ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0103.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: Monochoria angustifolia; Monochoria hastata; Flavonoid; Antioxidant mechanism; Natural populations; Phytochemical profile; Traditional herbal medicine; Phytopharmaceutical
Online: 12 April 2022 (04:08:17 CEST)
Plants of the genus Monochoria have long been utilized in food, cosmetics, and traditional herbal treatment. Thailand has the highest species diversity of this genus and a new member, Monochoria angustifolia (G. X. Wang) Boonkerd & Tungmunnithum has been recently described. This plant is called “Siam Violet Pearl” as a common name or “ไข่มุกสีม่วงแห่งสยาม” as its vernacular name in the same meaning in Thai language. Despite their importance, few researches on Monochoria species have been conducted. This study, thus, provided the results to fill in this gap by: i) determining flavonoids phytochemical profiles of 25 natural populations of M. angustifolia covering the whole floristic regions in Thailand, and ii) determining antioxidant activity using various antioxidant assays to investigate the probable mechanism. The results revealed that M. angustifolia presented a higher flavonoid content than the outgroup, M. hastata. Our results also revealed that flavonoids might be used to investigate Monochoria evolutionary connections and for botanical authentication. The various antioxidant assays revealed that M. angustifolia extracts preferentially act through a hydrogen atom transfer antioxidant mechanism. Pearson correlation analysis indicated significant correlations emphasizing that the antioxidant capacity is most probably the result of a complex phytochemical combinations rather than of a single molecule. Altogether, these results showed that this new species provide an attractive alternative starting material with phytochemical variety and antioxidant potential for the phytopharmaceutical industry.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0252.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Applied Chemistry Keywords: Silybum marianum; silymarin; flavonolignans; ultrasound-assisted extraction; design of experiement; antioxidant; anti-aging
Online: 23 July 2019 (09:51:35 CEST)
Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn. (aka milk thistle) constitute the almost exclusive source of silymarin, a mixture of different flavonolignans, and is thus considered as a unique model for their extraction. The present research deals with ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) of S. marianum flavonolignans and their quantification using LC system. The optimal conditions for UAE were: aqueous EtOH 54.5% (v/v) as solvent, applying an ultrasound frequency of 36.6 kHz during an extraction time of 60 min at 45°C with a liquid to solid ratio of 25:1 ml/g DW. Following optimization, the extraction method was validated according to international standards of the association of analytical communities (AOAC) in order to ensure its precision and accuracy for the quantitation of the individual silymarin components. The efficiency of UAE was compared with maceration protocol of the same duration. The optimized and validated conditions allowed highest extraction yields of flavonolignans in comparison to maceration. The antioxidant capacity of the extracts was confirmed by the CUPRAC assays and inhibition of advanced glycation end products. The skin anti-aging action was also confirmed toward the strong in vitro inhibition capacity of the obtained extract against collagenase and elastase enzymes. The procedure presented here allows a green efficient extraction and quantification of the main flavonolignans from the fruits of S. marianum with attractive antioxidant and anti-aging activities for future cosmetic applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0319.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: almond; antioxidant; by-products; chlorogenic acid; design of experiment; phenolic acids; ultrasound-assisted extraction
Online: 19 April 2020 (04:06:15 CEST)
Almond (Prunus dulcis (Mill.) D.A.Webb) is one of the most important nut crops both in terms of area and production. Over the last decades, an important part of the beneficial actions for health associated with their consumption was attributed to the phenolic compounds, mainly accumulated in almond skin. Interestingly, after cold-pressed oil extraction, most of these antioxidant phenolic compounds are retained in a skin-enriched by-product, so-called almond cold-pressed oil residue. In Morocco, ranked fifth producer in the world, this production generates an important part of this valuable byproduct. In the present study, using a multivariate Box-Behnken design, an ultrasound-assisted extraction (USAE) method of phenolic compounds from Moroccan almond cold-pressed oil residue was developed and validated. Response surface methodology resulted in the optimal extraction conditions: the use of aqueous EtOH 53.0% (v/v) as green solvent, applying an US frequency of 27.0 kHz for an extraction duration of 29.4 min. The present USAE allowed substantial gains in terms of extraction efficiency compared to conventional heat reflux extraction. Applied to 3 different local Beldi genotypes growing at 3 different experimental sites, the optimal USAE conditions led to a total phenolic content of 13.86 mg/g dry weight (DW). HPLC analysis revealed that the main phenolic compounds from this valuable byproduct were: chlorogenic acid followed by protocatechuic acid, p-hydrobenzoic acid and p-coumaric acid. The accumulation of these phenolic compounds appeared to be more dependent on the genetic background than on the environmental impact here represented by the 3 experimental culture sites. Both in vitro cell free and cellular antioxidant assays were performed, and revealed the great potential of these extracts. In particular, correlation analysis evidenced the prominent roles of chlorogenic acid, protocatechuic acid and p-hydrobenzoic acid. To summarize, the USAE method presented here is a quick, green, simple and efficient validated USAE for the possible valorization of antioxidant phenolic compounds from Moroccan almond cold-Pressed oil residues, making it possible to generate extracts with attractive antioxidant activities for future nutraceutical and/or cosmetic applications.