results in detecting the location of the anomalies in the workpiece were achieved. Furthermore, milling tools with two different diameters where used which led to a dataset eligible for transfer learn-ing. The objective of this article is to provide researchers with a real-world time series dataset of the milling process which is suitable for modern machine learning research topics like anomaly detection and transfer learning.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0196.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Autonomous Vehicles; Reinforcement Learning; Explainable Reinforcement Learning; XRL
Online: 14 September 2022 (08:13:44 CEST)
While machine learning models are powering more and more everyday devices, there is a growing need for explaining them. This especially applies to the use of Deep Reinforcement Learning in solutions that require security, such as vehicle motion planning. In this paper, we propose a method of understanding what the RL agent’s decision is based on. The method relies on conducting statistical analysis on a massive set of state-decisions samples. It indicates which input features have an impact on the agent’s decision and the relationships between decisions, the significance of the input features, and their values. The method allows us for determining whether the process of making a decision by the agent is coherent with human intuition and what contradicts it. We applied the proposed method to the RL motion planning agent which is supposed to drive a vehicle safely and efficiently on a highway. We find out that making such analysis allows for a better understanding agent’s decisions, inspecting its behavior, debugging the ANN model, and verifying the correctness of input values, which increases its credibility.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0311.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: zoonotic pathogens; mathematical algorithms; machine learning; deep learning
Online: 17 August 2022 (08:57:27 CEST)
Globally, zoonotic diseases have been on the rise in recent years. Predictive modelling approaches have been successfully used in the literature to identify the underlying causes of these zoonotic diseases. We examine the latest research in the field of predictive modeling that verifies the growth of zoonotic pathogens and assesses the factors associated with their spread. The results of our survey indicate that popular mathematical models can successfully be used in modeling the growth rate of these pathogens under varying storage temperatures. Additionally, some of them are used for the assessment of the inactivation of these pathogens based on various conditions. Based on the results of our study, machine learning models and deep learning are commonly used to detect pathogens within food items and to predict the factors associated with the presence of the pathogens.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0151.v3
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: deep learning; CNN; DenseNet; COVID-19; transfer learning
Online: 18 February 2022 (14:44:55 CET)
COVID-19 has a severe risk of spreading rapidly, the quick identification of which is essential. In this regard, chest radiology images have proven to be a practical screening approach for COVID-19 aﬀected patients. This study proposes a deep learning-based approach using Densenet-121 to detect COVID-19 patients eﬀectively. We have trained and tested our model on the COVIDx dataset and performed both 2-class and 3-class classification, achieving 96.49% and 93.71% accuracy, respectively. By successfully utilizing transfer learning, we achieve comparable performance to the state-of-the-art method while using 15x fewer model parameters. Moreover, we performed an interpretability analysis using Grad-CAM to highlight the most significant image regions at test time. Finally, we developed a website that takes chest radiology images as input and detects the presence of COVID-19 or pneumonia and a heatmap highlighting the infected regions. Source code for reproducing results and model weights are available.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0018.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: metastatic breast cancer; metastasis; causal learning; machine learning
Online: 1 December 2021 (13:40:33 CET)
Background: Risk of metastatic recurrence of breast cancer after initial diagnosis and treatment depends on the presence of a number of risk factors. Although most univariate risk factors have been identified using classical methods, machine-learning methods are also being conducted to tease out non-obvious contributors to a patient’s individual risk of developing late distant metastasis. Bayesian-network algorithms may predict not only risk factors but also interactions among these risks, which consequently lead to metastatic breast cancer. We proposed to apply a previously developed machine-learning method to predict risk factors of 5-, 10- and 15-year metastasis. Methods: We applied a previously validated algorithm named the Markov Blanket and Interactive risk factor Learner (MBIL) on the electronic health record (EHR)-based Lynn Sage database (LSDB) from the Lynn Sage Comprehensive Breast Cancer at Northwestern Memorial Hospital. This algorithm provided an output of both single and interactive risk factors of 5-, 10-, and 15-year metastasis from LSDB. We individually examined and interpreted the clinical relevance of these interactions based on years to metastasis and the reliance on interactivity between risk factors. Results: We found that with lower alpha values (low interactivity score), the prevalence of variables with an independent influence on long term metastasis was higher (i.e., HER2, TNEG). As the value of alpha increased to 480, stronger interactions were needed to define clusters of factors that increased the risk of metastasis (i.e., ER, smoking, race, alcohol usage). Conclusion: MBIL identified single and interacting risk factors of metastatic breast cancer, many of which were supported by clinical evidence. These results strongly recommend the development of further large data studies with different databases to validate the degree to which some of these variables impact metastatic breast cancer in the long term.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0753.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Convolutional extreme learning machine; Deep learning; Multimedia analysis
Online: 28 April 2021 (15:31:14 CEST)
Many works have recently identified the need to combine deep learning with extreme learning to strike a performance balance with accuracy especially in the domain of multimedia applications. Considering this new paradigm, namely convolutional extreme learning machine (CELM), we present a systematic review that investigates alternative deep learning architectures that use extreme learning machine (ELM) for a faster training to solve problems based on image analysis. We detail each of the architectures found in the literature, application scenarios, benchmark datasets, main results, advantages, and present the open challenges for CELM. We follow a well structured methodology and establish relevant research questions that guide our findings. We hope that the observation and classification of such works can leverage the CELM research area providing a good starting point to cope with some of the current problems in the image-based computer vision analysis.
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Multimodal Machine Learning; Deep Learning; Hate Speech Detection
Online: 15 March 2021 (13:46:27 CET)
Hateful and abusive speech presents a major challenge for all online social media platforms. Recent advances in Natural Language Processing and Natural Language Understanding allow more accurate detection of hate speech in textual streams. This study presents a multimodal approach to hate speech detection by combining Computer Vision and Natural Language processing models for abusive context detection. Our study focuses on Twitter messages and, more specifically, on hateful, xenophobic and racist speech in Greek aimed at refugees and migrants. In our approach we combine transfer learning and fine-tuning of Bidirectional Encoder Representations from Transformers (BERT) and Residual Neural Networks (Resnet). Our contribution includes the development of a new dataset for hate speech classification, consisting of tweet ids, along with the code to obtain their visual appearance, as they would have been rendered in a web browser. We have also released a pre-trained Language Model trained on Greek tweets, which has been used in our experiments. We report a consistently high level of accuracy (accuracy score=0.970, f1-score=0.947 in our best model) in racist and xenophobic speech detection.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: machine learning; deep learning; bioinformatics; phylogenetics; cancer evolution
Online: 17 February 2021 (09:40:45 CET)
The exponential growth of biomedical data in recent years urged the application of numerous machine learning techniques to address emerging problems in biology and clinical research. By enabling automatic feature extraction, selection and generation of predictive models, these methods can be used to efficiently study complex biological systems. Machine learning techniques are frequently integrated with bioinformatic methods, as well as curated databases and biological networks, to enhance training and validation, identify the best interpretable features, and enable feature and model investigation. Here, we review recently developed methods that incorporate machine learning within the same framework with techniques from molecular evolution, protein structure analysis, systems biology and disease genomics. We outline the challenges posed for machine learning, and in particular, deep learning in biomedicine and suggest unique opportunities for machine learning techniques integrated with established bioinformatics approaches to overcome some of these challenges.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0482.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Distance; Learning; Academic; Education; Students; Teaching-Learning; Modality
Online: 25 January 2021 (10:59:30 CET)
Education setting evolved from historical open learning system to traditional classroom set-up to distance learning modality. Teaching-Learning practice is transformed with an evolution of teaching-learning materials. With technological advancement in progressive manner and it’s increasing use in academic setting, distance learning has been the on-demand and on-debate topic in current educational discourse. Comparatively fresh topic in Nepali academic setting, this paper intended to analyze the perception of Nepali students towards online modality in Nepali academic setting. This paper further analyzed the student’s preference towards distance learning in current Nepali academic setting. Research findings were analyzed based on data collected through literature review, interview with students and professor and quantitative data collection through use of google form. Study identified opportunities as revenue generation; continuation of academic career from any part of country; increase learning outcome among jobholders. Study identified challenges as unequal access and quality of internet facilities; affordability of laptops/computers; limited interaction; and frequent disturbances. Seeing the better prospects, study strongly supported the need of shift in academic shift from traditional setting to non-traditional setting in Nepali context to meet the global needs of competitive and quality education.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0177.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: CALIOP; VIIRS; Machine Learning; Deep Learning; Dust Detection
Online: 8 December 2020 (06:44:51 CET)
Identifying dust aerosols from passive satellite images is of great interest for many applications. In this study, we developed 5 different machine-learning (ML) and deep-learning (DL) based algorithms, including Logistic Regression, K Nearest Neighbor, Random Forest (RF), Feed Forward Neural Network (FFNN), and Convolutional Neural Network (CNN), to identify dust aerosols in the daytime satellite images from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) under cloud-free conditions on a global scale. In order to train the ML and DL algorithms, we collocated the state-of-the-art dust detection product from the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) with the VIIRS observations along the CALIOP track. The 16 VIIRS M-band observations with the center wavelength ranging from deep blue to thermal infrared, together with solar-viewing geometries and pixel time and locations, are used as the predictor variables. Four different sets of training input data are constructed based on different combinations of VIIRS pixel and predictor variables. The validation and comparison results based on the collocated CALIOP data indicates that the FFNN method based on all available predictor variables is the best performing one among all methods. It has an averaged dust detection accuracy of about 81 %, 89 % and 85 % over land, ocean and whole globe, respectively, compared with collocated CALIOP. When applied to off-track VIIRS pixels, the FFNN method retrieves geographical distributions of dust that are in good agreement with on-track results as well as CALIOP statistics. For further evaluation, we compared our results based on the ML and DL algorithms to NOAA’s Aerosol Detection Product (ADP) , which is a product that classifies dust, smoke and ash using physical-based methods. The comparison reveals both similarity and differences. Overall, this study demonstrates the great potential of ML and DL methods for dust detection and proves that these methods can be trained on the CALIOP track and then applied to the whole granule of VIIRS granule.
Subject: Physical Sciences, Thermodynamics Keywords: Deep Learning; Thermodynamics; Learning and Generalization; Diophantine equations
Online: 13 October 2020 (14:32:18 CEST)
Deep learning machines are computational models composed of multiple processing layers of adaptive weights to learn representations of data with multiple levels of abstraction. Their structure is mainly reflecting the intuitive plausibility of decomposing a problem into multiple levels of computation and representation since it is believed that higher layers of representation allow a system to learn complex functions. Surprisingly, after decades of research, from learning and design perspectives these models are still deployed in a heuristic manner. In this paper, deep learning feed-forward machines are modeled from a statistical mechanics point of view as disordered physical systems where its macroscopic behavior is determined in terms of the interactions defined between the basic constituent of these models, namely, the artificial neuron. They are viewed as the equilibrium states of a theoretical body that is subject to the law of increase of the entropy. The study of the changes in energy of the body when passing from one equilibrium state to another is used to understand the structure and role of the phase space of the system, the stability of the equilibrium states, and the resulting degree of disorder. It is shown that the topology of these models is strongly linked to their stability and resulting level of disorder. Furthermore, the proposed theoretical characterization permit to assess the thermodynamic efficiency with which information can be processed by these models, and to provide a practical methodology to quantitatively estimate and compare their expected learning and generalization capabilities. These theoretical results provides new insights to the theory of deep learning and their implications are shown to be consistent through a set of benchmarks designed to experimentally assess their validity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0142.v3
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Plant Diseases; Modern Agriculture; Plant Health; AWS DeepLens; SageMaker; Machine Learning; Deep Learning
Online: 14 September 2020 (06:24:16 CEST)
In the Agriculture sector, control of plant leaf diseases is crucial as it influences the quality and production of plant species with an impact on the economy of any country. Therefore, automated identification and classification of plant leaf disease at an early stage is essential to reduce economic loss and to conserve the specific species. Previously, to detect and classify plant leaf disease, various Machine Learning models have been proposed; however, they lack usability due to hardware incompatibility, limited scalability and inefficiency in practical usage. Our proposed DeepLens Classification and Detection Model (DCDM) approach deal with such limitations by introducing automated detection and classification of the leaf diseases in fruits (apple, grapes, peach and strawberry) and vegetables (potato and tomato) via scalable transfer learning on A.W.S. SageMaker and importing it on AWS DeepLens for real-time practical usability. Cloud integration provides scalability and ubiquitous access to our approach. Our experiments on extensive image data set of healthy and unhealthy leaves of fruits and vegetables showed an accuracy of 98.78% with a real-time diagnosis of plant leaves diseases. We used forty thousand images for the training of deep learning model and then evaluated it on ten thousand images. The process of testing an image for disease diagnosis and classification using AWS DeepLens on average took 0.349s, providing disease information to the user in less than a second.
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: waste classification; transfer learning; deep learning; recognition classification
Online: 23 February 2020 (14:01:01 CET)
Using machine learning or deep learning to solve the problem of garbage recognition and classification is an important application in computer vision, but due to the incomplete establishment of garbage datasets and the poor performance of complex network models on smart terminal devices, the existing garbage classification models The effect is not good.This paper presents a waste classification and identification method base on transfer learning and lightweight neural network. By migrating the lightweight neural network MobileNetV2 and rebuild it, The reconstructed network is used for feature extraction, and the extracted features are introduced into the SVM to realize the identification of 6 types of garbage. The model was trained and verified by using 2527 pieces of garbage labeled data in the TrashNet dataset, which ultimately resulted in a classification accuracy of 98.4% of the method, which proves that the method can effectively improve the classification accuracy and time and overcome the problem of weak data and less labeling. The over-fitting phenomenon encountered by small data sets in deep learning makes the model robust.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0165.v1
Subject: Engineering, Telecommunications Keywords: massive MIMO; pilot contamination; deep learning; machine learning
Online: 14 August 2019 (16:01:48 CEST)
In this brief letter we report our initial results on the application of deep-learning to the massive MIMO channel estimation challenge. We show that it is possible to estimate wireless channels and that the possibility of mitigating pilot-contamination with deep-learning is possible given that the leaning model underwent an extensive training-phase and that it has been presented with a large number of different channel conditions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0273.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Active Learning, Pedagogy, Student Learning, Interactive Effects, Education
Online: 24 April 2019 (12:44:14 CEST)
If students do not fully apply themselves, then they may be considered responsible for the result of being inadequately prepared. +- Nevertheless, student outcomes are more likely to reflect a combination of both effort and systematic problems with overall course architecture. Deficiencies in course design result in inadequate preparation that adversely and directly impacts students’ productivity upon entering the workforce. Such an impact negatively influences students' ability to maintain gainful employment and provide for their families, which inevitably contributes to the development of issues concerning their psychological well-being. It is well-documented that incorporating active learning strategies in course design and delivery can enhance student learning outcomes. Despite the benefit of implementing active learning techniques, rarely in the real world will it be possible for techniques to be used in isolation of one another. Therefore, the purpose of this proposed study is to determine the interactive effects of two active learning strategies because, at a minimum, technique-pairs more accurately represent the application of active learning in the natural educational setting. There is a paucity of evidence in the literature directed toward investigating the interactive effects of multiple active learning techniques that this study is aimed at filling. The significance of this research is that, by determining the interactive effects of paired active learning strategies, other research studies on the beneficial effects of using particular active learning technique-pairs will be documented contributing to the literature so that ultimately classroom instruction may be customized according to the determination of optimal sequencing of strategy-pairs for particular courses, subjects, and desired outcomes that maximize student learning.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0963.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Hate Speech Detection; Machine Learning; Sentiment Analysis; Semi-Supervised Learning; Self-Learning; Text Mining
Online: 15 November 2023 (09:58:07 CET)
Text annotation is an essential element of the natural language processing approaches. The manual annotation process performed by humans has several drawbacks, such as subjectivity, slowness, fatigue, and possibly carelessness. In addition, annotators may annotate ambiguous data. So, we developed the concept of automated annotation to get the best annotations using several machine-learning approaches. The proposed approach is based on an ensemble algorithm of meta-learners and meta-vectorizer techniques. The approach employs a semi-supervised learning technique for automated annotation, aimed at detecting hate speech. This involves leveraging various machine learning algorithms, including Support Vector Machine (SVM), Decision Tree (DT), K-Nearest Neighbors (KNN), and Naive Bayes (NB), in conjunction with Word2Vec and TF-IDF text extraction methods. The annotation process is performed using 13,169 Indonesian YouTube comments data. The proposed model used a Stemming approach using data from Sastrawi and also new data of 2,245 words. Semi-supervised learning uses 5%, 10%, and 20% of labeled data as compared to performing labeling based on 80% of the datasets. In semi-supervised learning, the model learns from the labeled data, which provides explicit information, and the unlabeled data, which offers implicit insights. This hybrid approach enables the model to generalize and make informed predictions even when limited labeled data is available, ultimately enhancing its ability to handle real-world scenarios with scarce annotated information. In addition, the proposed method uses a variety of thresholds for matching words labeled with hate speech ranging from 0.6, 0.7, 0.8, and 0.9. The experiment showed that the KNN-Word2ec model has the best accuracy value of 96.9% with a scenario of 5%:80%:0.9. However, several other methods have also accuracy above 90%, such as SVM and DT based on both text extraction methods in several test scenarios.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1539.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Life Sciences Keywords: machine learning; reinforcement learning; deep learning; Gaussian process; artificial neural networks; real-time diagnostics
Online: 25 September 2023 (05:19:01 CEST)
Plasma technology shows tremendous potential for revolutionizing oncology research and treatment. Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, electromagnetic emissions generated through gas plasma jets, have attracted significant attention due to their selective cytotoxicity towards cancer cells. To leverage the full potential of plasma medicine, researchers have explored the use of mathematical models and various subsets of machine learning, such as reinforcement learning, and deep learning. This review emphasizes the significant application of AI algorithms in the adaptive plasma system, paving the way for precision and dynamic cancer treatment. Realizing the full potential of AI in plasma medicine, requires research efforts, data sharing and interdisciplinary collaborations. Unravelling the complex mechanisms, developing real-time diagnostics, and optimizing AI models will be crucial to harness the true power of plasma technology in oncology. The integration of personalized and dynamic plasma therapies, alongside AI and diagnostic sensors, presents a transformative approach to cancer treatment with the potential to improve outcomes globally.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1367.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: online learning; e-learning; neuroscience; neuropedagogy; neuroeducation; higher education; design thinking; learning management system
Online: 19 May 2023 (03:32:57 CEST)
Higher education teaching staff members need to build a scientifically accurate and comprehensive understanding of the function of the brain in learning to optimize teaching and achieve excellent student learning. An international consortium developed a professional development six-module course on educational neuroscience and online community of practice applying design thinking. A mixed methods research design was employed to investigate the attitudes of thirty-two (N=32) participating academics using a survey comprising eleven closed and open questions. Data analysis methods included descriptive statistics, correlation, generalized additive model and grounded theory. The overall evaluation demonstrated a notable satisfaction level with regard to the quality of the course. Given the power of habits, mentoring and peer interactions are recommended to ensure the effective integration of theoretical neuroscientific evidence into teaching practice.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0360.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: Reinforcement Learning, Q-learning, Fuzzy Q-learning, Attitude Control, Truss-braced Wing, Flight Control
Online: 24 October 2022 (10:24:33 CEST)
Attitude control of a novel regional truss-braced wing aircraft with low stability characteristics is addressed in this paper using Reinforcement Learning (RL). In recent years, RL has been increasingly employed in challenging applications, particularly, autonomous flight control. However, a significant predicament confronting discrete RL algorithms is the dimension limitation of the state-action table and difficulties in defining the elements of the RL environment. To address these issues, in this paper, a detailed mathematical model of the mentioned aircraft is first developed to shape an RL environment. Subsequently, Q-learning, the most prevalent discrete RL algorithm will be implemented in both the Markov Decision Process (MDP), and Partially Observable Markov Decision Process (POMDP) frameworks to control the longitudinal mode of the air vehicle. In order to eliminate residual fluctuations that are a consequence of discrete action selection, and simultaneously track variable pitch angles, a Fuzzy Action Assignment (FAA) method is proposed to generate continuous control commands using the trained Q-table. Accordingly, it will be proved that by defining an accurate reward function, along with observing all crucial states (which is equivalent to satisfying the Markov Property), the performance of the introduced control system surpasses a well-tuned Proportional–Integral–Derivative (PID) controller.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0367.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Artificial Intelligence; Deep Learning; Image Classification; Machine Learning; Predictive Models; Small Datasets; Supervised Learning
Online: 25 January 2022 (08:24:17 CET)
One of the most important challenges in the Machine and Deep Learning areas today is to build good models using small datasets, because sometimes it is not possible to have large ones. Several techniques have been proposed in the literature to address this challenge. This paper aims at studying the different available Deep Learning techniques and performing a thorough experimentation to analyze which technique or combination thereof improves the performance and effectiveness of the models. A complete comparison with classical Machine Learning techniques was carried out, to contrast the results obtained using both techniques when working with small datasets. Thirteen algorithms were implemented and trained using three different small datasets (MNIST, Fashion MNIST, and CIFAR-10). Each experiment was evaluated using a well-established set of metrics (Accuracy, Precision, Recall, F1, and the Matthews correlation coefficient). The experimentation allowed concluding that it is possible to find a technique or combination of them to mitigate a lack of data, but this depends on the nature of the dataset, the amount of data, and the metrics used to evaluate them.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0780.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Deep learning; Computer vision; Remote sensing; Supervised learning; Semi-supervised learning; Segmentation; Seagrass mapping
Online: 31 March 2021 (15:53:19 CEST)
Intertidal seagrass plays a vital role in estimating the overall health and dynamics of coastal environments due to its interaction with tidal changes. However, most seagrass habitats around the globe have been in steady decline due to human impacts, disturbing the already delicate balance in environmental conditions that sustain seagrass. Miniaturization of multi-spectral sensors has facilitated very high resolution mapping of seagrass meadows, which significantly improve the potential for ecologists to monitor changes. In this study, two analytical approaches used for classifying intertidal seagrass habitats are compared: Object-based Image Analysis (OBIA) and Fully Convolutional Neural Networks (FCNNs). Both methods produce pixel-wise classifications in order to create segmented maps, however FCNNs are an emerging set of algorithms within Deep Learning with sparse application towards seagrass mapping. Conversely, OBIA has been a prominent solution within this field, with many studies leveraging in-situ data and multiscale segmentation to create habitat maps. This work demonstrates the utility of FCNNs in a semi-supervised setting to map seagrass and other coastal features from an optical drone survey conducted at Budle Bay, Northumberland, England. Semi-supervision is also an emerging field within Deep Learning that has practical benefits of achieving state of the art results using only subsets of labelled data. This is especially beneficial for remote sensing applications where in-situ data is an expensive commodity. For our results, we show that FCNNs have comparable performance with standard OBIA method used by ecologists, while also noting an increase in performance for mapping ecological features that are sparsely labelled across the study site.
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: constructivism; e-learning; online teaching; social constructivism theory; cognitive learning theory; transformative learning theory
Online: 18 December 2020 (16:29:27 CET)
The COVID-19 outbreaks have caused universities all across the globe to close their campuses and forced them to initiate online teaching. This article reviews the pedagogical foundations for developing effective distance education practices, starting from the assumption that promoting autonomous thinking is an essential element to guarantee full citizenship in a democracy and for moral decision making in situations of rapid change, which has become a pressing need in the context of a pandemic. In addition, the main obstacles related to this new context are identified, and solutions are proposed according to the existing bibliography in learning sciences.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0472.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Computer-aided Screening; Coronavirus; X-Ray; CT scan; Machine Learning; Transfer Learning; Deep Learning
Online: 21 August 2020 (05:17:46 CEST)
In this article, we analyse the computer aid screening method of COVID19 using Xray and CT scan images. The main objective is to set an analytical closure about the computer aid screening of COVID19 among the X-ray image and CT scan image. The computer aid screening method includes deep feature extraction, transfer learning and traditional machine learning image classification approach. The deep feature extraction and transfer learning method considered 13 pre-trained CNN model. The machine learning approach includes three sets of features and three classifiers. The pre-trained CNN models are alexnet, googlenet, vgg16, vgg19, densenet201, resnet18, resnet50, resnet101, inceptionv3, inceptionresnetv2, xception, mobilenetv2 and shufflenet. The features and classifiers in machine learning approaches are GLCM, LBP, HOG and KNN, SVM, Naive bay’s respectively. In addition, we also analyse the different paradigms of classifiers. In total, the comparative analysis is carried out in 65 classification models, i.e. 13 in deep feature extraction, 13 in transfer learning and 39 in machine learning approaches. Finally, all the classification models perform better in X-ray image set compare to CT scan image set.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0351.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: machine learning; aerodynamics; high-speed train; hybrid machine learning; Prediction Turbulence model; deep learning
Online: 26 December 2019 (05:23:14 CET)
In the present paper, an aerodynamic investigation of a high-speed train is performed. In the first section of this article, a generic high-speed train against a turbulent flow is simulated, numerically. The Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations combined with the SST turbulence model are applied to solve incompressible turbulent flow around a high-speed train. Flow structure, velocity and pressure contours and streamlines at some typical wind directions are the most important results of this simulation. The maximum and minimum values are specified and discussed. Also, the pressure coefficient for some critical points on the train surface is evaluated. In the following, the wind direction influence the aerodynamic key parameters as drag, lift, and side forces at the mentioned wind directions are analyzed and compared. Moreover, the effects of velocity changes (50, 60, 70, 80 and 90 m/s) are estimated and compared on the above flow and aerodynamic parameters. In the second section of the paper, various data-driven methods including Gene Expression Programming (GEP), Gaussian Process Regression (GPR), and random forest (RF), are applied for predicting output parameters. So, drag, lift and side forces and also minimum and a maximum of pressure coefficients for mentioned wind directions and velocity are predicted and compared using statistical parameters. Obtained results indicated that RF in all coefficients of wind direction and most coefficients of free stream velocity provided the most accurate predictions. As a conclusion, RF may be recommended for the prediction of aerodynamic coefficients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0154.v2
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: deep learning; multiple instance learning; weakly supervised learning; demography; socioeconomic analysis; google street view
Online: 24 October 2018 (08:53:26 CEST)
(1) Background: Evidence-based policymaking requires data about the local population's socioeconomic status (SES) at detailed geographical level, however, such information is often not available, or is too expensive to acquire. Researchers have proposed solutions to estimate SES indicators by analyzing Google Street View images, however, these methods are also resource-intensive, since they require large volumes of manually labeled training data. (2) Methods: We propose a methodology for automatically computing surrogate variables of SES indicators using street images of parked cars and deep multiple instance learning. Our approach does not require any manually created labels, apart from data already available by statistical authorities, while the entire pipeline for image acquisition, parked car detection, car classification, and surrogate variable computation is fully automated. The proposed surrogate variables are then used in linear regression models to estimate the target SES indicators. (3) Results: We implement and evaluate a model based on the proposed surrogate variable at 30 municipalities of varying SES in Greece. Our model has $R^2=0.76$ and a correlation coefficient of $0.874$ with the true unemployment rate, while it achieves a mean absolute percentage error of $0.089$ and mean absolute error of $1.87$ on a held-out test set. Similar results are also obtained for other socioeconomic indicators, related to education level and occupational prestige. (4) Conclusions: The proposed methodology can be used to estimate SES indicators at the local level automatically, using images of parked cars detected via Google Street View, without the need for any manual labeling effort.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0078.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Natural language processing; text classification; probabilistic models; machine learning; generative learning; collaborative learning; explainable AI
Online: 5 June 2023 (02:57:36 CEST)
The use of artificial intelligence in natural language processing (NLP) has significantly contributed to the advancement of natural language applications such as sentimental analysis, topic modeling, text classification, chatbots, and spam filtering. With a large amount of text generated each day from different sources such as webpages, blogs, emails, social media, and articles, one of the most common tasks in natural language processing is the classification of a text corpus. This is important in many institutions for planning, decision-making, and archives of their projects. Many algorithms exist to automate text classification operations but the most intriguing of them is that which also learns these operations automatically. In this study, we present a new model to infer and learn from data using probabilistic logic and apply it to text classification. This model, called GenCo, is a multi-input single-output (MISO) learning model that uses a collaboration of partial classifications to generate the desired output. It provides a heterogeneity measure to explain its classification results and enables the reduction of the curse of dimensionality in text classification. The classification results are compared with those of conventional text classification models, and it shows that our proposed model has a higher classification performance than conventional models.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0211.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: COVID-19; active learning; science learning; applied technology, assessment for learning; new teaching material development
Online: 16 May 2022 (13:13:32 CEST)
Pandemic scenario has significantly changed several factors of life, including teaching, and learning at university. The development of suitable teaching materials to support university studies is mandatory to overcome distance learning difficulties and improve traditional teaching methodologies. This work explains a novel method for the preparation of teaching materials for medical sciences, but also plausible for other learning fields. An encephalon was extracted and prepared by using this methodology for teaching purposes. More than 200 students evaluated several factors of the material prepared this way, indicating a better understanding (up to 80%) of theoretical contents related to this human section, together with a high usability and good physical appearance
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: spatial machine learning; spatial dependence; spatial heterogeneity; scale; spatial observation matrix; learning algorithm; deep learning
Online: 6 August 2021 (14:18:55 CEST)
Properties of spatially explicit data are often ignored or inadequately handled in machine learning for spatial domains of application. At the same time, resources that would identify these properties and investigate their influence and methods to handle them in machine learning applications are lagging behind. In this survey of the literature, we seek to identify and discuss spatial properties of data that influence the performance of machine learning. We review some of the best practices in handling such properties in spatial domains and discuss their advantages and disadvantages. We recognize two broad strands in this literature. In the first, the properties of spatial data are developed in the spatial observation matrix without amending the substance of the learning algorithm; in the other, spatial data properties are handled in the learning algorithm itself. While the latter have been far less explored, we argue they offer the most promising prospects for the future of spatial machine learning.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0468.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: e-learning; information technology services; e-learning adoption; e-learning diffusion; systematic review; bibliometric analysis
Online: 20 September 2020 (14:22:58 CEST)
Increased proliferation of IT services in all sectors has reinforced the adoption and diffusion across all levels of education and training institutions. However, lack of awareness of and knowledge about the key challenges and opportunities of elearning, seem to allude policymakers, resulting in low adoption or increased failure rate of many e-learning projects. Our study tries to address this problem through a review of relevant literature in e-learning. Our goal was to draw from the existing literature, insights into the opportunities and challenges of e-learning diffusion, and the current state-of-research in the field. To do this, we employed a systematic review of literature on some of the salient opportunities and challenges of e-learning innovation for educational institutions. These results aimed to inform policymakers and suggest some interesting issues to advance the research and adoption and diffusion of e-learning. Moreover, the bibliometric analysis shows that the field is experiencing high research attraction among scholars. However, several research areas in the field witnessed relatively low research paucity. Based on these findings, we discussed topics for possible future research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0185.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: deep learning; multi-task learning; audio event detection; audio tagging; weak learning; low-resource data
Online: 10 July 2018 (16:05:15 CEST)
In training a deep learning system to perform audio transcription, two practical problems may arise. Firstly, most datasets are weakly labelled, having only a list of events present in each recording without any temporal information for training. Secondly, deep neural networks need a very large amount of labelled training data to achieve good quality performance, yet in practice it is difficult to collect enough samples for most classes of interest. In this paper, we propose factorising the final task of audio transcription into multiple intermediate tasks in order to improve the training performance when dealing with this kind of low-resource datasets. We evaluate three data-efficient approaches of training a stacked convolutional and recurrent neural network for the intermediate tasks. Our results show that different methods of training have different advantages and disadvantages.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1990.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Classification; Transfer Learning; Deep learning; Finger Fracture; X-Rays
Online: 30 November 2023 (14:10:07 CET)
Our daily activities hinge on the flexibility of our fingers, and a fractured finger can significantly disrupt these routines. The finger bones enable us to bend and fold the fingers and thumb to pick up or grasp objects and do all of our daily activities. A broken finger can cause adverse effects on our daily life activities. It is important to treat broken finger as soon as possible. Swift and precise treatment begins with capturing multiple X-rays, followed by the critical step of fracture detection in these images. Relying on the naked eye for this task carries the risk of overlooking small fractures. To address this issue an automated diagnoses of fractured fingers from images is required for which the current research employs advanced deep learning models—ResNet34, ResNet50, ResNet101, ResNet152, VGG-16, and VGG-19—to classify finger images from the Musculoskeletal Radiographs (MURA) dataset as either fractured or non-fractured. The results emphasize the consistently strong performance of ResNet models, attaining an impressive accuracy of 81.9%. This surpasses VGG models by 3.4% and establishes ResNet as the new benchmark for state-of-the-art accuracy.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1347.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: deep learning; human activity recognition; microdoppler; machine learning; radar
Online: 21 November 2023 (15:12:00 CET)
The importance of radar-based human activity recognition increased significantly over the last two decades in safety and smart surveillance applications due to its superiority towards vision-based sensing in the presence of poor environmental conditions, like illumination, increased radiative heat, occlusion, and fog. An increased public sensitivity for privacy protection, and the progress of cost-effective manufacturing, led to a higher acceptance and distribution. Deep learning approaches proved that the manual feature extraction that relies heavily upon process knowledge can be avoided by its hierarchical, non-descriptive nature. On the other hand, ML techniques based on manual feature extraction provide a robust, yet empirical based approach where the computational effort is comparatively low. This review outlines the basics of classical ML- and DL-based human activity recognition and its advances while taking recent progress of both categories into regard. For every category, state-of-the-art methods are introduced, briefly explained and discussed in terms of their pros, cons and gaps. A comparative study is performed to evaluate the performance and computational effort based on a benchmarking data set to provide a common basis for the assessment of the techniques’ degree of suitability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0106.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: educational technology; artificial intelligence; personalized learning; adaptive learning systems
Online: 2 November 2023 (07:13:07 CET)
This article focuses on artificial intelligence in educational technology, starting with an introduction to educational technology, an interdisciplinary field of study that covers the design, development, utilization, and evaluation of technology and digital tools in educational Settings. A detailed description of its definition in an academic context - a multidisciplinary field of computer science and cognitive science that deals with the development of computational systems that exhibit intelligent behaviour, describing its areas of coverage and scope of application. It then introduces the benefits of AI in education technology, specifically addressing personalized learning, adaptive learning systems, automated scoring and feedback, virtual tutors and chatbots, data analytics, as well as content recommendations and natural language processing, accessibility and inclusion. Then it introduces the main concepts of AI personalized learning: AI personalized learning uses the power of artificial intelligence to meet the unique needs and preferences of individual learners, as well as its key principles and main characteristics. Adaptive learning systems harness the power of artificial intelligence and data analytics to tailor the learning experience to each student's needs and abilities, as well as its core principles and strengths. It also introduces the main operating principles of automated grading and feedback: it uses artificial intelligence and computer algorithms to evaluate and evaluate student assignments, tests and exams without the direct involvement of human graders, and its associated benefits. Secondly, the main concepts of virtual tutor are introduced: Virtual tutor is a computer-based system that uses artificial intelligence and machine learning algorithms to provide students with personalized and interactive educational support and its key characteristics and main advantages, and then the nature and benefits of chatbots and help in the field of education. The final conclusion summarizes the benefits and future challenges of integrating AI into educational technology.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1433.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: deep learning; emotion classification; machine learning; neutral emotion classification
Online: 23 October 2023 (10:29:47 CEST)
Neutral facial expression recognition is of great importance in various domains and applications. This study introduces a data-centric approach for neutral facial expression recognition, presenting a comprehensive study that explores different methodologies, techniques, and challenges in the field to foster a deeper understanding. The results show that data augmentation plays a crucial role in improving dataset performance. Additionally, the study investigates different model architectures and training techniques to identify the most effective approach, with the InceptionV3 model achieving the highest accuracy of 72%. Furthermore, the research examines the influence of preprocessing methods on the performance of both InceptionV3 and a simplified CNN model. Interestingly, the results indicate that preprocessing techniques positively affect the performance of the simpler CNN model but negatively impact the InceptionV3 model. The implemented system, used to evaluate the findings, demonstrates promising results, correctly classifying 77% of neutral expressions. However, there are still areas for improvement. Creating a specialized dataset that includes both neutral and non-neutral expressions would greatly enhance the accuracy of the system. By addressing limitations and implementing suggested improvements, neutral facial expression recognition can be significantly enhanced, leading to more effective and accurate results.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1746.v2
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: COVID-19; machine learning; deep learning; convolutional neural network
Online: 27 September 2023 (10:29:04 CEST)
A long time has passed since COVID-19 was discovered and widely disseminated. Both machine learning and deep learning have moved towards the research of diagnosing COVID-19. Compared to deep learning, traditional machine learning-based methods can also achieve good diagnostic results if they are improved based on innovative points. And deep learning remains a more popular research object. Based on the deep neural network in the field of deep learning, the convolutional neural network, recurrent neural network, long and short-term memory network, and Transformer model have been extended. These models improve the performance and processing power of neural networks by introducing new structures and algorithms. This paper will introduce the basic concepts of machine learning and deep learning, as well as the details of using the relevant methods of both to help diagnose COVID-19.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1953.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: online learning; student engagement; self-regulated learning; self-efficacy
Online: 29 August 2023 (11:15:22 CEST)
Online education allows learners to develop knowledge and skills flexibly and conveniently—such observation among students whose characteristics involve student engagement, self-regulation, and self-efficacy. However, studies to characterize Filipino online learners seem lacking. Thus, this study aimed to characterize science education tertiary students in the Philippines concerning their online student engagement (OSE), self-regulated learning (SRL), and online learning self-efficacy (OLSE). The unprecedented events brought by COVID-19 pandemic also urged the implementation of online modalities while there is no available information on students’ online learning profiles. Hence, researchers used a survey research employed through ex post facto approach to determine the effects of the demographic profile on OSE, SRL, and OLSE. The survey was participated by N=373 respondents who answered the questionnaire with informed consent administered via Google Forms. Results revealed that OSE indicators moderately characterized students, while SRL and OLSE indicators are true of them, substantiated by the overall mean M=3.85(SD=0.90), M=3.86(SD=0.92), and M=3.14(SD=0.73), respectively. Also, multivariate tests showed no significant effect among the independent groups (p>0.05), except for gender and OLSE interaction (p<0.05) so, only in OLSE was a significant difference found in gender. In conclusion, Filipino online learners are moderate across aspects of student engagement, self-regulation, and self-efficacy.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1306.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: machine learning; deep learning; prostate cancer; review; PRISMA; CNN
Online: 18 August 2023 (07:03:33 CEST)
Introduction: Prostate cancer (PCa) is one of the deadliest and most common causes of malignancy and death in men worldwide, more specifically with higher prevalence and mortality in developing countries. Factors such as age, family history, race and certain genetic mutations are some of the factors contributing to the occurrence of PCa in men. The recent advances in technology and algorithms gave rise to the computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) of PCa. With the availability of medical image datasets and emerging trends in state-of-the-art machine and deep learning techniques, there is a growth in recent related publications. Materials and Methods: In this study, we present a systematic review of PCa diagnosis with medical images using machine learning and deep learning techniques. We conducted a thorough review through relevant studies indexed in four databases (IEEE, PubMed, Springer and ScienceDirect) using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. With well-defined search terms, a total of 608 articles were identified and 77 met the final inclusion criteria. Key elements in the included papers were presented and conclusions were drawn from them. Results: Findings showed that the United States has the most research in PCa diagnosis with machine learning, Magnetic Resonance Images are the most used datasets and transfer learning is the most used method of diagnosing PCa in recent times. In addition, some available PCa datasets and some key considerations for choice of loss function in the deep learning models were presented. The limitations and lessons learnt were discussed and some key recommendations were made. Conclusion: The discoveries and the conclusions of this work have been organized so as to enable researchers in the same domain to use this work and make crucial implementation decisions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0700.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: SDN, DDoS attacks; Deep learning; Machine learning; Permutation Importance
Online: 9 August 2023 (09:47:55 CEST)
Software Defined Networking (SDN) is positioning the standard for the management of networks due to its scalability and flexibility to program the network. The SDN provides many advantages but it also involves some specific security problems take down the controller using cyber attack and in result the whole network will shut down which makes it a single point of failure. In this paper, the DDoS attacks in SDN were detected using AI-enabled, machine and deep learning, models with some specific features for data-set under normal and DDoS traffic. In our approach, initial data-set is collected from 84 features on kaggle and then the 20 top most features are selected using permutation importance algorithm. The data-set were learned and tested with AI-enabled 5 models. Our experimental results showed that the use of machine learning based random forest model has achieved the highest accuracy rate of 99.97%, in DDoS attack detection in SDN. Our contributions through this study are, first, we found highest 20 attacks that absolutely contributed to DDoS attacks. Secondly, it can reduce the time and cost of comparing various learning models and performance required for determining a learning model suitable for DDoS detection. Finally, various experimental methods for evaluating the performance of the learning model are presented so that related researchers can utilize them.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1483.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Artificial intelligence; deep learning; transfer learning; image classification; fresco
Online: 21 July 2023 (08:17:41 CEST)
The unique characteristics of frescoes on overseas Chinese buildings can attest to the integration and historical background of Chinese and Western cultures. Reasonable analysis and preservation of overseas Chinese frescoes can provide sustainable development for culture and history. This research adopts the image analysis technology based on artificial intelligence, and proposes a ResNet-34 model and method integrating transfer learning. This deep learning model can identify and classify the source of the frescoes of the emigrants, and can effectively deal with the problems such as the small number of fresco images on the emigrants' buildings, poor quality, difficulty in feature extraction, and similar pattern text and style. The experimental results show that the training process of the model proposed in this article is stable. On the constructed Jiangmen and Haikou fresco JHD datasets, the final accuracy is 98.41%, and the recall rate is 98.53%. The above evaluation indicators are superior to classic models such as AlexNet, GoogLeNet, and VGGNet. It can be seen that the model in this article has strong generalization ability and is not prone to overfitting. It can effectively identify and classify the cultural connotations and regions of frescoes.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0398.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: CRISPR/Cas9; machine learning; gRNA; neural networks; deep learning
Online: 17 April 2023 (04:25:15 CEST)
In the last decade, the genetic engineering world has been shaken up by a relatively new genetic editing tool based on RNA-guided Nucleases (RGNs): the CRISPR/Cas9 system. Since the first report in 1987 and its characterization in 2007 as a bacterial defense mechanism, the interest and research on this system have grown exponentially. CRISPR systems provide immunity to bacteria against invading genetic material; however, with specific modifications in sequence and structure, it becomes a precise editing system that makes it possible to genetically modify almost any organism. There are diverse approaches regarding the refinement of these modifications, such as constructing more accurate nucleases, understanding the cellular context and facing the epigenetic conditions, or re-designing guide RNAs (gRNAs). Considering the critical importance for the correct CRISPR/Cas9 systems performance, our scope will emphasize in the latter approach. Hence, we present an overview of the past and the most recent guide RNA web-based design tools, highlighting their computational architecture and gRNA characteristics evolution through the years. Our study concisely explains the computational approaches that use machine learning techniques, deep neural networks, and large datasets of gRNA/target interactions to make possible both predictions and classifications directed to design, optimize, and create promising gRNAs suitable for future gene therapies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0175.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: translation; project-based learning; self-regulation; teaching and learning
Online: 10 February 2023 (02:39:10 CET)
The Pandemic in 2019 forced a digital adaptation with direct consequences on all educational stakeholders. On behalf of teachers and trainers, while many regarded these changes with some scepticism, others embraced the opportunity to integrate technology into their teaching methods and as learning resources. As translation trainers, it is essential to follow and understand the translation market. Thus, the exponential changes that digital technology has brought to this sector over the years impose constant shifts in teaching and learning methods and resources. In fact, translators require vast competencies, amongst which is the flexibility to adapt. In translation training Project-Based Learning (PBL) has been established as an essential teaching and learning method, as it has proven to foster the development of competencies as it simulates the translator's work environment. Thus, the need to adapt new strategies reinforced PBL and its benefits. PBL, however, similar to a freelance translator, places the student in the centre of the learning process, where self-regulation becomes essential, as it is necessary to analyse the market/situation and be flexible enough to adapt to the context accordingly. As of 2018-2019, technical translation courses at ISCAP have implemented PBL as their main teaching and learning method. At the same time, a study on student self-regulation began. The purpose was to understand student perception on their own self-regulation competence and its development or lack thereof after one year of PBL. Results indicate that PBL is seen as a useful simulation of the translation labour market and that it does enhance many essential competences, amongst which is student self-regulation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0102.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: machine learning; deep learning; remote sensing; land cover map
Online: 6 February 2023 (10:53:10 CET)
The application of machine learning techniques to satellite imagery has been the subject of interest in recent years. The increase in quality and quantity of images, made available by Earth observation programs, such as the Copernicus program, led to the generation of large amounts of data. Among the various applications of this data is the creation of land cover maps. The present work aimed to create machine learning models capable of accurately segment and classify satellite images, to automatically generate a land cover map of the Portuguese territory. Several experiments were carried out with the spectral bands of the Sentinel-2 satellite, with vegetation indices, and with several sets of land cover classes. Three machine learning architectures were evaluated, which adopt two different techniques for image classification. One of the classification techniques follows an object-oriented approach, and in this case the architecture adopted in our models was a U-Net artificial neural network. The other classification technique is pixel-oriented, and the machine learning models tested were random forest and support vector machine. The overall accuracy of the results obtained ranged from 68.6% to 94.75%, depending strongly on the number of classes into which the land cover is classified. The result of 94.75% was obtained when classifying the land cover only into 5 classes. However, a very interesting accuracy of 92.37% was achieved by the model when trained to classify 8 classes. These results are superior to those reported in the related bibliography.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0306.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: AIoT; Artificial Intelligence; Assistive Technology; Deep Learning; Machine Learning
Online: 20 September 2022 (10:45:15 CEST)
According to the World Health Organization, about 15% of the world’s population has some form of disability. Assistive Technology, in this context, contributes directly to the overcoming of difficulties encountered by people with disabilities in their daily lives, allowing them to receive education and become part of the labor market and society in a worthy manner. Assistive Technology has made great advances in its integration with Artificial Intelligence of Things (AIoT) devices. AIoT processes and analyzes the large amount of data generated by IoT devices and applies Artificial Intelligence models, specifically Machine Learning, to discover patterns for generating insights and assisting in decision making. Based on a systematic literature review, this article aims at identifying the Machine Learning models used in multiple different research about Artificial Intelligence of Things applied to Assistive Technology. The survey of the topics approached in this article also highlights the context of such research, their application, IoT devices used, and gaps and opportunities for further development. Survey results show that 50% of the analyzed research address visual impairment, and for this reason, most of the topics cover issues related to computational vision. Portable devices, wearables, and smartphones constituted the majority of IoT devices. Deep Neural Networks represent 81% of the Machine Learning models applied in the reviewed research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0100.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: biocatalysts; bioprospecting; esterases/lipases; hydrolases; machine learning; supervised learning
Online: 7 September 2022 (04:53:30 CEST)
When bioprospecting for novel industrial enzymes, substrate promiscuity is a desirable property that increases the reusability of the enzyme. Among industrial enzymes, ester hydrolases have great relevance for which the demand has not ceased to increase. However, the search for new substrate promiscuous ester hydrolases is not trivial since the mechanism behind this property is greatly influenced by the active site's structural and physicochemical characteristics. These characteristics must be computed from the 3D structure, which is rarely available, and expensive to measure, hence the need for a method that can predict promiscuity from a sequence alone. Here we report such a method called EP-pred, an ensemble binary classifier, that combines three machine learning algorithms: SVM, KNN, and a Linear model. EP-pred has been evaluated against the Lipase Engineering Database together with a hidden Markov approach leading to a final set of 10 sequences predicted to encode promiscuous esterases. Experimental results confirmed the validity of our method since all ten proteins were found to exhibit a broad substrate ambiguity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0056.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: deep learning; convolutional neural networks; classification; machine learning; IoT
Online: 5 July 2022 (04:22:49 CEST)
In videos, the human's actions are of three-dimensional (3D) signals. These videos investigate the spatiotemporal knowledge of human behavior. The promising ability is investigated using 3D convolution neural networks (CNNs). The 3D CNNs have not yet achieved high output for their well-established two-dimensional (2D) equivalents in still photographs. Board 3D Convolutional Memory and Spatiotemporal fusion face training difficulty preventing 3D CNN from accomplishing remarkable evaluation. In this paper, we implement Hybrid Deep Learning Architecture that combines STIP and 3D CNN features to enhance the performance of 3D videos effectively. After implementation, the more detailed and deeper charting for training in each circle of space-time fusion. The training model further enhances the results after handling complicated evaluations of models. The video classification model is used in this implemented model. Intelligent 3D Network Protocol for Multimedia Data Classification using Deep Learning is introduced to further understand space-time association in human endeavors. In the implementation of the result, the well-known dataset, i.e., UCF101 to, evaluates the performance of the proposed hybrid technique. The results beat the proposed hybrid technique that substantially beats the initial 3D CNNs. The results are compared with state-of-the-art frameworks from literature for action recognition on UCF101 with an accuracy of 95%.