REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0748.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Latin America; tree ring analyses; dendrochronology; climatic trends; climate variability; review
Online: 30 December 2020 (09:05:44 CET)
Dendroclimatology has gained relevance during the XXI century. We analyze the state of-the-art of dendroclimatology in Latin America during the past 28 years (1990 to 2019), identifying the current state and recent advances in the application of dendroclimatology in this region. We carried out a systematic review in ScienceDirect, Web of Science, and Scopus databases using Boolean operators to logically connect the keywords “dendrochronology,” “dendroclimatology,” “trend,” “climatic variability,” and “climatic variability trend”, for each country. Dendroclimatological research conducted in the region focused on climatic reconstruction and the evaluation of new tree species with dendrochronological potential, which increase in 2010, then there was a gap between 1995 and 1996, later increase to present. Dendroclimatological studies in Latin America have been mainly developed in temperate climate zones (82.4 %) followed by tropical or subtropical areas (17.6 %). Dendroclimatological research in Latin America has provided advances in the study of climate variability by defining response functions of tree rings to climate. The generated information allows for a better understanding of the spatial and temporal dynamics of climatic variability and about its effects on ecosystems and society. We also call for increased dendroclimatological research based on subtropical and tropical forests limited studied until today.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0212.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: FDI; GARCH; real exchange rate and price volatility; Latin America and the Caribbean
Online: 26 August 2016 (09:59:32 CEST)
This paper investigates the impact of price and real exchange rate volatility on Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) inflows in a panel of 10 Latin American and Caribbean countries, observed between 1990 and 2012. Both price and exchange rate volatility series are estimated through the Generalized Autoregressive Conditional Heteroscedasticity model (GARCH). Our results, obtained employing the Fixed Effects estimator, confirm the theory of hysteresis and option value, in so far it is found a statistically significant negative effect of exchange rate volatility on FDI. Price volatility, instead, turns out to be positive but insignificant. Moreover, we show that human capital and trade openness are key for attracting foreign capital. From the policy perspective, our analysis suggests the importance of stabilization policies as well as the one of government credibility in promoting trade openness and human capital formation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0249.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Neglected tropical diseases; Latin America and the Caribbean; Bibliometric analysis; HIV/AIDS; Malaria; Tuberculosis.
Online: 10 December 2020 (10:56:11 CET)
(1) Background: Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) have been overlooked on the global health agenda and in the priorities of national systems in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). In 2012, the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) were created to ensure healthy lives and promoting well-being for all. This roadmap set out to accelerate work to overcome the global impact of NTDs. Almost a decade has passed since NTDs were re-launched as a global priority. Investment in research and development, as well as the production of scientific literature on NTDs, is expected to have increased significantly. (2) Methods: A bibliometric analysis of the scientific production of Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) was carried out in relation to 19 endemic NTDs. These data were compared with the scientific production in malaria, tuberculosis and HIV / AIDS. The database available from Thomson Reuters Web of Science (WoS) was used. In addition, the average annual growth percentage was calculated for each disease. (3) Results: In the last decade, the NTDs with the highest number of publications in the world were dengue and leishmaniasis. The United States was the most prolific country in the world in 15 out of 19 NTDs analyzed. In the LAC region, Brazil was the largest contributor for 16 of the 19 NTDs analyzed. Arboviral diseases showed the highest average annual growth. The number of publications for malaria, tuberculosis and HIV /AIDS was considerably higher than for NTDs. The contribution of most LAC countries, especially those considered as LMICs, is inadequate and does not reflect the relevance of NTDs for the public health of the population. (4) Conclusion: This is the first bibliometric analysis to assess the trend of scientific documents on endemic NTDs in LAC. Our results could be used by decision makers both to strengthen investment policies in research and development in NTDs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0362.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Health research policy; National health research system; COVID-19; Biomedical Research; Latin America and Caribbean
Online: 13 November 2020 (07:09:52 CET)
Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) is one of the worst-hit regions globally by COVID-19 pandemic. Yet, scarce literature exists that examines the research strategy of LAC in facing COVID-19. The present study aims to quantify and assess the production of COVID-19 publications in thirty-two countries in LAC during the first half of 2020. A Scopus/PubMed/LILACS search was performed to retrieve research articles related to COVID-19 published from January 1 to July 31, 2020. Subgroup analysis including only original publications was used to better ascertain the contribution of LAC countries, and standardization measures were applied to comparisons of country-specific contributions. We identified 1291 publications across the region. Overall, most articles in the region were non-original (81.6%), and the most productive countries were Brazil (43.9%), Mexico (9.14%), and Colombia (7.98%). This trend shifted to Chile after the standardization. Among original studies, the most common study design was cross-sectional (25.8%). LAC countries generate articles primarily pertaining to diagnosis and treatment (27.4%). In the subgroup analysis, however, epidemiology and surveillance was the most prevalent research focus (24.1%). LAC countries should perform more research with a higher level of evidence to inform health policy making to ease the burden of COVID-19 in the region.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0183.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Energy Security; Energy Transitions; Latin America; Power System; Sustainability
Online: 5 March 2021 (10:57:10 CET)
Energy transitions are reshaping the global energy system. Such shift has taken the power system to become a critical infrastructure for achieving economic development of every nation in the planet, therefore, guaranteeing its security is crucial, not only for energy purposes but as a part of a national security strategy. This paper presents a multi-dimensional index developed to assess energy security of electrical systems in the long term. This tool, named Power System Security Index (PSIx), and which has been previously used for the evaluation of a country in two different time frames, is applied to evaluate the member countries of the Latin American Energy Organization, located within the Latin America and the Caribbean region, in order to measure their performance on energy security. Mixed results were obtained from the analysis, with clear top performers in the region such as Argentina, while there are others with broad areas of opportunity, as it is the case of Haiti.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0860.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Cultural Distance; Formal Institutional Distance; Institutional Environment; Foreign subsidiaries; Latin America; Formal Institutions; Psychic Distance; Moderation; Asymmetry; Asymmetry of Distance; Financial Performance
Online: 11 May 2023 (13:36:28 CEST)
We investigate how formal institutional distance (FID) moderates the relationship between cul-tural distance (CD) and the financial performance of foreign subsidiaries firms. Following recent research, we estimate the asymmetric effects of CD by considering its size and direction towards host countries on the opposite poles of each cultural dimension` scale. We propose that a limited understanding of the formal institutions in the host country, as measured by the magnitude and direction of the FID, can have a positive moderating effect, increasing the impact of CD on finan-cial performance. This is mainly because foreign subsidiary firms may be more reliant on their ca-pacity to navigate the less formal (and more implicit) aspects of the host country's institutional environment, such as their ability to cope with the CD. We use foreign subsidiary data from the Orbis database including 22 developed and 22 developing home countries and over 1400 foreign subsidiaries during a period of 3 consecutive years operating in 10 of the largest economies (host countries) in Latin America including: Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Chile, Ecuador, Mexico, Panama, Peru, Uruguay, and Venezuela. Findings confirm the asymmetric effects of CD, howev-er, by considering the direction of FID, our findings reveal that the higher the FID towards less developed host countries, the more significant the effects of CD on the financial performance. These findings contribute to the knowledge of how formal and informal institutional distances in-teract by showing that the greater the FID towards less developed host countries, to higher the impact of CD on the financial performance of foreign subsidiary firms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0097.v1
Online: 6 August 2018 (05:52:46 CEST)
Background: Sexually transmitted infections and pregnancy in adolescents are acknowledged public health problems in many countries. Although it is known that the proper use of condoms allows avoiding these health problems, their use in Chile is still limited, for unknown reasons. Objective: Based on planned behavioural theory, the aim was to validate a behaviour model regarding condom use by measuring the influence of the variables that predict this use among Chilean university students. Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out in October 2016 among 151 Chilean university students belonging to the health and engineering areas. The information was collected through a self-administered survey. The sample was divided into two groups: stable and not stable relationships. Partial least squares (PLS) regression was used for the analysis. Results: It was possible to explain the condom use of the students by 57%. The attitude was the main variable related to the intention of using condoms, together with the perceived behavioural control. Additionally, there are statistically significant differences in the variables that predict condom use among students with stable relations compared to those without a stable relationship. Conclusions: The planned behavioural theory is useful for predicting condom use behaviour when students have a stable partner.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0034.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: latin dance, tai chi, knee proprioception
Online: 6 April 2017 (06:08:48 CEST)
To study the influence of Latin dance and Tai Chi on knee joint proprioception and balance. Method: All experiments were performed in the Beijing Normal University School of Physical Education and Sport Biomechanics Laboratory. An isokinetic test system (Biodex system 4, BS4) and a balance testing system (Biodex Balance System, BBS)from the United States Biodex medical system were used to test related indexes. Results: In the LOS test, the overall score of Latin group is much better than sedentary group. In the ASL test, Latin group have a better balance ability in anterior and posterior direction and overall score than sedentary group(p＜0.05); TAI CHI group have a better balance ability than sedentary group in anterior and posterior direction(p＜0.05)and right and left direction (p＜0.01). When the knee joint was at 15, 30, and 45degree positions, the Tai Chi exercise group was much better than sedentary group (P < 0.05), and the 45 degree position in the Tai Chi group was much better than that in the Latin dance group (P < 0.01).When the knee joint was at the 30 degree position, the quadriceps force sense was significantly better in the Tai Chi group than in the Latin dance and sedentary groups. In a test of the four angles, the hamstring force sense in the Tai Chi exercise group was obviously better than that in the sedentary group (P < 0.05); at the 15 degree position, the Tai Chi group was significantly better than the Latin group (P < 0.05); and at 30 degree position, the hamstring force sense of the Latin group was obviously better than that of the sedentary group (P < 0.05).
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0187.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: Antibiotic use, Neonatal Units, EpicLatino, Latin America.
Online: 9 April 2021 (13:24:43 CEST)
Background: Recent years have seen chaos in the neonatology use of antibiotics with diverse opinions and recommendations in international guidelines and societies. This has created great uncertainty in which cases to use, for how long, and which tests apply to make these decisions. We conducted a retrospective cohort study about the use of antibiotics in the EpicLatino neonatal units and a Latin American network database, after noting these variations in the 2019 report. Methods: For the year 2019 using the EpicLatino database, we included cases (only first admission) ≤32 weeks gestational age at birth, excluding one unit that did not accept to participate. The number of cases and days receiving antibiotics were recorded as well as the progression for each unit. Inappropriate use of antibiotics was defined as greater than 3 days in patients with negative cultures (blood/CSF cultures) excluding: major malformations, urinary tract infections, necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) and cases with suspected chorioamnionitis in the mother (the latter two only during the course of diagnosis of NEC or chorioamnionitis). This study was approved by the EpicLatino board of directors and by the participating units. Results: A total of 6,543 days of antibiotics were observed, 49.5% of cases had at least one positive blood/CSF culture. A total of595 days of antibiotics without justification were found in 72 courses in 61 cases; 14/72(19.4%) had no diagnosis of infection in the database, 7/72(9.7%) did not document any culture throughout their stay, and 37/72(51,4%) obtained only one blood/CSF culture during their entire stay. Most diagnosis were clinical sepsis and in 24/58(41%) curses, a diagnosis of pneumonia with a poor positive culture correlation was found. Furthermore, 74% of the units didn´t use pneumonia as a justification to use antibiotics. Other diagnosis found: Conjunctivitis, NEC 1A and rotavirus NEC. Conclusions: Although the method of reviewing the use of antibiotics in a database has a number of limitations, especially the cause that motivated the use of antibiotics and other tools used for diagnosis of infections, the notable differences between units is striking. Although it is difficult to make recommendations to all units, it is important to control infections in some units and in others to reduce the excessive use of antibiotics, especially with diagnosis of pneumonia in neonates and negative blood/CSF cultures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0364.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Language And Linguistics Keywords: Mediaeval manuscript, Vulgar Latin, Koinê Latin, proto-Italic symbols, proto-Romance, decryption, translation, transliteration, palaeography, codicology, Ischia 1444
Online: 31 December 2018 (10:10:30 CET)
This paper provides the solution to understanding the hitherto unknown writing system used for the manuscript listed as MS 408 at the Beinecke Library, Yale University. The writing system uses symbols, punctuation, grammar and language that are each unique. The manuscript is not encrypted, in the sense that its author made an effort to conceal the contents of the manuscript, as has been presumed by some scholars. Instead, it is code only in the sense that the modern reader needs to be versed in the calligraphic and linguistic rules to be able to translate and read the texts. Furthermore, in discovering its writing system, it became apparent that the manuscript is of invaluable importance to the study of the evolution of the Romance languages and the scheme of Italic letters and associated punctuation marks now commonplace in those and other modern languages. In short; it is revealed to be the only known document both written in Vulgar Latin, or proto-Romance, and using proto-Italic symbols. The original title for the manuscript, given by its female author, is: What one needs to be sure to acquire for the evils set in one’s fate. It is a book offering homeopathic advice and instruction to women of court on matters of the heart, of sexual congress, of reproduction, of motherhood and of the physical and emotional complications that can arise along the way through life. The manuscript has now been dated to the year 1444 and the location of its creation has been pinpointed to the court of Castello Aragonese, on the island of Ischia: as expounded in the companion paper Linguistically Dating and Locating Manuscript MS408: http://ling.auf.net/lingbuzz/003808.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0608.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: Football; athletic performance; body composition; Latin-American soccers
Online: 9 May 2023 (08:38:34 CEST)
Knowledge of body composition is essential for athletes for their sport performance. It has yet to be determined whether differences in body composition are present between international and non-international players playing in the same elite professional club competition. Similarly, it is not yet clear whether differences in body composition according to ethnic origin exist in the elite professional game, where relative homogeneity is to be expected among soccer players. There is no single anthropometric profile that guarantees sporting success, as the somatotype of football players differs according to their individual characteristics. The aim of this study was to assess the description and comparison of the body composition profile of latin american professional football players playing in european leagues. The sample was composed of 238 subjects football players from European professional football leagues. Differences were found in all variables measured. The present study shows that in Latin American professional football players playing in Europe, there are significant differences in different body composition variables such as weight, height, WC, skinfold and fat values. This means that the treatment of these data and the possible classifications of sporting performance carried out in football clubs should be different to other European or African-American football players.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0070.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Water Science And Technology Keywords: Circular Economy; Water; Wastewater; Resource Use; Latin America
Online: 4 January 2023 (06:39:53 CET)
Circular Economy (CE) is noted as an emerging tool or framework to support sustainable production and consumption agenda. In addition, CE is aiming to be a trigger for redefining economic growth pathways to be sustainable, inclusive, and sensitive to ecological and environmental agendas and to focus its operational standards on co-creating societal benefits. Concerning the guiding principles and the standards of practice applied to implement and scale circular economy, this study will provide an overview of the water sector-specific circularity roadmaps and strategies in the Latin American Region. By using a semi-systematic review, document analysis, and qualitative assessment approach, we highlight framings and operational pathways, gaps, and needs within existing practices of circularity in the water sector. The results provide an overview of CE pathways at the national level of selected countries in LAR iterating those nations reflect various levels of advancement (low to high) with CE-focused innovations and policy support structures specific to the water and wastewater sectors. Towards the closing, the study is pointing to the ‘call for action’ to integrate outstanding advances and innovations in the circular economy within sectoral mandates for water and wastewater management, making an argument that circularity in the water sector could serve as an accelerator toward implementing the agenda outlined in Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and in particular for SDG 6 (water security for all).
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0254.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Tropical Medicine Keywords: dengue; chikungunya; Leptospira; co-infection; Colombia; Latin America
Online: 12 November 2018 (03:21:38 CET)
Background: The febrile patient from tropical areas, in which emerging arboviruses are endemic, represent a diagnostic challenge and potential co-infections with other pathogens (i.e bacteria or parasites) are usually overlooked. Objectives: We present a case of an elderly woman diagnosed with dengue, chikungunya and Leptospira interrogans co-infection. Study Design: Case report. Results: An 87-year old woman from Colombia complained of upper abdominal pain, arthralgia, myalgia, hyporexia, malaise and intermittent fever accompanied with progressive jaundice. She had a medical history of chronic heart failure (Stage C, NYHA III), without documented cardiac murmurs, right bundle branch block, non-valvular atrial fibrillation, hypertension, and chronic venous disease. Her cardiac and pulmonary status quickly deteriorated after 24 hours of her admission without electrocardiographic changes and she required ventilatory and vasopressor support. In the next hours the patient evolved to pulseless electrical activity and then she died. Dengue IgM, NS1 ELISA, MAT for Leptospira interrogans and RT-PCR for chikungunya, were positive. Discussion: This case illustrates a multiple co-infection in a febrile patient from a tropical area of Latin America that evolved to death.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0224.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: histoplasmosis; Histoplasma antigen; Histoplasma diagnosis; Blood culture; Latin America.
Online: 4 May 2023 (08:18:05 CEST)
Histoplasmosis is a systemic mycosis of universal distribution, highly endemic in the Americas. It is caused by a dimorphic fungus Histoplasma capsulatum var. capsulatum. It affects both immunocompetent and immunocompromised individuals where progressive and disseminated forms are observed. A very important risk factor is HIV infection/AIDS, with a mortality rate of 20-40% in Latin America. The diagnosis of this mycosis is made by conventional and molecular methods or by antigen and antibody detection. This study evaluated the sensitivity and specificity of a commercial kit for the detection of Histoplasma antigen by an EIA (HC-Ag) technique in 50 patients with histoplasmosis associated with AIDS. In addition, its performance was compared with that of other diagnostic techniques routinely used in our laboratory. HC-Ag had a sensitivity (S) of 94%, specificity (E) 95.5%, positive predictive value (PPV) 94% and negative predictive value (NPV) 95.5%. The delay time of the results was 4 days, similar to that of antibody detection and n-PCR and much less than that of blood cultures. The combination of methods improved S and NPV: 100%; with similar values in E and PPV. The HC-Ag method demonstrated its usefulness in the diagnosis of progressive disseminated histoplasmosis and the combination of methods is a good option to increase sensitivity and decrease the time to reach the diagnosis of certainty. This allows improving the strategy in the management of the disease and decreasing its case-fatality rate.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0389.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: civic education; cultural activities; social behavior; Latin America; Europe
Online: 21 December 2022 (06:57:07 CET)
The objective of this research article is to determine if social and cultural capital are factors that cause inequalities in the level of knowledge in civic and citizenship education, between Latin American and European countries. To achieve this purpose, information from the National Study of Civic and Citizen Education -ICCS-, of the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement -IEA-, of the year 2016, is used. Methodologically speaking, the Educational Production Function -EPF- is estimated and subsequently, the Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition technique is applied to quantify the differences in civic and citizenship education and see how much they are explained by the characteristics of the student and their family. the school, the social and cultural capital. As a main result, educational inequalities were found in favor of European countries, and are due to a greater extent to differences in school resources, between Latin American and European countries, followed by differences in social and cultural capital, therefore, it is the European students who make the best use of and benefit from the differences in school endowments and in social and cultural capital.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0237.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; risk factors; outcomes; cardiovascular; Latin America.
Online: 19 June 2020 (10:22:50 CEST)
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) fatal outcomes have been associated with multiple cardiovascular risk factors. In new epidemic areas, such as Latin America, there is a lack of studies about this. Here, we evaluated those factors in a retrospective cohort of patients in a national reference hospital of Lima, Peru. Design. A retrospective cohort observational study was done. For this study, information was obtained from clinical records of the hospital for the cases that were laboratory-diagnosed and related, during March 6th and April 30th, 2020. rRT-PCR was used for the detection of the RNA of SARS-CoV-2 following the protocol Charité, Berlin, Germany, from nasopharyngeal swabs at the National Institute of Health. Calculation of the odds ratio (OR) with the respective 95% confidence interval (95% CI) was done, also logistic regression for adjusted OR (multivariate) was done. Values of p < 0.05 were considered significant for all analyses. Results. One hundred six hospitalized patients were evaluated. The mean age of patients was 61.58 years (SD 16.81). Cardiovascular risk factors among them were hypertension (46.2%), diabetes (28.3%), and obesity (28.3%), among others. Fifty-six patients died (52.8%). Mortality associated factors at the multivariate analysis were arterial hypertension (OR=1.343, 95% 1.089-1.667), myocardial injury (OR=1.303, 95% 1.031-1.642), and mechanical ventilation (OR 1.262, 95% 1.034-1.665), as associated factors. Conclusion. As observed in other regions of the world, cardiovascular risk factors represent a significant and independent threat to be considered in patients with COVID-19. Further studies and interventions in Peru and Latin America are expected.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1421.v2
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: Latin America heritage; Reform in cultural heritage management; UNESCO site at risk
Online: 9 June 2023 (05:44:45 CEST)
Since 2017 Cartagena UNESCO World Heritage has threatened to be categorized as "in Danger" by UNESCO. This research analyzes two main critical aspects, Governance and Current state of the Site. Regarding Governance, the study aims to identify strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and treats in the UNESCO Site. Exemplary heritage management systems are studied to propose an adaptable management approach specifically for Cartagena. On the other hand, a comprehensive analysis is conducted utilizing a photographic report that highlights the major issues arising from inadequate heritage management. Hyperspectral images obtained from a previous study are employed to identify vegetation and asbestos-cement roofs within the cultural heritage Site. The study reveals that the ambiguity surrounding decision-making authority for heritage management, distributed between the Mayor's Office and the Ministry of Culture, is a primary challenge. This fragmentation has resulted in duplicated efforts and a lack of coordinated action, significantly compromising the conservation and protection of the cultural heritage Site. Moreover, twelve current shortcomings of cultural heritage in Cartagena are identified through authors' five-year on-site regular visits, photographic reports and observation. To address the prevailing concerns, a new line of command for cultural heritage management is proposed as the most effective means of tackling these challenges. Additionally, general recommendations are presented to mitigate the existing problems and prevent the classification of Cartagena's heritage as "at risk" by UNESCO in the near future. This research provides a scientific perspective, drawing upon years of experience studying heritage and residing in the city, devoid of political influences or conflicts of interest.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0769.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Indigenous peoples, Latin American, Covid 19, indigenous rights, health culture, government agencies.
Online: 29 April 2021 (09:15:25 CEST)
Background: and objectives: Covid-19 is a global pandemic that requires a culturally integrated response in all Latin American government systems. In this study, we investigate the multidimensional associations of actions in Latin American indigenous peoples against Covid-19 Methods: We performed a data mining analysis of scientific literature records from 19 academic journals, using the topics Covid-19, mortality, indigenous peoples, and future measures, rights and actions. The literature is analyzed in a multidimensional way, either isolated or combined. It uses switchable statistical methods, the R Studio, worddj, Gephi, and Iramuteq for both textual and multidimensional analysis. Results and Conclusions: In this analysis, the literature is classified into 4 linked groups which are the indigenous people, the rights of territorial protection, the indigenous health culture, the Covid-19 pandemic with its protection efforts. Taking the indigenous peoples as an axis, we observe that the covid pandemic and the protection of their territories do not have the same force in the current context, the indigenous people are more linked to the protection of their territory. Indigenous peoples have a link of cultural strength in traditional health independent of Covid treatment. It should be noted that government agencies are taking measures regarding the covid pandemic with an effort not marked within the health culture of indigenous peoples.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1567.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Other Keywords: energy balance; energy expenditure; energy intake; energy imbalance gap; underweight; overweight; Latin America
Online: 26 November 2023 (05:24:43 CET)
Energy imbalance gap (EIG) is defined as the average daily difference between energy intake (EI) and energy expenditure (EE). This study aimed to examine the associations between EIG and sociodemographic and anthropometric variables in the adolescent population of eight Latin American countries. A total of 680 adolescents aged 15 to 18 were included in this study. EI was estimated using two non-consecutive 24-hour dietary recalls. EE was predicted from Schofield equations using physical activity levels obtained through the long version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Sociodemographic data and anthropometric measurements were also obtained. A descriptive analysis and multilevel linear regression models were used to examine associations between variables. The mean EI, EE, and EIG were 2091.3 kcal, 2067.8 kcal, and 23.5 kcal, respectively. Argentina and Colombia had the highest EI and EIG, whereas Chile and Costa Rica had the lowest EI and EIG. Males had a higher EI (2262.4 kcal) and EE (2172.2 kcal) than females (1930.1 kcal and 2084.5 kcal), respectively (p<0,05). Overweight subjects had a lower EIG than did underweight and normal-weight subjects (p<0,05). Subjects with high SES had a lower EE (2047.0 kcal) than those with low SES (1963.7 kcal) (p<0,05). Sex and BMI were associated with EIG in adolescents from Latin America.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1493.v2
Subject: Arts And Humanities, History Keywords: Middle Ages symbolism; Latin inscriptions; Tuscany monuments; Saint Michael; religious epigraphy; inscription decipherment
Online: 26 June 2023 (15:02:04 CEST)
At the entrance of some churches in Tuscany (Italy), the reproduction of an apparently undecipherable inscription can be found. At least from the 18th century, this epigraphic puzzle has originated a debate on its interpretation. This study proposes a hypothesis based on the Latin alphabet used in texts contemporary to the churches where the inscription is reproduced and a possible interpretation of the message consistent with the official religious doctrine. The proposed deciphering is extended to the full text, including some signs that were previously considered as geometric forms or a specific elaboration of letters not attested in other contemporary documents.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0376.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; long-COVID; sequalae; symptoms; Latin America; high altitude
Online: 22 August 2022 (06:04:53 CEST)
Background: Some patients who have recovered from COVID-19 have experienced a range of persistent symptoms or the appearance of new ones after a SARS-CoV-2 infection. These symptoms can last from weeks to months, impacting everyday functioning to a significant number of patients. Methods: A cross-sectional analysis based on an online, self-reporting questionnaire was conducted in Ecuador from April to July 2022. Participants were invited by social media, radio, and TV to voluntarily participate in our study. A total of 2103 surveys were included in this study. We compared socio-demographic variables and long-term persisting symptoms at low (< 2,500 m) and high altitude (>2,500 m).Results: Overall, 1100 (52.3%) responders claimed to have long-term symptoms after SARS-CoV-2 infection. Most of these symptoms were reported by women (64.0%), the most affected group was young adults (68.5%), and the majority of long-haulers were mestizos (91.6%). We found that high altitude residents were more likely to report persisting symptoms (71.7%) versus those living at lower altitudes (29.3%). The most common symptoms were fatigue or tiredness (8.4%), hair loss (5.1%) and difficulty concentrating (5.0%). The highest proportion of persisting symptoms was observed among those who received an incomplete vaccine scheme.Conclusions: This is the first study describing post-COVID symptoms' persistence in low and high-altitude residents. Our findings demonstrate that women, especially those aging between 20-40, are more likely to describe sequalae associated with post-COVID. We also found that living at a high altitude was associated with earlier onset and longer symptom duration. Finally, we found a greater risk to report long lasting symptoms among women, those with previous comorbidities and those who had a severer acute SARS-CoV-2 infection.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0204.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Health Policy And Services Keywords: Office of Innovation; novel drugs; novel therapies; regulatory science; Latin American Regulatory landscape
Online: 18 September 2019 (12:51:16 CEST)
Regulatory agencies across the Latin American Region have strengthened the regulatory science through the development of new tools, standards and various other related parameters to evaluate and assess safety, efficacy, quality and performance. The former have been implemented to promote and incorporate new drugs and technologies, which still, are a challenge to well-established regulatory frameworks. Furthermore, in today’s environment, the existing regulatory framework protecting public’s health creates barriers for market entry of novel drugs and medical devices. This article aims to the pioneering work that Cuban Regulatory Agency (CECMED) has been developing with the aim to build a strong regulatory framework geared to accelerated innovation and the successful transition from research and development to clinical development. The Office of Innovation recently established at the CECMED is the first flagship in Latin America and the Caribbean region. Its aim is to play a leading role as a driving force for the national and regional biopharmaceutical innovation. This article will discuss the Office of Innovation its conceptualisation and management taking into account the Latin American regional and national Cuban context.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1304.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: middle-income countries; economic globalisation; psychosocial work environments; occupational health; Asia Pacific; Latin America
Online: 20 October 2023 (03:55:30 CEST)
In response to new developments of work and employment in high-income countries (HICs), psychosocial aspects of work and health received increased attention. In contrast, middle-income countries (MICs) are mainly concerned with severe challenges of noxious and dangerous material work environments, poor employment conditions, and deficient social policies, leaving psychosocial aspects in a marginal role at best. More recently, differences between these two worlds were even aggravated by the COVID-19 pandemic. Yet, with economic globalisation and growing worldwide interconnectivity, the world of work in MICs is being rapidly transformed, sharing several concerns with modern Western societies. In this process, psychosocial occupational health will become an increasingly pressing issue. This contribution explores to what extent psychosocial aspects of work and health are already addressed in research originating from MICs. A selective focus on recent findings from two regions, Asia Pacific and Latin America, reveals a high degree of awareness of, and inquiry into, work-stress related problems within these countries. Importantly, in addition to incorporating research progress from HICs, these analyses identify new aspects within specific cultural and socio-economic environments, thus enriching the international state of art.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0356.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: pulse oximetry; congenital heart disease; neonate; hypoxemia; Latin America; Ibero-American Society of Neonatology
Online: 24 February 2020 (14:08:22 CET)
Congenital heart disease (CHD) is among the 4 more common causes of infant mortality in Latin America. Pulse oximetry screening (POS) is useful for early diagnosis and improved outcomes of critical CHD. We describe POS implementation efforts in Latin American countries guided and/or coordinated by the Ibero American Society of Neonatology (SIBEN) as well as the unique challenges that are faced for universal implementation. SIBEN collaborates to improve neonatal quality of care and outcomes. A few years ago, a Clinical Consensus on POS was finalized. Since then, we participated in 12 Latin American countries to educate neonatal nurses and neonatologists on POS and to help with its implementation. The findings reveal that despite wide disparities in care that exist between and within countries, and the difficulties and challenges for implementing POS, significant progress was made. We conclude that universal POS is not easy to implement in Latin America but, when executed, not only it has been of significant value for babies with CHD but also for many with other hypoxemic conditions. The successful and universal implementation of POS in the future is essential to reduce the mortality associated with CHD and other hypoxemic conditions and will ultimately lead to the survival of many more Latin American babies. POS saves newborns’ lives in Latin America.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0309.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Chikungunya fever; ELISA; lateral flow; E1/E2 antigen detection; alphavirus; Latin America; acute phase diagnosis; rapid diagnosis
Online: 14 August 2020 (04:55:47 CEST)
Since its 2013 emergence in the Americas, chikungunya virus (CHIKV) has posed a serious threat to public health. Early and accurate diagnosis of the disease, though currently lacking in clinics, is integral to enable timely care and epidemiological response. We developed a dual detection system: a CHIKV antigen E1/E2-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and a lateral flow test using high-affinity anti-CHIKV antibodies. The ELISA was validated with 100 PCR-tested acute Chikungunya fever samples from Honduras. The assay had an overall sensitivity and specificity of 51% and 96.67%, respectively, with accuracy reaching 95.45% sensitivity and 92.03% specificity at a Ct cutoff of 22. As the Ct value increased from 22, ELISA sensitivity decreased. We then developed and validated two lateral flow tests using independent antibody pairs. The sensitivity and specificity reached 100% for both lateral flow tests using 39 samples from Colombia and Honduras at Ct cutoffs of 20 and 27, respectively. For both lateral flow tests, sensitivity decreased as the Ct increased after 27. Because CHIKV E1/E2 are exposed in the virion surfaces in serum during the acute infection phase, these sensitive and specific assays demonstrate opportunities for early detection of this emerging human pathogen.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0543.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Language And Linguistics Keywords: Alphabetical Languages; Artificial Intelligence Writing; Greek; Latin; New Testament; Readers Overlap Probability; Short−Term Memory Capacity, Texts; Translation; Word Interval
Online: 8 May 2023 (13:28:28 CEST)
We study the short−term memory capacity of ancient readers of the original New Testament written in Greek, of its translations to Latin and modern languages. To model the short–term capacity, we have considered the number of words per interpunctions, the “word interval” , because this parameter can model how the human mind memorizes “chunks” of information. Since can be calculated for any alphabetical text, we can perform experiments − otherwise impossible − with ancient readers by studying the literary works they used to read. The “experiments” compare the of texts of a language/translation to those of another language/translation by measuring the minimum average probability of finding joint readers (those who can read both texts because of their similar short–-term memory capacity) and by defining an “overlap index”. We also define a population of universal readers who can read any the New Testament written in alphabetical language. More than 50% of the readers of specific languages overlap with the universal readers with probability . Future work is vast, with many research tracks, because alphabetical literatures are very large and allow many experiments, such as comparing authors, translations or even texts written by artificial intelligence tools.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0506.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Literature And Literary Theory Keywords: Afro-Asian interactions, Asian Latin American literature and characters, Sanfancón, china mulata, “magical negro,” chinos mambises, Brazil, Cuba, transculturation, discourse of mestizaje
Online: 26 September 2018 (10:38:04 CEST)
This essay studies Afro-Asian sociocultural interactions in cultural production by or about Asian Latin Americans, with an emphasis on Cuba and Brazil. Among the recurrent characters are the black slave, the china mulata, or the black ally who expresses sympathy or even marries the Asian character. This reflects a common history of bondage shared by black slaves, Chinese coolies, and Japanese indentured workers, as well as a common history of marronage. These conflicts and alliances between Asians and blacks contest the official discourse of mestizaje (Spanish-indigenous dichotomies in Mexico and Andean countries, for example, or black and white binaries in Brazil and the Caribbean), which, under the guise of incorporating the Other, favored whiteness, all the while attempting to silence, ignore, or ultimately erase their worldviews and cultures.