ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0092.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: Federated Learning; Learning Analytics
Online: 5 January 2023 (02:39:04 CET)
Federated learning techniques aim to train and build machine learning models based on distributed datasets across multiple devices, avoiding data leakage. The main idea is to perform training on remote devices or isolated data centers without transferring data to centralized repositories, thus mitigating privacy risks. Data analytics in education, in particular learning analytics, is a promising scenario to apply this approach to address the legal and ethical issues related to processing sensitive data. Indeed, given the nature of the data to be studied (personal data, educational outcomes, data concerning minors), it is essential to ensure that the conduct of these studies and the publication of the results provide the necessary guarantees to protect the privacy of the individuals involved and the protection of their data. In addition, the application of quantitative techniques based on the exploitation of data on the use of educational platforms, student performance, use of devices, etc., can account for educational problems such as the determination of user profiles, personalized learning trajectories, or early dropout indicators and alerts, among others. This paper presents the application of federated learning techniques to two learning analytics problems: dropout prediction and unsupervised student classification. The experiments allow us to conclude that the proposed solutions achieve comparable results from the performance point of view with the centralized versions, avoiding centralizing the data for training the models.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0257.v2
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: COVID-19; Predictive Analytics; Machine Learning; Prediction; Pandemic
Online: 14 May 2020 (09:03:52 CEST)
Globally, there is massive uptake and explosion of data and challenge is to address issues like scale, pace, velocity, variety, volume and complexity of this big data. Considering the recent epidemic in China, modeling of COVID-19 epidemic for cumulative number of infected cases using data available in early phase was big challenge. Being COVID-19 pandemic during very short time span, it is very important to analyze the trend of these spread and infected cases. This chapter presents medical perspective of COVID-19 towards epidemiological triad and the study of state-of-the-art. The main aim this chapter is to present different predictive analytics techniques available for trend analysis, different models and algorithms and their comparison. Finally, this chapter concludes with the prediction of COVID-19 using Prophet algorithm indicating more faster spread in short term. These predictions will be useful to government and healthcare communities to initiate appropriate measures to control this outbreak in time.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0176.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: Virtual Reality; Learning Analytics; STEM Education; Instructional Design.
Online: 8 October 2020 (13:02:32 CEST)
The commercial popularity of Virtual Reality attracted educators’ interest and brought new opportunities to the educational landscape. At the same time, Learning Analytics emerged with the promise to revolutionise the traditional practices by introducing ways to systematically assess and improve the effectiveness of instruction. However, the collection of ‘big’ educational data is mostly associated with web-based platforms as they offer direct access to learners’ activities with minimal effort. On the antipode, the nature of VR limits the opportunities for such data collection. Hence, in the context of this work, we present a four-dimensional theoretical framework, that accounts the information that can be gathered from VR-supported instruction, and propose a set of structural elements which can be utilised for the development of a Learning Analytics prototype system. The outcomes of this work are expected to support practitioners to maximise the potential of their interventions and provide inspiration for new ones.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0078.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: personalization; decision making; medical data; artificial intelligence; Data-driving; Big Data; Data Mining; Machine Learning
Online: 5 July 2020 (15:04:17 CEST)
The study was conducted on applying machine learning and data mining methods to personalizing the treatment. This allows investigating individual patient characteristics. Personalization is built on the clustering method and associative rules. It was suggested to determine the average distance between instances for optimal performance metrics finding. The formalization of the medical data pre-processing stage for finding personalized solutions based on current standards and pharmaceutical protocols is proposed. The model of patient data is built. The paper presents the novel approach to clustering built on ensemble of cluster algorithm with better than k-means algorithm Hopkins metrics. The personalized treatment usually is based on decision tree. Such approach requires a lot of computation time and cannot be paralyzed. Therefore, it is proposed to classify persons by conditions, to determine deviations of parameters from the normative parameters of the group, as well as the average parameters. This made it possible to create a personalized approach to treatment for each patient based on long-term monitoring. According to the results of the analysis, it becomes possible to predict the optimal conditions for a particular patient and to find the medicaments treatment according to personal characteristics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0698.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: Accidents, Data Analysis, Machine Learning, Transport
Online: 28 May 2021 (11:59:24 CEST)
Daily thousands of people and goods move along Brazilian Federal highways. Traffic accidents are numerous on these highways and have a significant impact, whether on the economy or the health system. Identifying predictor variables, the probability of an event occurring and how to mitigate them are of paramount importance for the actions of the transit authorities that manage these roads. The main contribution of this study is the development of a predictive machine learning model which uses open data to shows graphically the critical points in the highways. This model is fully reproducible and can be applied to any region worldwide helping to minimize the number of accidents and to prevent deaths by automotive collisions. For this study, 43 variables were analyzed supporting the identification of the causes of accidents with fatal victims on the main highways in the south of Brazil. RoadLytics is proposed as a supervised machine learning model, using the Random Forest algorithm to analyze about 33 thousand occurrences between 2017 and 2020. An exploratory analysis of the data was carried out to support the modeling and to facilitate data visualization. In this sense, heat maps were developed to support the analysis and identification of potential risk areas. The results show that BR386 highway registers the highest number of fatal occurrences, regardless of the season. Additionally, concerning the weather conditions, the analysis shows that 52% of accidents occurred in favorable conditions, such as clear skies, victimizing 501 people. The driver’s lack of attention is the main reason for the accidents’ occurrences. Applying the developed model, an accuracy of 77% was achieved for the classification of fatal accidents.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0460.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: hybrid modelling; prescriptive analytics; gas engine; machine learning
Online: 20 September 2020 (13:48:48 CEST)
This paper presents a methodology for predictive and prescriptive analytics of complex engineering systems. The methodology is based on a combination of physics-based and data-driven modeling using machine learning techniques. Combining these approaches results in a set of reliable, fast, and continuously updating models for prescriptive analytics. The methodology is demonstrated with a case study of a jet-engine power plant preventive maintenance and diagnostics of its flame tube.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0480.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: In-field; Spectroscopy; Image analysis; Machine Learning; Protein; Grain size.; Grain colour
Online: 28 March 2023 (09:39:53 CEST)
This review focuses on developments that quantify grain quality with a range of spectral sensors in an on-farm setting. If the application of sensor technologies were expanded and adopted on-farm, growers could identify the impact and manage the harvesting operation to meet a range of quality targets and provide an economic advantage to the farming enterprise.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0442.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: data science; advanced analytics; machine learning; deep learning; smart computing; decision-making; predictive analytics; data science applications;
Online: 16 April 2021 (11:28:09 CEST)
The digital world has a wealth of data, such as Internet of Things (IoT) data, business data, health data, mobile data, urban data, security data, and many more, in the current age of the Fourth Industrial Revolution (Industry 4.0 or 4IR). Extracting knowledge or useful insights from these data can be used for smart decision-making in various applications domains. In the area of data science, advanced analytics methods including machine learning modeling can provide actionable insights or deeper knowledge about data, which makes the computing process automatic and smart. In this paper, we present a comprehensive view on "Data Science'' including various types of advanced analytics methods that can be applied to enhance the intelligence and capabilities of an application through smart decision-making in different scenarios. We also discuss and summarize ten potential real-world application domains including business, healthcare, cybersecurity, urban and rural data science, and so on by taking into account data-driven smart computing and decision making. Based on this, we finally highlight the challenges and potential research directions within the scope of our study. Overall, this paper aims to serve as a reference point on data science and advanced analytics to the researchers and decision-makers as well as application developers, particularly from the data-driven solution point of view for real-world problems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0212.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: online learning; machine prognostics; sensor systems; signal processing; damage propagation; predictive maintenance; intelligent sensing
Online: 18 October 2019 (11:29:49 CEST)
We analyze damage propagation modeling of turbo-engines in a data-driven approach. We investigate subspace tracking assuming a low dimensional manifold structure and a static behavior during the healthy state of the machines. Our damage propagation model is based on the deviation of the data from the static behavior and uses the notion of health index as a measure of the condition. Hence, we incorporate condition-based maintenance and estimate the remaining useful life based on the current and previous health indexes. This paper proposes an algorithm that adapts well to the dynamics of the data and underlying system, and reduces the computational complexity by utilizing the low dimensional manifold structure of the data. A significant performance improvement is demonstrated over existing methods by using the proposed algorithm on CMAPSS Turbo-engine datasets.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0436.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Mathematical And Computational Biology Keywords: Naïve Bayes Classification; Eulers Strength Formula; Cricket Prediction; Supervised Learning; KNIME Tool; Cricket prediction; sports analytics; multivariate regression; neural network
Online: 21 October 2020 (12:34:00 CEST)
In cricket, particularly the twenty20 format is most watched and loved by the people, where no one can guess who will win the match until the last ball of the last over. In India, The Indian Premier League (IPL) started in 2008 and now it is the most popular T20 league in the world. So we decided to develop a machine learning model for predicting the outcome of its matches. Winning in a Cricket Match depends on many key factors like a home ground advantage, past performances on that ground, records at the same venue, the overall experience of the players, record with a particular opposition, and the overall current form of the team and also the individual player. This paper briefs about the key factors that affect the result of the cricket match and the regression model that best fits this data and gives the best predictions. Cricket, the mainstream and widely played sport across India which has the most noteworthy fan base. Indian Premier League follows 20-20 format which is very unpredictable. IPL match predictor is a ML based prediction approach where the data sets and previous stats are trained in all dimensions covering all important factors such as: Toss, Home Ground, Captains, Favorite Players, Opposition Battle, Previous Stats etc, with each factor having different strength with the help of KNIME Tool and with the added intelligence of Naive Bayes network and Eulers strength calculation formula.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0808.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: artificial intelligence; AI; education; international students; personalized learning; adaptive learning; predictive analytics; chatbots
Online: 11 May 2023 (05:57:02 CEST)
The use of artificial intelligence (AI) applications in education has the potential to revolutionize the learning experience for international students, who face unique challenges when studying in a foreign country. This paper explores various examples of AI applications in education and their potential impact on international students. AI applications such as personalized learning experiences, adaptive testing, predictive analytics, and chatbots for learning and research are examined for their potential to improve learning efficiency and provide customized education support. It also explores the significant risks and limitations associated with AI technologies, such as privacy, cultural differences, language proficiency, and ethical implications. To maximize the potential benefits of AI applications in higher education, it is crucial to implement appropriate safeguards and regulations. This paper provides a starting point for research on the potential impact of artificial intelligence on international students’ educational experiences and how AI may be integrated into educational administration and learning processes.
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: Academic Analytics; data storage; education and big data; analysis of data; learning analytics
Online: 19 July 2020 (20:37:39 CEST)
Business Intelligence, defined by  as "the ability to understand the interrelations of the facts that are presented in such a way that it can guide the action towards achieving a desired goal", has been used since 1958 for the transformation of data into information, and of information into knowledge, to be used when making decisions in a business environment. But, what would happen if we took the same principles of business intelligence and applied them to the academic environment? The answer would be the creation of Academic Analytics, a term defined by  as the process of evaluating and analyzing organizational information from university systems for reporting and making decisions, whose characteristics allow it to be used more and more in institutions, since the information they accumulate about their students and teachers gathers data such as academic performance, student success, persistence, and retention . Academic Analytics enables an analysis of data that is very important for making decisions in the educational institutional environment, aggregating valuable information in the academic research activity and providing easy to use business intelligence tools. This article shows a proposal for creating an information system based on Academic Analytics, using ASP.Net technology and trusting storage in the database engine Microsoft SQL Server, designing a model that is supported by Academic Analytics for the collection and analysis of data from the information systems of educational institutions. The idea that was conceived proposes a system that is capable of displaying statistics on the historical data of students and teachers taken over academic periods, without having direct access to institutional databases, with the purpose of gathering the information that the director, the teacher, and finally the student need for making decisions. The model was validated with information taken from students and teachers during the last five years, and the export format of the data was pdf, csv, and xls files. The findings allow us to state that it is extremely important to analyze the data that is in the information systems of the educational institutions for making decisions. After the validation of the model, it was established that it is a must for students to know the reports of their academic performance in order to carry out a process of self-evaluation, as well as for teachers to be able to see the results of the data obtained in order to carry out processes of self-evaluation, and adaptation of content and dynamics in the classrooms, and finally for the head of the program to make decisions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0404.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: automated assessment; computer science; learning analytics; process mining; programming; sequence mining
Online: 15 April 2021 (09:40:33 CEST)
Learning programming is a complex and challenging task for many students. It in-volves both understanding theoretical concepts and acquiring practical skills. Hence, analyzing learners’ data from online learning environments alone fails to capture the full breadth of stu-dents’ actions if part of their learning process takes place elsewhere. Moreover, existing studies on learning analytics applied to programming education have mainly relied on frequency analysis to classify students according to their approach to programming or to predict academic achieve-ment. However, frequency analysis provides limited insights into the individual time-related characteristics of the learning process. The current study examines students’ strategies when learning programming, combining data from the learning management system and from an au-tomated assessment tool. To gain an in-depth understanding of students’ learning process as well as of the types of learners, we used learning analytics methods that account for the temporal order of learning actions. Our results show that students have special preferences for specific learning resources when learning programming, namely slides that support search, and copy and paste. We also found that videos are relatively less consumed by students, especially while working on programming assignments. Lastly, students resort to course forums to seek help only when they struggle.
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Artificial intelligence; machine learning; real-time probabilistic data; for cyber risk; super forecasting; red teaming;
Online: 12 April 2021 (12:18:14 CEST)
Multiple governmental agencies and private organisations have made commitments for the colonisation of Mars. Such colonisation requires complex systems and infrastructure that could be very costly to repair or replace in cases of cyber-attacks. This paper surveys deep learning algorithms, IoT cyber security and risk models, and established mathematical formulas to identify the best approach for developing a dynamic and self-adapting system for predictive cyber risk analytics supported with Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning and real-time intelligence in edge computing. The paper presents a new mathematical approach for integrating concepts for cognition engine design, edge computing and Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning to automate anomaly detection. This engine instigates a step change by applying Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning embedded at the edge of IoT networks, to deliver safe and functional real- time intelligence for predictive cyber risk analytics. This will enhance capacities for risk analytics and assists in the creation of a comprehensive and systematic understanding of the opportunities and threats that arise when edge computing nodes are deployed, and when Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning technologies are migrated to the periphery of the internet and into local IoT networks.
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Industry 4.0; Supply Chain Design; Transformational Design Roadmap; IIoT Supply Chain Model; Decision Support for Information Management, Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning (AI/ML), dynamic self-adapting system, cognition engine, predictive cyber risk analytics.
Online: 23 December 2020 (17:20:35 CET)
Digital technologies have changed the way supply chain operations are structured. In this article, we conduct systematic syntheses of literature on the impact of new technologies on supply chains and the related cyber risks. A taxonomic/cladistic approach is used for the evaluations of progress in the area of supply chain integration in the Industrial Internet of Things and Industry 4.0, with a specific focus on the mitigation of cyber risks. An analytical framework is presented, based on a critical assessment with respect to issues related to new types of cyber risk and the integration of supply chains with new technologies. This paper identifies a dynamic and self-adapting supply chain system supported with Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning (AI/ML) and real-time intelligence for predictive cyber risk analytics. The system is integrated into a cognition engine that enables predictive cyber risk analytics with real-time intelligence from IoT networks at the edge. This enhances capacities and assist in the creation of a comprehensive understanding of the opportunities and threats that arise when edge computing nodes are deployed, and when AI/ML technologies are migrated to the periphery of IoT networks.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0218.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: deep learning; machine learning; applied deep learning
Online: 10 October 2018 (11:37:13 CEST)
Deep learning is an emerging area of machine learning (ML) research. It comprises multiple hidden layers of artificial neural networks. The deep learn- ing methodology applies nonlinear transformations and model abstractions of high level in large databases. The recent advancements in deep learning architec- tures within numerous fields have already provided significant contributions in artificial intelligence. This article presents a state of the art survey on the contri- butions and the novel applications of deep learning. The following review chron- ologically presents how and in what major applications deep learning algorithms have been utilized. Furthermore, the superior and beneficial of the deep learning methodology and its hierarchy in layers and nonlinear operations are presented and compared with the more conventional algorithms in the common applica- tions. The state of the art survey further provides a general overview on the novel concept and the ever-increasing advantages and popularity of deep learning.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0015.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Deep learning; Machine learning
Online: 1 February 2022 (13:34:28 CET)
We study the brain segmentation by dividing the brain into multiple tissues. Given possible brain segmentation by deep, machine learning can be efficiently exploited to expedite the segmentation process in the clinical practice. To accomplish segmentation process, a MRI and tissues transfer using generative adversarial networks is proposed. Given the better result, we propose the transfer model using GAN. For the case of the brain tissues, white matter (WM), gray matter (GM) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) are segmented. Empirical results show that this proposed model significantly improved segmentation results compared to the stat-of-the-art results. Furthermore, a dice coefficient (DC) metric is used to evaluate the model performance.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0577.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: online learning; e-learning; hybrid learning; innovation; education
Online: 31 January 2023 (08:07:58 CET)
In recent years, online learning has become one of the most popular methods of educational delivery due to advances in technology, which has been made even more evident in the COVID-19 lockdown period. Online education has evolved into a distinct field of study within the educational system over the last few years. It is also important to note that parallel with the growth in this field, there has also been an increase in the number of scholarly journals that regularly publish research in this field, reflecting the importance of this field in the modern day. In spite of the fact that online learning offers a wide range of educational options, from short courses to full-time degrees, as well as being accessible, flexible, environmentally friendly, and affordable, there are also certain challenges associated with this educational approach. These challenges include the lack of social interaction, technical errors, a lack of hands-on training, and difficulties in assessing students. It is, therefore, imperative to ask the crucial question of whether online learning can replace traditional classroom learning or whether it can supplement it in hybrid models with it, as well as what factors and conditions are likely to determine this in the short- and long-term, as well as how it will be blended together in the future. The purpose of this commentary is to provide a brief summary of the current status of both learning models, as well as their pros and cons, in order to answer the question that was posed above.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0309.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: economics; deep reinforcement learning; deep learning; machine learning
Online: 20 March 2020 (07:13:42 CET)
The popularity of deep reinforcement learning (DRL) methods in economics have been exponentially increased. DRL through a wide range of capabilities from reinforcement learning (RL) and deep learning (DL) for handling sophisticated dynamic business environments offers vast opportunities. DRL is characterized by scalability with the potential to be applied to high-dimensional problems in conjunction with noisy and nonlinear patterns of economic data. In this work, we first consider a brief review of DL, RL, and deep RL methods in diverse applications in economics providing an in-depth insight into the state of the art. Furthermore, the architecture of DRL applied to economic applications is investigated in order to highlight the complexity, robustness, accuracy, performance, computational tasks, risk constraints, and profitability. The survey results indicate that DRL can provide better performance and higher accuracy as compared to the traditional algorithms while facing real economic problems at the presence of risk parameters and the ever-increasing uncertainties.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0483.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: deep reinforcement learning; data efficient; curriculum learning; transfer learning
Online: 30 September 2022 (10:35:06 CEST)
Sparse reward long horizon task is a major challenge for deep reinforcement learning algorithm. One of the key barriers is data-inefficiency. Even in the simulation environment, it usually takes weeks to training the agent. In this study, a data-efficiency training framework is proposed, where a curriculum learning is design for the agent in the simulation scenario. Different distributions of the initial state are set for the agent to get more informative reward during the whole training process. A fine-tuning of the parameters in the output layer of the neural network for value function is conduct to bridge the gap between sim-to-real. An experiment of UAV maneuver control is conducted in the proposed training framework to verify the method more efficient. We demonstrate that data-efficiency is different for the same data in different training stages.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1231.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Informal learning; Computers in education; Distance education and online learning; Learning communities; Mobile learning
Online: 17 May 2023 (10:31:13 CEST)
This article discusses the comparison between digital and traditional face-to-face coaching within the scope of shadow education institutions. While analyzing the differences and similarities between the two educational models, both their advantages and disadvantages are thoroughly discussed. In this context, interviews were conducted with students and teachers who receive education in both face-to-face and digital coaching, and the positive and negative aspects of both institutions, suitable and unsuitable courses, the future situation, and the effects on students' academic achievements were revealed. According to the results obtained from the research, it is noteworthy that students who do not receive education in digital coaching have prejudices against digitalization. Additionally, no significant difference was found between the academic achievements of students receiving education in digital coaching and those receiving education in face-to-face coaching.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0389.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: Deep learning; Variational Autoencoders (VAEs); data representation learning; generative models; unsupervised learning; few shot learning; latent space; transfer learning
Online: 22 September 2021 (16:04:22 CEST)
Despite the importance of few-shot learning, the lack of labeled training data in the real world, makes it extremely challenging for existing machine learning methods as this limited data set does not represent the data variance well. In this research, we suggest employing a generative approach using variational autoencoders (VAEs), which can be used specifically to optimize few-shot learning tasks by generating new samples with more intra-class variations. The purpose of our research is to increase the size of the training data set using various methods to improve the accuracy and robustness of the few-shot face recognition. Specifically, we employ the VAE generator to increase the size of the training data set, including the basic and the novel sets while utilizing transfer learning as the backend. Based on extensive experimental research, we analyze various data augmentation methods to observe how each method affects the accuracy of face recognition. We conclude that the face generation method we proposed can effectively improve the recognition accuracy rate to 96.47% using both the base and the novel sets.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0457.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Vision And Graphics Keywords: graph neural networks; machine learning; transfer learning; multi-task learning
Online: 31 January 2022 (12:49:31 CET)
Graph neural networks (GNNs) build on the success of deep learning models by extending them for use in graph spaces. Transfer learning has proven extremely successful for traditional deep learning problems: resulting in faster training and improved performance. Despite the increasing interest in GNNs and their use cases, there is little research on their transferability. This research demonstrates that transfer learning is effective with GNNs, and describes how source tasks and the choice of GNN impact the ability to learn generalisable knowledge. We perform experiments using real-world and synthetic data within the contexts of node classification and graph classification. To this end, we also provide a general methodology for transfer learning experimentation and present a novel algorithm for generating synthetic graph classification tasks. We compare the performance of GCN, GraphSAGE and GIN across both the synthetic and real-world datasets. Our results demonstrate empirically that GNNs with inductive operations yield statistically significantly improved transfer. Further we show that similarity in community structure between source and target tasks support statistically significant improvements in transfer over and above the use of only the node attributes.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0060.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: deep learning; artificial neural network; artificial intelligence; discriminative learning; generative learning; hybrid learning; intelligent systems;
Online: 2 August 2021 (17:33:48 CEST)
Deep learning (DL), a branch of machine learning (ML) and artificial intelligence (AI) is nowadays considered as a core technology of today's Fourth Industrial Revolution (4IR or Industry 4.0). Due to its learning capabilities from data, DL technology originated from artificial neural network (ANN), has become a hot topic in the context of computing, and is widely applied in various application areas like healthcare, visual recognition, cybersecurity, and many more. However, building an appropriate DL model is a challenging task, due to the dynamic nature and variations in real-world problems and data. Moreover, the lack of core understanding turns DL methods into black-box machines that hamper development at the standard level. This article presents a structured and comprehensive view on DL techniques including a taxonomy considering various types of real-world tasks like supervised or unsupervised. In our taxonomy, we take into account deep networks for supervised or discriminative learning, unsupervised or generative learning as well as hybrid learning and relevant others. We also summarize real-world application areas where deep learning techniques can be used. Finally, we point out ten potential aspects for future generation DL modeling with research directions. Overall, this article aims to draw a big picture on DL modeling that can be used as a reference guide for both academia and industry professionals.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0306.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: online learning; face-to-face learning; learning effectiveness; challenges with online learning; lecture-based courses.
Online: 13 July 2021 (11:57:22 CEST)
During the COVID-19 outbreak, most university courses have been offered on online platforms. A sudden shift from face-to-face classroom learning to online formats could influence the learning effectiveness of classes. This study aims to investigate differences in the learning effectiveness of online and face-to-face lecture courses. It also explores factors that impact the effectiveness of online instruction. These factors include interactions among learners, interactions between learners and the instructor, the quality of online platforms, learners’ ability to use devices and follow instructions, and learners’ situational challenges. The study participants were 261 university students at King Mongkut’s University of Technology Thonburi in Bangkok, Thailand. All participants were enrolled in at least one lecture course, such as history, humans and the environment, the environment and development, or general philosophy, during the 2019 academic year. A questionnaire was distributed to participants after they completed these courses in May 2020. Paired simple t-test analyses were used to compare the effectiveness of online and face-to-face classes, and a multiple regression analysis was used to identify factors that impact the learning effectiveness of online classes. The results show that online classes are less effective than face-to-face courses. The multiple regression analysis also revealed that the effectiveness of online learning was significantly impacted by learners’ ability to interact with classmates during class, their ability to interact with instructors after the class, the quality of online platforms, and disturbances or distractions in learners’ environments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1522.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Recommendation system; Contrast learning; Deep Learning
Online: 22 May 2023 (11:55:55 CEST)
Modelling both long and short-term user interests from historical data is crucial for accurate recommendations. However, unifying these metrics across multiple application domains can be challenging, and existing approaches often rely on complex, intertwined models which can be difficult to interpret. To address this issue, we propose a lightweight, plug-and-play interest enhancement module that fuses interest vectors from two independent models. After analyzing the dataset, we identify deviations in the recommendation performance of long and short-term interest models. To compensate for these differences, we use feature enhancement and loss correction during training. In the fusion process, we explicitly split long-term interest features with longer duration into multiple local features. We then use a shared attention mechanism to fuse multiple local features with short-term interest features to obtain interaction features. To correct for bias between models, we introduce a comparison learning task that monitors the similarity between local features, short-term features, and interaction features. This adaptively reduces the distance between similar features. Our proposed module combines and compares multiple independent long-term and short-term interest models on multiple domain datasets. As a result, it not only accelerates the convergence of the models but also achieves outstanding performance in challenging recommendation scenarios.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0191.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: machine learning; deep learning; generative models
Online: 12 December 2022 (04:05:39 CET)
Over the past decade, research in the field of Deep Learning has brought about novel improvements in image generation and feature learning; one such example being a Generative Adversarial Network. However, these improvements have been coupled with an increasing demand on mathematical literacy and previous knowledge in the field. Therefore, in this literature review, I seek to introduce Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs) to a broader audience by explaining their background and intuition at a more foundational level. I begin by discussing the mathematical background of this architecture, specifically topics in linear algebra and probability theory. I then proceed to introduce GANs in a more theoretical framework, along with some of the literature on GANs, including their architectural improvements and image-generation capabilities. Finally, I cover state-of-the-art image generation through style-based methods, as well as their implications on society.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0284.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: deep learning; Machine Learning; Artificial Intelligence
Online: 19 October 2022 (11:04:23 CEST)
This study evaluated the using of machine vision in combination with deep learning to identify weeds in real-time for wheat production system. PMAS-Arid Agriculture university research farm were selected for collection of images (6000 total images) of weeds and wheat crops under different weather condition. During growing season, the database was constructed to identify the weeds. For this study two framework were used TensorFlow and PyTorch under CNNs and Deep learning. Deep learning perfromed better with in PyTourch value as compared to another model in Tensorflow. comparing with other networks such as YOLOv4, we concluded that our network reaches a better result between speed and accuracy. Specifically, the maximum precision of weed and wheat plants were 0.89 and 0.91 respectively with 9.43 ms and 12.38 ms inference time per image (640 × 640) NVIDIA RTX2070 GPU.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0583.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: quantum machine learning; quantum deep learning
Online: 24 March 2021 (13:00:45 CET)
Tremendous progress has been witnessed in artificial intelligence within the domain of neural network backed deep learning systems and its applications. As we approach the post Moore’s Law era, the limit of semiconductor fabrication technology along with a rapid increase in data generation rates have lead to an impending growing challenge of tackling newer and more modern machine learning problems. In parallel, quantum computing has exhibited rapid development in recent years. Due to the potential of a quantum speedup, quantum based learning applications have become an area of significant interest, in hopes that we can leverage quantum systems to solve classical problems. In this work, we propose a quantum deep learning architecture; we demonstrate our quantum neural network architecture on tasks ranging from binary and multi-class classification to generative modelling. Powered by a modified quantum differentiation function along with a hybrid quantum-classic design, our architecture encodes the data with a reduced number of qubits and generates a quantum circuit, loading it onto a quantum platform where the model learns the optimal states iteratively. We conduct intensive experiments on both the local computing environment and IBM-Q quantum platform. The evaluation results demonstrate that our architecture is able to outperform Tensorflow-Quantum by up to 12.51% and 11.71% for a comparable classic deep neural network on the task of classification trained with the same network settings. Furthermore, our GAN architecture runs the discriminator and the generator purely on quantum hardware and utilizes the swap test on qubits to calculate the values of loss functions. In comparing our quantum GAN, we note our architecture is able to achieve similar performance with 98.5% reduction on the parameter set when compared to classical GANs. With the same number of parameters, additionally, QuGAN outperforms other quantum based GANs in the literature for up to 125.0% in terms of similarity between generated distributions and original data sets.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0203.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: machine learning; deep learning; ensemble models
Online: 20 August 2019 (08:41:28 CEST)
The conventional machine learning (ML) algorithms are continuously advancing and evolving at a fast-paced by introducing the novel learning algorithms. ML models are continually improving using hybridization and ensemble techniques to empower computation, functionality, robustness, and accuracy aspects of modeling. Currently, numerous hybrid and ensemble ML models have been introduced. However, they have not been surveyed in a comprehensive manner. This paper presents the state of the art of novel ML models and their performance and application domains through a novel taxonomy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0023.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: deep learning; graph kernels; unsupervised learning
Online: 4 February 2018 (10:52:50 CET)
This paper presents a new method : HIVEC to learn latent vector representations of graphs in a manner that captures the semantic dependencies of sub-structures. The representations can then be used in machine learning algorithms for tasks such as graph classification, clustering etcetera. The method proposed is unsupervised and uses the information of co-occurrence of sub-structures. It introduces a notion of hierarchical embeddings that allows us to avoid repetitive learning of sub-structures for every new graph. As an alternative to deep learning methods, the edit distance similarity between sub-structures is also used to learn vector representations. We compare the performance of these methods against previous work.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0090.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: domain generalization; contrastive learning; classification; deep learning; encoder; Zero-Shot Learning
Online: 4 November 2022 (07:29:50 CET)
A common challenge in real-world classification scenarios with sequentially appending target domain data is insufficient training datasets during the training phase. Therefore, conventional deep learning and transfer learning classifiers are not applicable especially when individual classes are not represented or are severely underrepresented at the outset. Domain Generalization approaches reach their limits when domain shifts become too large, making them occasionally unsuitable as well. In many (technical) domains, however, it is only the defect/ worn/ reject classes that are insufficiently represented, while the non-defect class is often available from the beginning. The proposed classification approach addresses such conditions and is based on a CNN encoder. Following a contrastive learning approach, it is trained with a modified triplet loss function using two datasets: Besides the non-defective target domain class (= 1st dataset), a state-of-the-art labeled source domain dataset that contains highly related classes (e.g., a related manufacturing error or wear defect) but originates from a (highly) different domain (e.g., different product, material, or appearance) (= 2nd dataset) is utilized. The approach learns the classification features from the source domain dataset while at the same time learning the differences between the source and the target domain in a single training step, aiming to transfer the relevant features to the target domain. The classifier becomes sensitive to the classification features and – by architecture – robust against the highly domain-specific context. The approach is benchmarked in a technical and a non-technical domain and shows convincing classification results. In particular, it is shown that the domain generalization capabilities and classification results are improved by the proposed architecture, allowing for larger domain shifts between source and target domains.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0035.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: meta-learning; lie group; machine learning; deep learning; convolutional neural network
Online: 3 March 2020 (11:09:53 CET)
Deep learning has achieved lots of successes in many fields, but when trainable sample are extremely limited, deep learning often under or overfitting to few samples. Meta-learning was proposed to solve difficulties in few-shot learning and fast adaptive areas. Meta-learner learns to remember some common knowledge by training on large scale tasks sampled from a certain data distribution to equip generalization when facing unseen new tasks. Due to the limitation of samples, most approaches only use shallow neural network to avoid overfitting and reduce the difficulty of training process, that causes the waste of many extra information when adapting to unseen tasks. Euclidean space-based gradient descent also make meta-learner's update inaccurate. These issues cause many meta-learning model hard to extract feature from samples and update network parameters. In this paper, we propose a novel method by using multi-stage joint training approach to post the bottleneck during adapting process. To accelerate adapt procedure, we also constraint network to Stiefel manifold, thus meta-learner could perform more stable gradient descent in limited steps. Experiment on mini-ImageNet shows that our method reaches better accuracy under 5-way 1-shot and 5-way 5-shot conditions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0104.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: neural networks; statistical physics of learning; on-line learning; concept drift; continual learning; learning vector quantization;
Online: 5 September 2018 (16:27:10 CEST)
We introduce a modelling framework for the investigation of on-line machine learning processes in non-stationary environments. We exemplify the approach in terms of two specific model situations: In the first, we consider the learning of a classification scheme from clustered data by means of prototype-based Learning Vector Quantization (LVQ). In the second, we study the training of layered neural networks with sigmoidal activations for the purpose of regression. In both cases, the target, i.e. the classification or regression scheme, is considered to change continuously while the system is trained from a stream of labeled data. We extend and apply methods borrowed from statistical physics which have been used frequently for the exact description of training dynamics in stationary environments. Extensions of the approach allow for the computation of typical learning curves in the presence of concept drift in a variety of model situations. First results are presented and discussed for stochastic drift processes in classification and regression problems. They indicate that LVQ is capable of tracking a classification scheme under drift to a non-trivial extent. Furthermore, we show that concept drift can cause the persistence of sub-optimal plateau states in gradient based training of layered neural networks for regression.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0045.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Micro-credentials; Higher Education; Online Learning; E-learning; MOOCs; Digital Learning Ecosystems
Online: 2 March 2023 (12:40:42 CET)
This review paper delves into using micro-credentials in higher education ecosystems as a digital enablers. Micro-credentials, which are digital credentials that attest to a learner’s mastery of a specific skill or knowledge area, are becoming more popular in higher education. The paper examines the successful implementation of micro-credential frameworks in higher education, using case studies to demonstrate the advantages of micro-credentials. The review emphasizes the agility and flexibility of microcredentials, which enable learners to acquire new skills quickly and respond to changes in the job market. In addition, the paper discusses the digital nature of micro-credentials and how they allow institutionsto provide targeted, skills-based training that isrelevant to employers. It also explores how micro-credentials are delivered through online platforms, making them convenient and easily accessible for learners. The review underscores the significance of digital infrastructure, connectivity, and public utility for promoting micro-credentials. The paper argues that micro-credentials function as a digital enabler for higher edu- cation ecosystems, allowing learners to acquire targeted training and enabling institutions to expand their offerings and reach more students. The paper concludes by highlighting the potential for micro-credentials to help bridge the skills gap and equip learners with the skills necessary to succeed in today’s digital economy.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0208.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Tuberculosis; Artificial Intelligence; Machine Learning; Deep Learning; Transfer Learning; Computer-aided Diagnosis
Online: 14 September 2022 (12:00:44 CEST)
Tuberculosis (TB) disease still remain a major global threat due to the growing number of drug-resistant species and global warming. Despite the fact that there are new molecular diagnostic approaches, however, majority of developing countries and remote clinics depends on conventional approaches such as Tuberculin test, microscopic examinations and radiographic imaging (Chest X-ray). These techniques are hindered by several challenges which can lead to miss-diagnosis especially when interpreting large number of sample cases. Thus, in order to reduce workload and prevent miss-diagnosis, scientists incorporated computer-aided technology for detection of medical images known as Computer aided Detection (CADe) or Diagnosis (CADx). The use of AI-powered techniques has shown to improve accuracy, sensitivity, specificity. In this review, we discussed about the epidemiology, pathology, diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis. The review also provides background information on Artificial Intelligence (AI), Machine Learning (ML), Deep Learning (DL), Transfer Learning (TL) and their applications in detection of tuberculosis from both microscopic slide images and X-ray images. The review also proposed an IoT/AI powered system which allows transfer of results obtained from DL models with end users through internet networks. The concept of futuristic diagnosis, limitations of current techniques and open research issues are also discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0093.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: game-based learning; learning practicies; learning with mobility; oncological treatment; well-being
Online: 5 July 2021 (11:45:18 CEST)
The use of Information Communication Technologies (ICT) in education brings up new possibilities of promoting the learning and health experiences. In this sense, education contexts of 21st century must consider these two areas of knowledge, especially their integration. This article presents learning practices developed with mobile devices and games, in order to improve learning and well-being in children and adolescents undergoing cancer treatment in non-formal educational setting. The methodology is based on qualitative case studies with content-based data analysis, involving informal interviews and observation methods. The study considers data from 5 patients who participated in the research between 2015 and 2019. The results demonstrate a positive influence of the practices with mobile technologies and games in terms of learning and in the well-being feeling of patients during the treatment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0062.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Machine Learning; Natural Language Processing; Deep Learning
Online: 3 September 2021 (12:53:42 CEST)
Documenting cultural heritage by using artificial intelligence (AI) is crucial for preserving the memory of the past and a key point for future knowledge. However, modern AI technologies make use of statistical learners that lead to self-empiricist logic, which, unlike human minds, use learned non-symbolic representations. Nevertheless, it seems that it is not the right way to progress in AI. If we want to rely on AI for these tasks, it is essential to understand what lies behind these models. Among the ways to discover AI there are the senses and the intellect. We could consider AI as an intelligence. Intelligence has an essence, but we do not know whether it can be considered “something” or “someone”. Important issues in the analysis of AI concern the structure of symbols -operations with which the intellectual solution is carried out- and the search for strategic reference points, aspiring to create models with human-like intelligence. For many years, humans, seeing language as innate, have carried out symbolic theories. Everything seems to have skipped with the advent of Machine Learning. In this paper, after a long analysis of history, the rule-based and the learning-based vision, we propose KERMIT as a unit of investigation for a possible meeting point between the different learning theories. Finally, we propose a new vision of knowledge in AI models based on a combination of rules, learning and human knowledge.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0040.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: predictive maintenance; transfer learning; interpretable machine learning
Online: 1 July 2021 (22:38:28 CEST)
Using data-driven models to solve predictive maintenance problems has been prevalent for original equipment manufacturers (OEMs). However, such models fail to solve two tasks that OEMs are interested in: (1) Making the well-built failure prediction models working on existing scenarios (vehicles, working conditions) adaptive to target scenarios. (2) Finding out the failure causes, furthermore, determining whether a model generates failure predictions based on reasonable causes. This paper investigates a comprehensive architecture towards making the predictive maintenance system adaptive and interpretable by proposing (1) an ensemble model dealing with time-series data consisting of a long short-term memory (LSTM) neural network and Gaussian threshold to achieve failure prediction one week in advance and (2) an online transfer learning algorithm and a meta learning algorithm, which render existing models adaptive to new vehicles with limited data volumes. (3) Furthermore, the Local Interpretable Model-agnostic Explanations (LIME) interpretation tool and super-feature methods are applied to interpret individual and general failure causes. Vehicle data from Isuzu Motors, Ltd., are adopted to validate our method, which include time-series data and histogram data. The proposed ensemble model yields predictions with 100% accuracy for our test data on engine stalling problem and is more rapidly adaptive to new vehicles with smaller error following application of either online transfer learning or the meta learning method. The interpretation methods help elucidate the global and individual failure causes, confirming the model credibility.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0115.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: machine learning; virtual diagnostics; reinforcement learning control
Online: 6 January 2021 (11:58:41 CET)
We discuss the implementation of a suite of virtual diagnostics at the FACET-II facility currently under commissioning at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. The diagnostics will be used for prediction of the longitudinal phase space along the linac, spectral reconstruction of the bunch profile and non-destructive inference of transverse beam quality (emittance) using edge radiation at the injector dogleg and bunch compressor locations. These measurements will be folded in to adaptive feedbacks and ML-based reinforcement learning controls to improve the stability and optimize the performance of the machine for different experimental configurations. In this paper we describe each of these diagnostics with expected measurement results based on simulation data and discuss progress towards implementation in regular operations.
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: Deep learning; Big data; Machine learning; Biofuels
Online: 30 September 2020 (11:19:52 CEST)
The importance of energy systems and its role in economics and politics is not hidden for anyone. This issue is not only important for the advanced industrialized countries, which are major energy consumers, but is also important for oil-rich countries. In addition to the nature of these fuels which contains polluting substances, the issue of their ending up has aggravated the growing concern. Biofuels can be used in different fields for energy production like electricity production, power production or for transportation. Various scenarios have been written about the estimated biofuels from different sources in the future energy system. The availability of biofuels for the electricity market, heating and liquid fuels is very important. Accordingly, the need for handling, modelling, decision making and future forecasting for biofuels can be one of the main challenges for scientists. Recently, machine learning and deep learning techniques have been popular in modeling, optimizing and handling the biodiesel production, consumption and its environmental impacts. The main aim of this study is to evaluate the ML and DL techniques developed for handling biofuels production, consumption and environmental impacts, both for modeling and optimization purposes. This will help for sustainable biofuel production for the future generations.
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Crime prediction; Ensemble Learning; Machine Learning; Regression
Online: 14 September 2020 (00:53:30 CEST)
While the use of crime data has been widely advocated in the literature, its availability is often limited to large urban cities and isolated databases tend not to allow for spatial comparisons. This paper presents an efficient machine learning framework capable of predicting spatial crime occurrences, without using past crime as a predictor, and at a relatively high resolution: the U.S. Census Block Group level. The proposed framework is based on an in-depth multidisciplinary literature review allowing the selection of 188 best-fit crime predictors from socio-economic, demographic, spatial, and environmental data. Such data are published periodically for the entire United States. The selection of the appropriate predictive model was made through a comparative study of different machine learning families of algorithms, including generalized linear models, deep learning, and ensemble learning. The gradient boosting model was found to yield the most accurate predictions for violent crimes, property crimes, motor vehicle thefts, vandalism, and the total count of crimes. Extensive experiments on real-world datasets of crimes reported in 11 U.S. cities demonstrated that the proposed framework achieves an accuracy of 73 and 77% when predicting property crimes and violent crimes, respectively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0181.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Mathematics Keywords: Reinforcement learning; Cartpole; Q Learning; Mathematical Modeling
Online: 10 May 2020 (18:02:43 CEST)
The prevalence of differential equations as a mathematical technique has refined the fields of control theory and constrained optimization due to the newfound ability to accurately model chaotic, unbalanced systems. However, in recent research, systems are increasingly more nonlinear and difficult to model using Differential Equations only. Thus, a newer technique is to use policy iteration and Reinforcement Learning, techniques that center around an action and reward sequence for a controller. Reinforcement Learning (RL) can be applied to control theory problems since a system can robustly apply RL in a dynamic environment such as the cartpole system (an inverted pendulum). This solution successfully avoids use of PID or other dynamics optimization systems, in favor of a more robust, reward-based control mechanism. This paper applies RL and Q-Learning to the classic cartpole problem, while also discussing the mathematical background and differential equations which are used to model the aforementioned system.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0456.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Artificial Intelligence; Explainability; Deep Learning; Machine Learning
Online: 25 April 2020 (02:57:06 CEST)
The world has been evolving with new technologies and advances day-by-day. With the advent of various learning technologies in every field, the research community is able to provide solution in every aspect of life with the applications of Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning, Deep Learning, Computer Vision, etc. However, with such high achievements, it is found to lag behind the ability to provide explanation against its prediction. The current situation is such that these modern technologies are able to predict and decide upon various cases more accurately and speedily than a human, but failed to provide an answer when the question of why to trust its prediction is put forward. In order to attain a deeper understanding into this rising trend, we explore a very recent and talked-about novel contribution which provides rich insight on a prediction being made -- ``Explainability.'' The main premise of this survey is to provide an overview for researches explored in the domain and obtain an idea of the current scenario along with the advancements published to-date in this field. This survey is intended to provide a comprehensive background of the broad spectrum of Explainability.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0239.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: interpretable machine learning; deep learning; predictive biology
Online: 17 February 2020 (04:12:20 CET)
Machine learning (ML) has emerged as a critical tool for making sense of the growing amount of genetic and genomic data available because of its ability to find complex patterns in high dimensional and heterogeneous data. While the complexity of ML models is what makes them powerful, it also makes them difficult to interpret. Fortunately, recent efforts to develop approaches that make the inner workings of ML models understandable to humans have improved our ability to make novel biological insights using ML. Here we discuss the importance of interpretable ML, different strategies for interpreting ML models, and examples of how these strategies have been applied. Finally, we identify challenges and promising future directions for interpretable ML in genetics and genomics.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0510.v2
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: deep reinforcement learning; imitation learning; soft robotics
Online: 23 November 2018 (11:57:55 CET)
The increasing trend of studying the innate softness of robotic structures and amalgamating it with the benefits of the extensive developments in the field of embodied intelligence has led to sprouting of a relatively new yet extremely rewarding sphere of technology. The fusion of current deep reinforcement algorithms with physical advantages of a soft bio-inspired structure certainly directs us to a fruitful prospect of designing completely self-sufficient agents that are capable of learning from observations collected from their environment to achieve a task they have been assigned. For soft robotics structure possessing countless degrees of freedom, it is often not easy (something not even possible) to formulate mathematical constraints necessary for training a deep reinforcement learning (DRL) agent for the task in hand, hence, we resolve to imitation learning techniques due to ease of manually performing such tasks like manipulation that could be comfortably mimicked by our agent. Deploying current imitation learning algorithms on soft robotic systems have been observed to provide satisfactory results but there are still challenges in doing so. This review article thus posits an overview of various such algorithms along with instances of them being applied to real world scenarios and yielding state-of-the-art results followed by brief descriptions on various pristine branches of DRL research that may be centers of future research in this field of interest.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0467.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: crowdsourcing; organisational learning; paradigm; organisational learning paradigm
Online: 27 August 2018 (15:09:10 CEST)
Crowdsourcing is one of the new themes that has appeared in the last decade. Considering its potential, more and more organisations reach for it. It is perceived as an innovative method that can be used for problem solving, improving business processes, creating open innovations, building a competitive advantage, and increasing transparency and openness of the organisation. Crowdsourcing is also conceptualised as a source of a knowledge-based organisation. The importance of crowdsourcing for organisational learning is seen as one of the key themes in the latest literature in the field of crowdsourcing. Since 2008, there has been an increase in the interest of public organisations in crowdsourcing and including it in their activities. This article is a response to the recommendations in the subject literature, which states that crowdsourcing in public organisations is a new and exciting research area. The aim of the article is to present a new paradigm that combines crowdsourcing levels with the levels of learning. The research methodology is based on an analysis of the subject literature and exemplifications of organisations which introduce crowdsourcing. This article presents a cross-sectional study of four Polish municipal offices that use four types of crowdsourcing, according to the division by J. Howe: collective intelligence, crowd creation, crowd voting, and crowdfunding. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with the management personnel of those municipal offices. The research results show that knowledge acquired from the virtual communities allows the public organisation to anticipate changes, expectations, and needs of citizens and to adapt to them. It can therefore be considered that crowdsourcing is a new and rapidly developing organisational learning paradigm.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0117.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Continual Learning; Lifelong Learning; Prototypical Networks; Catastrophic Forgetting; Intransigence; Task-free; Incremental Learning; Online Learning; Human Activity Recognition
Online: 5 August 2022 (08:35:15 CEST)
Continual learning (CL), a.k.a lifelong learning, is an emerging research topic that has been attracting increasing interest in the field of machine learning. With human activity recognition (HAR) playing a key role in enabling numerous real-world applications, an essential step towards the long-term deployment of such systems is to extend the activity model to dynamically adapt to changes in people’s everyday behavior. Current research in CL applied to HAR domain is still under-explored with researchers exploring existing methods developed for computer vision in HAR. Moreover, analysis has so far focused on task-incremental or class-incremental learning paradigms where task boundaries are known. This impedes the applicability of such methods for real-world systems. To push this field forward, we build on recent advances in the area of continual learning and design a lifelong adaptive learning framework using Prototypical Networks, LAPNet-HAR, that processes sensor-based data streams in a task-free data-incremental fashion and mitigates catastrophic forgetting using experience replay and continual prototype adaptation. Online learning is further facilitated using contrastive loss to enforce inter-class separation. LAPNet-HAR is evaluated on 5 publicly available activity datasets in terms of its ability to acquire new information while preserving previous knowledge. Our extensive empirical results demonstrate the effectiveness of LAPNet-HAR in task-free CL and uncover useful insights for future challenges.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0230.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Machine Learning
Online: 11 July 2020 (04:46:12 CEST)
In this paper, various machine learning techniques are discussed. These algorithms are used for many applications which include data classification, prediction, or pattern recognition. The primary goal of machine learning is to automate human assistance by training an algorithm on relevant data. This paper should also serve as a collection of various machine learning terminology for easy reference.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1162.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Reinforcement learning; Decision tree; Explainable AI; Rule learning
Online: 28 April 2023 (10:14:59 CEST)
The demand for explainable and transparent models increases with the continued success of reinforcement learning. In this article, we explore the potential of generating shallow decision trees (DT) as simple and transparent surrogate models for opaque deep reinforcement learning (DRL) agents. We investigate three algorithms for generating training data for axis-parallel and oblique DTs with the help of DRL agents ("oracles") and evaluate these methods on classic control problems from OpenAI Gym. The results show that one of our newly developed algorithms, the iterative training, outperforms traditional sampling algorithms, resulting in well-performing DTs that often even surpass the oracle from which they were trained. Even higher dimensional problems can be solved with surprisingly shallow DTs. We discuss the advantages and disadvantages of different sampling methods and insights into the decision-making process made possible by the transparent nature of DTs. Our work contributes to the development of not only powerful but also explainable RL agents and highlights the potential of DTs as a simple and effective alternative to complex DRL models.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0252.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Early Learning Assessment; Students Performance; Learning Communities; Motivation
Online: 13 January 2023 (10:52:23 CET)
In this paper, we have investigated the impact of an early learning assessment on students' motivation for improving their performance throughout the semester. An observation analysis was conducted on an entry level mechanical engineering course in which students are enrolled in during their first semester of engineering work. This study analyzes the effect that a first exam, with an average below a passing grade, has on student's outcome in the course. It was hypothesized that students were motivated to achieve their desired grade outcomes following inadequate performance on the first exam. This was investigated by diving into the results of the course and referencing initial performance to the remaining exam and assessment outcomes. Students were placed into grade bands ranging from 0 to 100 in 20% increments. Their results were tracked and it was shown that for the second mechanics exam, averages jumped 43.333%, 35.35%, and 30.055% for grade bands of 0 to 20, 20 to 40, and 40 to 60 respectively. Assessment grades increased as well with the remaining assessments being averaged to a score of 91.095%. Variables contributing to student performance came from both with-in and outside the classroom. Learning communities, material differentiation, and student and professor adaptation all contributed to the rise in performance. It was concluded that the internal and external variables acted in combination with one another to increase student dedication to achieve success.
DATA DESCRIPTOR | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0423.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: time series; machine learning; anomaly detection; transfer learning
Online: 27 October 2022 (07:58:28 CEST)
Machine learning methods have widely been applied to detect anomalies in machine and cutting tool behavior during lathe or milling. However, detecting anomalies in the workpiece itself did not get the same attention by researchers. That is why in this article, the authors present a pub-licly available multivariate time series dataset which was recorded during milling of 16MnCr5. Due to artificially introduced, though realistic anomalies in the workpiece the dataset can be ap-plied for anomaly detection. By using a convolutional autoencoder as a first model good results in detecting the location of the anomalies in the workpiece were achieved. Furthermore, milling tools with two different diameters where used which led to a dataset eligible for transfer learn-ing. The objective of this article is to provide researchers with a real-world time series dataset of the milling process which is suitable for modern machine learning research topics like anomaly detection and transfer learning.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0196.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Autonomous Vehicles; Reinforcement Learning; Explainable Reinforcement Learning; XRL
Online: 14 September 2022 (08:13:44 CEST)
While machine learning models are powering more and more everyday devices, there is a growing need for explaining them. This especially applies to the use of Deep Reinforcement Learning in solutions that require security, such as vehicle motion planning. In this paper, we propose a method of understanding what the RL agent’s decision is based on. The method relies on conducting statistical analysis on a massive set of state-decisions samples. It indicates which input features have an impact on the agent’s decision and the relationships between decisions, the significance of the input features, and their values. The method allows us for determining whether the process of making a decision by the agent is coherent with human intuition and what contradicts it. We applied the proposed method to the RL motion planning agent which is supposed to drive a vehicle safely and efficiently on a highway. We find out that making such analysis allows for a better understanding agent’s decisions, inspecting its behavior, debugging the ANN model, and verifying the correctness of input values, which increases its credibility.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0311.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: zoonotic pathogens; mathematical algorithms; machine learning; deep learning
Online: 17 August 2022 (08:57:27 CEST)
Globally, zoonotic diseases have been on the rise in recent years. Predictive modelling approaches have been successfully used in the literature to identify the underlying causes of these zoonotic diseases. We examine the latest research in the field of predictive modeling that verifies the growth of zoonotic pathogens and assesses the factors associated with their spread. The results of our survey indicate that popular mathematical models can successfully be used in modeling the growth rate of these pathogens under varying storage temperatures. Additionally, some of them are used for the assessment of the inactivation of these pathogens based on various conditions. Based on the results of our study, machine learning models and deep learning are commonly used to detect pathogens within food items and to predict the factors associated with the presence of the pathogens.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0151.v3
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: deep learning; CNN; DenseNet; COVID-19; transfer learning
Online: 18 February 2022 (14:44:55 CET)
COVID-19 has a severe risk of spreading rapidly, the quick identification of which is essential. In this regard, chest radiology images have proven to be a practical screening approach for COVID-19 aﬀected patients. This study proposes a deep learning-based approach using Densenet-121 to detect COVID-19 patients eﬀectively. We have trained and tested our model on the COVIDx dataset and performed both 2-class and 3-class classification, achieving 96.49% and 93.71% accuracy, respectively. By successfully utilizing transfer learning, we achieve comparable performance to the state-of-the-art method while using 15x fewer model parameters. Moreover, we performed an interpretability analysis using Grad-CAM to highlight the most significant image regions at test time. Finally, we developed a website that takes chest radiology images as input and detects the presence of COVID-19 or pneumonia and a heatmap highlighting the infected regions. Source code for reproducing results and model weights are available.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0018.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: metastatic breast cancer; metastasis; causal learning; machine learning
Online: 1 December 2021 (13:40:33 CET)
Background: Risk of metastatic recurrence of breast cancer after initial diagnosis and treatment depends on the presence of a number of risk factors. Although most univariate risk factors have been identified using classical methods, machine-learning methods are also being conducted to tease out non-obvious contributors to a patient’s individual risk of developing late distant metastasis. Bayesian-network algorithms may predict not only risk factors but also interactions among these risks, which consequently lead to metastatic breast cancer. We proposed to apply a previously developed machine-learning method to predict risk factors of 5-, 10- and 15-year metastasis. Methods: We applied a previously validated algorithm named the Markov Blanket and Interactive risk factor Learner (MBIL) on the electronic health record (EHR)-based Lynn Sage database (LSDB) from the Lynn Sage Comprehensive Breast Cancer at Northwestern Memorial Hospital. This algorithm provided an output of both single and interactive risk factors of 5-, 10-, and 15-year metastasis from LSDB. We individually examined and interpreted the clinical relevance of these interactions based on years to metastasis and the reliance on interactivity between risk factors. Results: We found that with lower alpha values (low interactivity score), the prevalence of variables with an independent influence on long term metastasis was higher (i.e., HER2, TNEG). As the value of alpha increased to 480, stronger interactions were needed to define clusters of factors that increased the risk of metastasis (i.e., ER, smoking, race, alcohol usage). Conclusion: MBIL identified single and interacting risk factors of metastatic breast cancer, many of which were supported by clinical evidence. These results strongly recommend the development of further large data studies with different databases to validate the degree to which some of these variables impact metastatic breast cancer in the long term.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0753.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Convolutional extreme learning machine; Deep learning; Multimedia analysis
Online: 28 April 2021 (15:31:14 CEST)
Many works have recently identified the need to combine deep learning with extreme learning to strike a performance balance with accuracy especially in the domain of multimedia applications. Considering this new paradigm, namely convolutional extreme learning machine (CELM), we present a systematic review that investigates alternative deep learning architectures that use extreme learning machine (ELM) for a faster training to solve problems based on image analysis. We detail each of the architectures found in the literature, application scenarios, benchmark datasets, main results, advantages, and present the open challenges for CELM. We follow a well structured methodology and establish relevant research questions that guide our findings. We hope that the observation and classification of such works can leverage the CELM research area providing a good starting point to cope with some of the current problems in the image-based computer vision analysis.
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Multimodal Machine Learning; Deep Learning; Hate Speech Detection
Online: 15 March 2021 (13:46:27 CET)
Hateful and abusive speech presents a major challenge for all online social media platforms. Recent advances in Natural Language Processing and Natural Language Understanding allow more accurate detection of hate speech in textual streams. This study presents a multimodal approach to hate speech detection by combining Computer Vision and Natural Language processing models for abusive context detection. Our study focuses on Twitter messages and, more specifically, on hateful, xenophobic and racist speech in Greek aimed at refugees and migrants. In our approach we combine transfer learning and fine-tuning of Bidirectional Encoder Representations from Transformers (BERT) and Residual Neural Networks (Resnet). Our contribution includes the development of a new dataset for hate speech classification, consisting of tweet ids, along with the code to obtain their visual appearance, as they would have been rendered in a web browser. We have also released a pre-trained Language Model trained on Greek tweets, which has been used in our experiments. We report a consistently high level of accuracy (accuracy score=0.970, f1-score=0.947 in our best model) in racist and xenophobic speech detection.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: machine learning; deep learning; bioinformatics; phylogenetics; cancer evolution
Online: 17 February 2021 (09:40:45 CET)
The exponential growth of biomedical data in recent years urged the application of numerous machine learning techniques to address emerging problems in biology and clinical research. By enabling automatic feature extraction, selection and generation of predictive models, these methods can be used to efficiently study complex biological systems. Machine learning techniques are frequently integrated with bioinformatic methods, as well as curated databases and biological networks, to enhance training and validation, identify the best interpretable features, and enable feature and model investigation. Here, we review recently developed methods that incorporate machine learning within the same framework with techniques from molecular evolution, protein structure analysis, systems biology and disease genomics. We outline the challenges posed for machine learning, and in particular, deep learning in biomedicine and suggest unique opportunities for machine learning techniques integrated with established bioinformatics approaches to overcome some of these challenges.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0482.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Distance; Learning; Academic; Education; Students; Teaching-Learning; Modality
Online: 25 January 2021 (10:59:30 CET)
Education setting evolved from historical open learning system to traditional classroom set-up to distance learning modality. Teaching-Learning practice is transformed with an evolution of teaching-learning materials. With technological advancement in progressive manner and it’s increasing use in academic setting, distance learning has been the on-demand and on-debate topic in current educational discourse. Comparatively fresh topic in Nepali academic setting, this paper intended to analyze the perception of Nepali students towards online modality in Nepali academic setting. This paper further analyzed the student’s preference towards distance learning in current Nepali academic setting. Research findings were analyzed based on data collected through literature review, interview with students and professor and quantitative data collection through use of google form. Study identified opportunities as revenue generation; continuation of academic career from any part of country; increase learning outcome among jobholders. Study identified challenges as unequal access and quality of internet facilities; affordability of laptops/computers; limited interaction; and frequent disturbances. Seeing the better prospects, study strongly supported the need of shift in academic shift from traditional setting to non-traditional setting in Nepali context to meet the global needs of competitive and quality education.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0177.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: CALIOP; VIIRS; Machine Learning; Deep Learning; Dust Detection
Online: 8 December 2020 (06:44:51 CET)
Identifying dust aerosols from passive satellite images is of great interest for many applications. In this study, we developed 5 different machine-learning (ML) and deep-learning (DL) based algorithms, including Logistic Regression, K Nearest Neighbor, Random Forest (RF), Feed Forward Neural Network (FFNN), and Convolutional Neural Network (CNN), to identify dust aerosols in the daytime satellite images from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) under cloud-free conditions on a global scale. In order to train the ML and DL algorithms, we collocated the state-of-the-art dust detection product from the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) with the VIIRS observations along the CALIOP track. The 16 VIIRS M-band observations with the center wavelength ranging from deep blue to thermal infrared, together with solar-viewing geometries and pixel time and locations, are used as the predictor variables. Four different sets of training input data are constructed based on different combinations of VIIRS pixel and predictor variables. The validation and comparison results based on the collocated CALIOP data indicates that the FFNN method based on all available predictor variables is the best performing one among all methods. It has an averaged dust detection accuracy of about 81 %, 89 % and 85 % over land, ocean and whole globe, respectively, compared with collocated CALIOP. When applied to off-track VIIRS pixels, the FFNN method retrieves geographical distributions of dust that are in good agreement with on-track results as well as CALIOP statistics. For further evaluation, we compared our results based on the ML and DL algorithms to NOAA’s Aerosol Detection Product (ADP) , which is a product that classifies dust, smoke and ash using physical-based methods. The comparison reveals both similarity and differences. Overall, this study demonstrates the great potential of ML and DL methods for dust detection and proves that these methods can be trained on the CALIOP track and then applied to the whole granule of VIIRS granule.
Subject: Physical Sciences, Thermodynamics Keywords: Deep Learning; Thermodynamics; Learning and Generalization; Diophantine equations
Online: 13 October 2020 (14:32:18 CEST)
Deep learning machines are computational models composed of multiple processing layers of adaptive weights to learn representations of data with multiple levels of abstraction. Their structure is mainly reflecting the intuitive plausibility of decomposing a problem into multiple levels of computation and representation since it is believed that higher layers of representation allow a system to learn complex functions. Surprisingly, after decades of research, from learning and design perspectives these models are still deployed in a heuristic manner. In this paper, deep learning feed-forward machines are modeled from a statistical mechanics point of view as disordered physical systems where its macroscopic behavior is determined in terms of the interactions defined between the basic constituent of these models, namely, the artificial neuron. They are viewed as the equilibrium states of a theoretical body that is subject to the law of increase of the entropy. The study of the changes in energy of the body when passing from one equilibrium state to another is used to understand the structure and role of the phase space of the system, the stability of the equilibrium states, and the resulting degree of disorder. It is shown that the topology of these models is strongly linked to their stability and resulting level of disorder. Furthermore, the proposed theoretical characterization permit to assess the thermodynamic efficiency with which information can be processed by these models, and to provide a practical methodology to quantitatively estimate and compare their expected learning and generalization capabilities. These theoretical results provides new insights to the theory of deep learning and their implications are shown to be consistent through a set of benchmarks designed to experimentally assess their validity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0142.v3
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Plant Diseases; Modern Agriculture; Plant Health; AWS DeepLens; SageMaker; Machine Learning; Deep Learning
Online: 14 September 2020 (06:24:16 CEST)
In the Agriculture sector, control of plant leaf diseases is crucial as it influences the quality and production of plant species with an impact on the economy of any country. Therefore, automated identification and classification of plant leaf disease at an early stage is essential to reduce economic loss and to conserve the specific species. Previously, to detect and classify plant leaf disease, various Machine Learning models have been proposed; however, they lack usability due to hardware incompatibility, limited scalability and inefficiency in practical usage. Our proposed DeepLens Classification and Detection Model (DCDM) approach deal with such limitations by introducing automated detection and classification of the leaf diseases in fruits (apple, grapes, peach and strawberry) and vegetables (potato and tomato) via scalable transfer learning on A.W.S. SageMaker and importing it on AWS DeepLens for real-time practical usability. Cloud integration provides scalability and ubiquitous access to our approach. Our experiments on extensive image data set of healthy and unhealthy leaves of fruits and vegetables showed an accuracy of 98.78% with a real-time diagnosis of plant leaves diseases. We used forty thousand images for the training of deep learning model and then evaluated it on ten thousand images. The process of testing an image for disease diagnosis and classification using AWS DeepLens on average took 0.349s, providing disease information to the user in less than a second.
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: waste classification; transfer learning; deep learning; recognition classification
Online: 23 February 2020 (14:01:01 CET)
Using machine learning or deep learning to solve the problem of garbage recognition and classification is an important application in computer vision, but due to the incomplete establishment of garbage datasets and the poor performance of complex network models on smart terminal devices, the existing garbage classification models The effect is not good.This paper presents a waste classification and identification method base on transfer learning and lightweight neural network. By migrating the lightweight neural network MobileNetV2 and rebuild it, The reconstructed network is used for feature extraction, and the extracted features are introduced into the SVM to realize the identification of 6 types of garbage. The model was trained and verified by using 2527 pieces of garbage labeled data in the TrashNet dataset, which ultimately resulted in a classification accuracy of 98.4% of the method, which proves that the method can effectively improve the classification accuracy and time and overcome the problem of weak data and less labeling. The over-fitting phenomenon encountered by small data sets in deep learning makes the model robust.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0165.v1
Subject: Engineering, Telecommunications Keywords: massive MIMO; pilot contamination; deep learning; machine learning
Online: 14 August 2019 (16:01:48 CEST)
In this brief letter we report our initial results on the application of deep-learning to the massive MIMO channel estimation challenge. We show that it is possible to estimate wireless channels and that the possibility of mitigating pilot-contamination with deep-learning is possible given that the leaning model underwent an extensive training-phase and that it has been presented with a large number of different channel conditions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0273.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Active Learning, Pedagogy, Student Learning, Interactive Effects, Education
Online: 24 April 2019 (12:44:14 CEST)
If students do not fully apply themselves, then they may be considered responsible for the result of being inadequately prepared. +- Nevertheless, student outcomes are more likely to reflect a combination of both effort and systematic problems with overall course architecture. Deficiencies in course design result in inadequate preparation that adversely and directly impacts students’ productivity upon entering the workforce. Such an impact negatively influences students' ability to maintain gainful employment and provide for their families, which inevitably contributes to the development of issues concerning their psychological well-being. It is well-documented that incorporating active learning strategies in course design and delivery can enhance student learning outcomes. Despite the benefit of implementing active learning techniques, rarely in the real world will it be possible for techniques to be used in isolation of one another. Therefore, the purpose of this proposed study is to determine the interactive effects of two active learning strategies because, at a minimum, technique-pairs more accurately represent the application of active learning in the natural educational setting. There is a paucity of evidence in the literature directed toward investigating the interactive effects of multiple active learning techniques that this study is aimed at filling. The significance of this research is that, by determining the interactive effects of paired active learning strategies, other research studies on the beneficial effects of using particular active learning technique-pairs will be documented contributing to the literature so that ultimately classroom instruction may be customized according to the determination of optimal sequencing of strategy-pairs for particular courses, subjects, and desired outcomes that maximize student learning.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1367.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: online learning; e-learning; neuroscience; neuropedagogy; neuroeducation; higher education; design thinking; learning management system
Online: 19 May 2023 (03:32:57 CEST)
Higher education teaching staff members need to build a scientifically accurate and comprehensive understanding of the function of the brain in learning to optimize teaching and achieve excellent student learning. An international consortium developed a professional development six-module course on educational neuroscience and online community of practice applying design thinking. A mixed methods research design was employed to investigate the attitudes of thirty-two (N=32) participating academics using a survey comprising eleven closed and open questions. Data analysis methods included descriptive statistics, correlation, generalized additive model and grounded theory. The overall evaluation demonstrated a notable satisfaction level with regard to the quality of the course. Given the power of habits, mentoring and peer interactions are recommended to ensure the effective integration of theoretical neuroscientific evidence into teaching practice.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0360.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: Reinforcement Learning, Q-learning, Fuzzy Q-learning, Attitude Control, Truss-braced Wing, Flight Control
Online: 24 October 2022 (10:24:33 CEST)
Attitude control of a novel regional truss-braced wing aircraft with low stability characteristics is addressed in this paper using Reinforcement Learning (RL). In recent years, RL has been increasingly employed in challenging applications, particularly, autonomous flight control. However, a significant predicament confronting discrete RL algorithms is the dimension limitation of the state-action table and difficulties in defining the elements of the RL environment. To address these issues, in this paper, a detailed mathematical model of the mentioned aircraft is first developed to shape an RL environment. Subsequently, Q-learning, the most prevalent discrete RL algorithm will be implemented in both the Markov Decision Process (MDP), and Partially Observable Markov Decision Process (POMDP) frameworks to control the longitudinal mode of the air vehicle. In order to eliminate residual fluctuations that are a consequence of discrete action selection, and simultaneously track variable pitch angles, a Fuzzy Action Assignment (FAA) method is proposed to generate continuous control commands using the trained Q-table. Accordingly, it will be proved that by defining an accurate reward function, along with observing all crucial states (which is equivalent to satisfying the Markov Property), the performance of the introduced control system surpasses a well-tuned Proportional–Integral–Derivative (PID) controller.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0367.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Artificial Intelligence; Deep Learning; Image Classification; Machine Learning; Predictive Models; Small Datasets; Supervised Learning
Online: 25 January 2022 (08:24:17 CET)
One of the most important challenges in the Machine and Deep Learning areas today is to build good models using small datasets, because sometimes it is not possible to have large ones. Several techniques have been proposed in the literature to address this challenge. This paper aims at studying the different available Deep Learning techniques and performing a thorough experimentation to analyze which technique or combination thereof improves the performance and effectiveness of the models. A complete comparison with classical Machine Learning techniques was carried out, to contrast the results obtained using both techniques when working with small datasets. Thirteen algorithms were implemented and trained using three different small datasets (MNIST, Fashion MNIST, and CIFAR-10). Each experiment was evaluated using a well-established set of metrics (Accuracy, Precision, Recall, F1, and the Matthews correlation coefficient). The experimentation allowed concluding that it is possible to find a technique or combination of them to mitigate a lack of data, but this depends on the nature of the dataset, the amount of data, and the metrics used to evaluate them.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0780.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Deep learning; Computer vision; Remote sensing; Supervised learning; Semi-supervised learning; Segmentation; Seagrass mapping
Online: 31 March 2021 (15:53:19 CEST)
Intertidal seagrass plays a vital role in estimating the overall health and dynamics of coastal environments due to its interaction with tidal changes. However, most seagrass habitats around the globe have been in steady decline due to human impacts, disturbing the already delicate balance in environmental conditions that sustain seagrass. Miniaturization of multi-spectral sensors has facilitated very high resolution mapping of seagrass meadows, which significantly improve the potential for ecologists to monitor changes. In this study, two analytical approaches used for classifying intertidal seagrass habitats are compared: Object-based Image Analysis (OBIA) and Fully Convolutional Neural Networks (FCNNs). Both methods produce pixel-wise classifications in order to create segmented maps, however FCNNs are an emerging set of algorithms within Deep Learning with sparse application towards seagrass mapping. Conversely, OBIA has been a prominent solution within this field, with many studies leveraging in-situ data and multiscale segmentation to create habitat maps. This work demonstrates the utility of FCNNs in a semi-supervised setting to map seagrass and other coastal features from an optical drone survey conducted at Budle Bay, Northumberland, England. Semi-supervision is also an emerging field within Deep Learning that has practical benefits of achieving state of the art results using only subsets of labelled data. This is especially beneficial for remote sensing applications where in-situ data is an expensive commodity. For our results, we show that FCNNs have comparable performance with standard OBIA method used by ecologists, while also noting an increase in performance for mapping ecological features that are sparsely labelled across the study site.
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: constructivism; e-learning; online teaching; social constructivism theory; cognitive learning theory; transformative learning theory
Online: 18 December 2020 (16:29:27 CET)
The COVID-19 outbreaks have caused universities all across the globe to close their campuses and forced them to initiate online teaching. This article reviews the pedagogical foundations for developing effective distance education practices, starting from the assumption that promoting autonomous thinking is an essential element to guarantee full citizenship in a democracy and for moral decision making in situations of rapid change, which has become a pressing need in the context of a pandemic. In addition, the main obstacles related to this new context are identified, and solutions are proposed according to the existing bibliography in learning sciences.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0472.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Computer-aided Screening; Coronavirus; X-Ray; CT scan; Machine Learning; Transfer Learning; Deep Learning
Online: 21 August 2020 (05:17:46 CEST)
In this article, we analyse the computer aid screening method of COVID19 using Xray and CT scan images. The main objective is to set an analytical closure about the computer aid screening of COVID19 among the X-ray image and CT scan image. The computer aid screening method includes deep feature extraction, transfer learning and traditional machine learning image classification approach. The deep feature extraction and transfer learning method considered 13 pre-trained CNN model. The machine learning approach includes three sets of features and three classifiers. The pre-trained CNN models are alexnet, googlenet, vgg16, vgg19, densenet201, resnet18, resnet50, resnet101, inceptionv3, inceptionresnetv2, xception, mobilenetv2 and shufflenet. The features and classifiers in machine learning approaches are GLCM, LBP, HOG and KNN, SVM, Naive bay’s respectively. In addition, we also analyse the different paradigms of classifiers. In total, the comparative analysis is carried out in 65 classification models, i.e. 13 in deep feature extraction, 13 in transfer learning and 39 in machine learning approaches. Finally, all the classification models perform better in X-ray image set compare to CT scan image set.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0351.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: machine learning; aerodynamics; high-speed train; hybrid machine learning; Prediction Turbulence model; deep learning
Online: 26 December 2019 (05:23:14 CET)
In the present paper, an aerodynamic investigation of a high-speed train is performed. In the first section of this article, a generic high-speed train against a turbulent flow is simulated, numerically. The Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations combined with the SST turbulence model are applied to solve incompressible turbulent flow around a high-speed train. Flow structure, velocity and pressure contours and streamlines at some typical wind directions are the most important results of this simulation. The maximum and minimum values are specified and discussed. Also, the pressure coefficient for some critical points on the train surface is evaluated. In the following, the wind direction influence the aerodynamic key parameters as drag, lift, and side forces at the mentioned wind directions are analyzed and compared. Moreover, the effects of velocity changes (50, 60, 70, 80 and 90 m/s) are estimated and compared on the above flow and aerodynamic parameters. In the second section of the paper, various data-driven methods including Gene Expression Programming (GEP), Gaussian Process Regression (GPR), and random forest (RF), are applied for predicting output parameters. So, drag, lift and side forces and also minimum and a maximum of pressure coefficients for mentioned wind directions and velocity are predicted and compared using statistical parameters. Obtained results indicated that RF in all coefficients of wind direction and most coefficients of free stream velocity provided the most accurate predictions. As a conclusion, RF may be recommended for the prediction of aerodynamic coefficients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0154.v2
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: deep learning; multiple instance learning; weakly supervised learning; demography; socioeconomic analysis; google street view
Online: 24 October 2018 (08:53:26 CEST)
(1) Background: Evidence-based policymaking requires data about the local population's socioeconomic status (SES) at detailed geographical level, however, such information is often not available, or is too expensive to acquire. Researchers have proposed solutions to estimate SES indicators by analyzing Google Street View images, however, these methods are also resource-intensive, since they require large volumes of manually labeled training data. (2) Methods: We propose a methodology for automatically computing surrogate variables of SES indicators using street images of parked cars and deep multiple instance learning. Our approach does not require any manually created labels, apart from data already available by statistical authorities, while the entire pipeline for image acquisition, parked car detection, car classification, and surrogate variable computation is fully automated. The proposed surrogate variables are then used in linear regression models to estimate the target SES indicators. (3) Results: We implement and evaluate a model based on the proposed surrogate variable at 30 municipalities of varying SES in Greece. Our model has $R^2=0.76$ and a correlation coefficient of $0.874$ with the true unemployment rate, while it achieves a mean absolute percentage error of $0.089$ and mean absolute error of $1.87$ on a held-out test set. Similar results are also obtained for other socioeconomic indicators, related to education level and occupational prestige. (4) Conclusions: The proposed methodology can be used to estimate SES indicators at the local level automatically, using images of parked cars detected via Google Street View, without the need for any manual labeling effort.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0078.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Natural language processing; text classification; probabilistic models; machine learning; generative learning; collaborative learning; explainable AI
Online: 5 June 2023 (02:57:36 CEST)
The use of artificial intelligence in natural language processing (NLP) has significantly contributed to the advancement of natural language applications such as sentimental analysis, topic modeling, text classification, chatbots, and spam filtering. With a large amount of text generated each day from different sources such as webpages, blogs, emails, social media, and articles, one of the most common tasks in natural language processing is the classification of a text corpus. This is important in many institutions for planning, decision-making, and archives of their projects. Many algorithms exist to automate text classification operations but the most intriguing of them is that which also learns these operations automatically. In this study, we present a new model to infer and learn from data using probabilistic logic and apply it to text classification. This model, called GenCo, is a multi-input single-output (MISO) learning model that uses a collaboration of partial classifications to generate the desired output. It provides a heterogeneity measure to explain its classification results and enables the reduction of the curse of dimensionality in text classification. The classification results are compared with those of conventional text classification models, and it shows that our proposed model has a higher classification performance than conventional models.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0211.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: COVID-19; active learning; science learning; applied technology, assessment for learning; new teaching material development
Online: 16 May 2022 (13:13:32 CEST)
Pandemic scenario has significantly changed several factors of life, including teaching, and learning at university. The development of suitable teaching materials to support university studies is mandatory to overcome distance learning difficulties and improve traditional teaching methodologies. This work explains a novel method for the preparation of teaching materials for medical sciences, but also plausible for other learning fields. An encephalon was extracted and prepared by using this methodology for teaching purposes. More than 200 students evaluated several factors of the material prepared this way, indicating a better understanding (up to 80%) of theoretical contents related to this human section, together with a high usability and good physical appearance
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: spatial machine learning; spatial dependence; spatial heterogeneity; scale; spatial observation matrix; learning algorithm; deep learning
Online: 6 August 2021 (14:18:55 CEST)
Properties of spatially explicit data are often ignored or inadequately handled in machine learning for spatial domains of application. At the same time, resources that would identify these properties and investigate their influence and methods to handle them in machine learning applications are lagging behind. In this survey of the literature, we seek to identify and discuss spatial properties of data that influence the performance of machine learning. We review some of the best practices in handling such properties in spatial domains and discuss their advantages and disadvantages. We recognize two broad strands in this literature. In the first, the properties of spatial data are developed in the spatial observation matrix without amending the substance of the learning algorithm; in the other, spatial data properties are handled in the learning algorithm itself. While the latter have been far less explored, we argue they offer the most promising prospects for the future of spatial machine learning.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0468.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: e-learning; information technology services; e-learning adoption; e-learning diffusion; systematic review; bibliometric analysis
Online: 20 September 2020 (14:22:58 CEST)
Increased proliferation of IT services in all sectors has reinforced the adoption and diffusion across all levels of education and training institutions. However, lack of awareness of and knowledge about the key challenges and opportunities of elearning, seem to allude policymakers, resulting in low adoption or increased failure rate of many e-learning projects. Our study tries to address this problem through a review of relevant literature in e-learning. Our goal was to draw from the existing literature, insights into the opportunities and challenges of e-learning diffusion, and the current state-of-research in the field. To do this, we employed a systematic review of literature on some of the salient opportunities and challenges of e-learning innovation for educational institutions. These results aimed to inform policymakers and suggest some interesting issues to advance the research and adoption and diffusion of e-learning. Moreover, the bibliometric analysis shows that the field is experiencing high research attraction among scholars. However, several research areas in the field witnessed relatively low research paucity. Based on these findings, we discussed topics for possible future research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0185.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: deep learning; multi-task learning; audio event detection; audio tagging; weak learning; low-resource data
Online: 10 July 2018 (16:05:15 CEST)
In training a deep learning system to perform audio transcription, two practical problems may arise. Firstly, most datasets are weakly labelled, having only a list of events present in each recording without any temporal information for training. Secondly, deep neural networks need a very large amount of labelled training data to achieve good quality performance, yet in practice it is difficult to collect enough samples for most classes of interest. In this paper, we propose factorising the final task of audio transcription into multiple intermediate tasks in order to improve the training performance when dealing with this kind of low-resource datasets. We evaluate three data-efficient approaches of training a stacked convolutional and recurrent neural network for the intermediate tasks. Our results show that different methods of training have different advantages and disadvantages.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0398.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: CRISPR/Cas9; machine learning; gRNA; neural networks; deep learning
Online: 17 April 2023 (04:25:15 CEST)
In the last decade, the genetic engineering world has been shaken up by a relatively new genetic editing tool based on RNA-guided Nucleases (RGNs): the CRISPR/Cas9 system. Since the first report in 1987 and its characterization in 2007 as a bacterial defense mechanism, the interest and research on this system have grown exponentially. CRISPR systems provide immunity to bacteria against invading genetic material; however, with specific modifications in sequence and structure, it becomes a precise editing system that makes it possible to genetically modify almost any organism. There are diverse approaches regarding the refinement of these modifications, such as constructing more accurate nucleases, understanding the cellular context and facing the epigenetic conditions, or re-designing guide RNAs (gRNAs). Considering the critical importance for the correct CRISPR/Cas9 systems performance, our scope will emphasize in the latter approach. Hence, we present an overview of the past and the most recent guide RNA web-based design tools, highlighting their computational architecture and gRNA characteristics evolution through the years. Our study concisely explains the computational approaches that use machine learning techniques, deep neural networks, and large datasets of gRNA/target interactions to make possible both predictions and classifications directed to design, optimize, and create promising gRNAs suitable for future gene therapies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0175.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: translation; project-based learning; self-regulation; teaching and learning
Online: 10 February 2023 (02:39:10 CET)
The Pandemic in 2019 forced a digital adaptation with direct consequences on all educational stakeholders. On behalf of teachers and trainers, while many regarded these changes with some scepticism, others embraced the opportunity to integrate technology into their teaching methods and as learning resources. As translation trainers, it is essential to follow and understand the translation market. Thus, the exponential changes that digital technology has brought to this sector over the years impose constant shifts in teaching and learning methods and resources. In fact, translators require vast competencies, amongst which is the flexibility to adapt. In translation training Project-Based Learning (PBL) has been established as an essential teaching and learning method, as it has proven to foster the development of competencies as it simulates the translator's work environment. Thus, the need to adapt new strategies reinforced PBL and its benefits. PBL, however, similar to a freelance translator, places the student in the centre of the learning process, where self-regulation becomes essential, as it is necessary to analyse the market/situation and be flexible enough to adapt to the context accordingly. As of 2018-2019, technical translation courses at ISCAP have implemented PBL as their main teaching and learning method. At the same time, a study on student self-regulation began. The purpose was to understand student perception on their own self-regulation competence and its development or lack thereof after one year of PBL. Results indicate that PBL is seen as a useful simulation of the translation labour market and that it does enhance many essential competences, amongst which is student self-regulation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0102.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: machine learning; deep learning; remote sensing; land cover map
Online: 6 February 2023 (10:53:10 CET)
The application of machine learning techniques to satellite imagery has been the subject of interest in recent years. The increase in quality and quantity of images, made available by Earth observation programs, such as the Copernicus program, led to the generation of large amounts of data. Among the various applications of this data is the creation of land cover maps. The present work aimed to create machine learning models capable of accurately segment and classify satellite images, to automatically generate a land cover map of the Portuguese territory. Several experiments were carried out with the spectral bands of the Sentinel-2 satellite, with vegetation indices, and with several sets of land cover classes. Three machine learning architectures were evaluated, which adopt two different techniques for image classification. One of the classification techniques follows an object-oriented approach, and in this case the architecture adopted in our models was a U-Net artificial neural network. The other classification technique is pixel-oriented, and the machine learning models tested were random forest and support vector machine. The overall accuracy of the results obtained ranged from 68.6% to 94.75%, depending strongly on the number of classes into which the land cover is classified. The result of 94.75% was obtained when classifying the land cover only into 5 classes. However, a very interesting accuracy of 92.37% was achieved by the model when trained to classify 8 classes. These results are superior to those reported in the related bibliography.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0306.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: AIoT; Artificial Intelligence; Assistive Technology; Deep Learning; Machine Learning
Online: 20 September 2022 (10:45:15 CEST)
According to the World Health Organization, about 15% of the world’s population has some form of disability. Assistive Technology, in this context, contributes directly to the overcoming of difficulties encountered by people with disabilities in their daily lives, allowing them to receive education and become part of the labor market and society in a worthy manner. Assistive Technology has made great advances in its integration with Artificial Intelligence of Things (AIoT) devices. AIoT processes and analyzes the large amount of data generated by IoT devices and applies Artificial Intelligence models, specifically Machine Learning, to discover patterns for generating insights and assisting in decision making. Based on a systematic literature review, this article aims at identifying the Machine Learning models used in multiple different research about Artificial Intelligence of Things applied to Assistive Technology. The survey of the topics approached in this article also highlights the context of such research, their application, IoT devices used, and gaps and opportunities for further development. Survey results show that 50% of the analyzed research address visual impairment, and for this reason, most of the topics cover issues related to computational vision. Portable devices, wearables, and smartphones constituted the majority of IoT devices. Deep Neural Networks represent 81% of the Machine Learning models applied in the reviewed research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0100.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: biocatalysts; bioprospecting; esterases/lipases; hydrolases; machine learning; supervised learning
Online: 7 September 2022 (04:53:30 CEST)
When bioprospecting for novel industrial enzymes, substrate promiscuity is a desirable property that increases the reusability of the enzyme. Among industrial enzymes, ester hydrolases have great relevance for which the demand has not ceased to increase. However, the search for new substrate promiscuous ester hydrolases is not trivial since the mechanism behind this property is greatly influenced by the active site's structural and physicochemical characteristics. These characteristics must be computed from the 3D structure, which is rarely available, and expensive to measure, hence the need for a method that can predict promiscuity from a sequence alone. Here we report such a method called EP-pred, an ensemble binary classifier, that combines three machine learning algorithms: SVM, KNN, and a Linear model. EP-pred has been evaluated against the Lipase Engineering Database together with a hidden Markov approach leading to a final set of 10 sequences predicted to encode promiscuous esterases. Experimental results confirmed the validity of our method since all ten proteins were found to exhibit a broad substrate ambiguity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0056.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: deep learning; convolutional neural networks; classification; machine learning; IoT
Online: 5 July 2022 (04:22:49 CEST)
In videos, the human's actions are of three-dimensional (3D) signals. These videos investigate the spatiotemporal knowledge of human behavior. The promising ability is investigated using 3D convolution neural networks (CNNs). The 3D CNNs have not yet achieved high output for their well-established two-dimensional (2D) equivalents in still photographs. Board 3D Convolutional Memory and Spatiotemporal fusion face training difficulty preventing 3D CNN from accomplishing remarkable evaluation. In this paper, we implement Hybrid Deep Learning Architecture that combines STIP and 3D CNN features to enhance the performance of 3D videos effectively. After implementation, the more detailed and deeper charting for training in each circle of space-time fusion. The training model further enhances the results after handling complicated evaluations of models. The video classification model is used in this implemented model. Intelligent 3D Network Protocol for Multimedia Data Classification using Deep Learning is introduced to further understand space-time association in human endeavors. In the implementation of the result, the well-known dataset, i.e., UCF101 to, evaluates the performance of the proposed hybrid technique. The results beat the proposed hybrid technique that substantially beats the initial 3D CNNs. The results are compared with state-of-the-art frameworks from literature for action recognition on UCF101 with an accuracy of 95%.
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Ship detection; self-supervised learning; transfer learning; Sentinel 2
Online: 7 October 2021 (23:04:24 CEST)
Automatic ship detection provides an essential function towards maritime domain awareness for security or economic monitoring purposes. This work presents an approach for training a deep learning ship detector in Sentinel-2 multispectral images with few labeled examples. We design a network architecture for detecting ships with a backbone that can be pre-trained separately. By using Self Supervised Learning, an emerging unsupervised training procedure, we learn good features on Sentinel-2 images, without requiring labeling, to initialize our network’s backbone. The full network is then fine-tuned to learn to detect ships in challenging settings. We evaluated this approach versus pre-training on ImageNet and versus a classical image processing pipeline. We examined the impact of variations in the self-supervised learning step and we show that in the few-shot learning setting self-supervised pre-training achieves better results than ImageNet pre-training. When enough training data is available, our self-supervised approach is as good as ImageNet pre-training. We conclude that a better design of the self-supervised task and bigger non-annotated dataset sizes can lead to surpassing ImageNet pre-training performance without any annotation costs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0243.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: distance learning; intelligent services; literature review; virtual learning environments.
Online: 14 September 2021 (15:06:55 CEST)
Distance learning has assumed a relevant role in the Educational scenario. The use of Virtual Learning Environments contributes to obtain a substantial amount of educational data. In this sense, the analyzed data generate knowledge used by institutions to assist managers and professors in strategic planning and teaching. The discovery of students’ behaviors enables a wide variety of intelligent services for assisting in the learning process. This article presents a literature review in order to identify the intelligent services applied in distance learning. The research covers the period from January 2010 to May 2021. The initial search found 1,316 articles, among which 51 were selected for further studies. Considering the selected articles, 33% (17/51) focus on learning systems, 35% (18/51) propose recommendation systems, 26% (13/51) approach predictive systems or models, and 6% (3/51) use assessment tools. This review allowed to observe that the principal services offered are recommendation systems and learning systems. In these services, the analysis of student profiles stands out to identify patterns of behavior, detect low performance and identify probabilities of dropouts from courses.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0238.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Other Keywords: self-supervised learning; medicine; healthcare; representation learning; unlabeled data
Online: 11 August 2021 (08:27:57 CEST)
Machine learning has become an increasingly ubiquitous technology, as big data continues to inform and influence everyday life and decision-making. Currently in healthcare, as well as in most other industries, the two most prevalent machine learning paradigms are supervised learning and transfer learning. Both practices rely on large-scale, manually annotated datasets to train increasingly complex models. However, the requirement of data to be manually labeled leaves an excess of unused, unlabeled data available in both public and private data repositories. Self-supervised learning (SSL) is a growing area of machine learning that has the ability to take advantage of unlabeled data. Contrary to other machine learning paradigms, SSL algorithms create artificial supervisory signals from unlabeled data and pretrain algorithms on these signals. The aim of this review is two-fold: firstly, we provide a formal definition of SSL, divide SSL algorithms into their four unique subsets, and review the state-of-the-art published in each of those subsets between the years of 2014-2020. Second, this work surveys recent SSL algorithms published in healthcare, in order to provide medical experts with a clearer picture of how they can integrate SSL into their research, with the objective of leveraging unlabeled data.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0209.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: slums; informal settlements; deep learning; machine learning; uncertainty quantification
Online: 9 August 2021 (20:27:05 CEST)
Over a billion people live in slums, with poor sanitation, education, property rights and working conditions having direct impact on current residents and future generations. A key problem in relation to slums is slum mapping. Without delineations of where all slum settlements are, informed decisions cannot be made by policymakers in order to benefit the most in need. Satellite images have been used in combination with machine learning models to try and fill the gap in data availability of slum locations. Deep learning has been used on RGB images with some success but since labeled satellite images of slums are relatively low quality and the physical/visual manifestation of slums significantly varies within and across countries, it is important to quantify the uncertainty of predictions for reliable application in downstream tasks. Our solution is to train Monte Carlo dropout U-Net models on multispectral 13-band Sentinel-2 images from which we can calculate pixelwise epistemic (model) and aleatoric (data) uncertainty in our predictions. We trained our model on labelled images of Mumbai and verified our epistemic and aleatoric uncertainty quantification approach using altered models trained on modified datasets. We also used SHAP values to investigate how the different features contribute towards the model’s predictions and this showed that certain short-wave infrared and red-edge image bands are powerful features for determining the locations of slums within images. Having created our model with uncertainty quantification, in the future it can be applied to downstream tasks and decision-makers will know where predictions have been made with low uncertainty, giving them greater confidence in its deployment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0670.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: melanoma; biomarker; transfer learning; ensemble model; bias; machine learning
Online: 27 May 2021 (13:20:55 CEST)
Melanoma is considered the most serious and aggressive type of skin cancer, and metastasis appears to be the most important factor in prognosticating this type of cancer. With the emergence of new therapeutic strategies for metastatic melanoma that have shown improvement in patient survival, we developed a transfer learning-based biomarker discovery model that could help in the diagnosis and prognosis of this disease. After applying it to the ensemble machine learning model, results reveal that the genes we found show consistency with other methodologies previously applied to the same TCGA (The Cancer Genome Atlas) data set, and our methods found novel biomarker genes as well. Our ensemble model achieved Area Under the Receiver Operating Characteristic (AUC) of 0.9861, an accuracy of 91.05, and an F1 score of 90.60 using an independent validation data set. This study was able to identify potential genes for diagnostic classification (C7 and GRIK5) and diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers (S100A7, S100A7, KRT14, KRT17, KRT6B, KRTDAP, SERPINB4, TSHR, PVRL4, WFDC5, IL20RB). We also assessed the potential sources of bias for our model and confirmed some of them by the model's performance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0529.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: censored data; machine learning; deep learning; DNNSurv; survival analysis
Online: 20 April 2021 (11:15:02 CEST)
As the development of high-throughput technologies, more and more high-dimensional or ultra high-dimensional genomic data are generated. Therefore, how to make effective analysis of such data becomes a challenge. Machine learning (ML) algorithms have been widely applied for modelling nonlinear and complicated interactions in a variety of practical fields such as high-dimensional survival data. Recently, the multilayer deep neural network (DNN) models have made remarkable achievements. Thus, a Cox-based DNN prediction survival model (DNNSurv model) , which was built with Keras and Tensorflow, was developed. However, its results were only evaluated to the survival datasets with high-dimensional or large sample sizes. In this paper, we evaluate the prediction performance of the DNNSurv model using ultra high-dimensional and high-dimensional survival datasets, and compare it with three popular ML survival prediction models (i.e., random survival forest and Cox-based LASSO and Ridge models). For this purpose we also present the optimal setting of several hyper-parameters including selection of tuning parameter. The proposed method demonstrates via data analysis that the DNNSurv model performs overall well as compared with the ML models, in terms of three main evaluation measures (i.e., concordance index, time-dependent Brier score and time-dependent AUC) for survival prediction performance.
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: Millennial Lecturer; Knowledge Clusters; Performance; Learning Satisfaction; Learning Outcomes
Online: 30 November 2020 (16:06:01 CET)
Generation Y is known as job jumpers because of the desire to earn a higher salary, career opportunities and opportunities to develop themselves. One type of work is a teacher because by becoming a teacher they get a better life, one of which is by getting extra income from the government for those who already have teacher certification, this is what encourages Generation Y to choose this profession. this study uses crosstabs for the data analysis process because the data comes from the LMS database owned by XYZ Campus. Millennial educators who have the highest performance value of PJJ Information Systems for Information System Engineering Cluster with a value of 5.19. The impact of transactions on millennial lecturers on students is able to fulfill any given workload. Appreciate millennial lecturers in tangible and intangible forms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0023.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: Computers in Medicine; Segmentation; Machine Learning; Deep Learning; MRI
Online: 2 November 2020 (11:02:44 CET)
Segmentation of Magnetic Resonance Images (MRI) of abdominal organs is useful for analysis prior to surgical procedures and for further processing. Deep Learning (DL) has become the standard, researchers have proposed improvements that include multiple views, ensembles and voting. Loss function alternatives, while being crucial to guide automated learning, have not been compared in detail. In this work we analyze limitations of popular metrics and their use as loss, study alternative loss variations based on those and other modifications and search for the best approach. An experimental setup was necessary to assess the alternatives. Results for the top scoring network and top scoring loss show improvements between 2 and 11 percentage points (pp) in Jaccard Index (JI), depending on organ and patient (sequence), for a total of 22 pp over 4 organs, all this being obtained just by choosing the best performing loss function instead of cross-entropy or dice. Our results apply directly to MRI of abdominal organs, with important practical implications for other architectures, as they can be applied easily to any of them. They also show the worth of variants of loss function and loss tuning, with future work needed to generalize and test in other contexts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0113.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Scene classification; Deep Learning; Convolutional Neural Networks; Feature learning
Online: 5 August 2020 (06:19:27 CEST)
State-of-the-art remote sensing scene classification methods employ different Convolutional Neural Network architectures for achieving very high classification performance. A trait shared by the majority of these methods is that the class associated with each example is ascertained by examining the activations of the last fully connected layer, and the networks are trained to minimize the cross-entropy between predictions extracted from this layer and ground-truth annotations. In this work, we extend this paradigm by introducing an additional output branch which maps the inputs to low dimensional representations, effectively extracting additional feature representations of the inputs. The proposed model imposes additional distance constrains on these representations with respect to identified class representatives, in addition to the traditional categorical cross-entropy between predictions and ground-truth. By extending the typical cross-entropy loss function with a distance learning function, our proposed approach achieves significant gains across a wide set of benchmark datasets in terms of classification, while providing additional evidence related to class membership and classification confidence.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0693.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Networks And Communications Keywords: 5G; deep learning; reinforcement learning; systematic review; cellular networks
Online: 29 July 2020 (11:12:32 CEST)
This last decade, the amount of data exchanged in the Internet increased by over a staggering factor of 100, and is expected to exceed well over the 500 exabytes by 2020. This phenomenon is mainly due to the evolution of high speed broadband Internet and, more specifically, the popularization and wide spread use of smartphones and associated accessible data plans. Although 4G with its long-term evolution (LTE) technology is seen as a mature technology, there is continual improvement to its radio technology and architecture such as in the scope of the LTE Advanced standard, a major enhancement of LTE. But for the long run, the next generation of telecommunication (5G) is considered and is gaining considerable momentum from both industry and researchers. In addition, with the deployment of the Internet of Things (IoT) applications, smart cities, vehicular networks, e-health systems, and Industry 4.0, a new plethora of 5G services has emerged with very diverging and technologically challenging design requirements. These include: high mobile data volume per area, high number of devices connected per area, high data rates, longer battery life for low-power devices, and reduced end-to-end latency. Several technologies are being developed to meet these new requirements. Among these we list ultra-densification, millimeter Wave usage, antennas with massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO), antenna beamforming to increase spacial diversity, edge/fog computing, among others. Each of these technologies brings its own design issues and challenges. For instance, ultra-densification and MIMO will increase the complexity to estimate channel condition and traditional channel state information (CSI) estimation techniques are no longer suitable due to the complexity of the new scenarios. As a result, new approaches to evaluate network condition such as by continuously collecting and monitoring key performance indicators become necessary. Timely decisions are needed to ensure the correct operation of such network. In this context, deep learning (DL) models could be seen as one of the main tools that can be used to process monitoring data and automate decisions. As these models are able to extract relevant features from raw data (images, texts, and other types of unstructured data), the integration between 5G and DL looks promising and one that requires exploring. As main contributions, this paper presents a systematic review about how DL is being applied to solve some 5G issues. We examine data from the last decade and the works that addressed diverse 5G problems, such as physical medium state estimation, network traffic prediction, user device location prediction, self network management, among others. We also discuss the main research challenges when using DL models in 5G scenarios and identify several issues that deserve further consideration.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0180.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: deep learning; neural attention; loans; loan origination; machine learning
Online: 14 February 2020 (02:45:01 CET)
In this paper we address the understanding of the problem, of why a deep learning model decides that an individual is eligible for a loan or not. Here we propose a novel approach for inferring, which attributes matter the most, for making a decision in each specific individual case. Specifically we leverage concepts from neural attention to devise a novel feature wise attention mechanism. As we show, using real world datasets, our approach offers unique insights into the importance of various features, by producing a decision explanation for each specific loan case. At the same time, we observe that our novel mechanism, generates decisions which are much closer to the decisions generated by human experts, compared to the existent competitors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0288.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: Cross-modal retrieval; Adversarial learning; Semantic correlation; Deep learning
Online: 24 January 2020 (15:03:34 CET)
With the rapid development of Internet and the widely usage of smart devices, massive multimedia data are generated, collected, stored and shared on the Internet. This trend makes cross-modal retrieval problem become a hot issue in this years. Many existing works pay attentions on correlation learning to generate a common subspace for cross-modal correlation measurement, and others uses adversarial learning technique to abate the heterogeneity of multi-modal data. However, very few works combine correlation learning and adversarial learning to bridge the inter-modal semantic gap and diminish cross-modal heterogeneity. This paper propose a novel cross-modal retrieval method, named ALSCOR, which is an end-to-end framework to integrate cross-modal representation learning, correlation learning and adversarial. CCA model, accompanied by two representation model, VisNet and TxtNet is proposed to capture non-linear correlation. Beside, intra-modal classifier and modality classifier are used to learn intra-modal discrimination and minimize the inter-modal heterogeneity. Comprehensive experiments are conducted on three benchmark datasets. The results demonstrate that the proposed ALSCOR has better performance than the state-of-the-arts.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0179.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: biofuels; deep learning; big data; machine learning models; biodiesel
Online: 17 August 2019 (03:48:28 CEST)
Biofuels construct an essential pillar of energy systems. Biofuels are considered as a popular resource for electricity production, heating, household, and industrial usage, liquid fuels, and mobility around the world. Thus, the need for handling, modeling, decision-making, demand, and forecasting for biofuels are of utmost importance. Recently, machine learning (ML) and deep learning (DL) techniques have been accessible in modeling, optimizing, and handling biofuels production, consumption, and environmental impacts. The main aim of this study is to review and evaluate ML and DL techniques and their applications in handling biofuels production, consumption, and environmental impacts, both for modeling and optimization purposes. Hybrid and ensemble ML methods, as well as DL methods, have found to provide higher performance and accuracy in modeling the biofuels.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0191.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: learning trail; science centres; visitor engagement; generic learning outcomes
Online: 15 May 2019 (10:51:21 CEST)
The Norwegian Museum of Science and Technology have developed a learning concept for school classes in science centres named ‘learning trails’. In this concept, groups of students perform a series of thematically related experiments with installations in the science centre. The learning trails are designed to support the generic learning outcomes for science centre visits. We argue for using the previously developed Engagement Profile in an indicator to determine both media forms and generic learning outcomes for such learning concepts. Further, we implemented the learning trails in two modes: one mode used paper-based content to guide the students, while the other mode supported the use of tablet PCs where engaging content is triggered when the students approach the location of an experiment in the learning trail. We studied the engagement factors of the learning trails and observed how school classes use these. In a study with 113 students from lower secondary school, they answered short questionnaires that were integrated into the implementation of the learning trails. While the concept of the learning trails was evaluated positively, we could not find significant differences in how engaging the two implemented modes were.
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: forgery detection; GAN; contrastive loss; deep learning; pairwise learning
Online: 5 May 2019 (11:13:55 CEST)
Recently, generative adversarial networks (GANs) can be used to generate the photo-realistic image from a low-dimension random noise. It is very dangerous that the synthesized or generated image is used on inappropriate contents in social media network. In order to successfully detect such fake image, an effective and efficient image forgery detector is desired. However, conventional image forgery detectors are failed to recognize the synthesized or generated images by using GAN-based generator since they are all generated but manipulation from the source. Therefore, we propose a deep learning-based approach to detect the fake image by combining the contrastive loss. First, several state-of-the-art GANs will be collected to generate the fake-real image pairs. Then, the contrastive will be used on the proposed common fake feature network (CFFN)to learn the discriminative feature between the fake image and real image (i.e., paired information). Finally, a smaller network will be concatenated to the CFFN to determine whether the feature of the input image is fake or real. Experimental results demonstrated that the proposed method significantly outperforms other state-of-the-art fake image detectors.